Saskatchewan River

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Saskatchewan River
Saskatchewan River Bridge.jpg
Country Canada
Regions Manitoba, Saskatchewan
Source confluence North and South Saskatchewan Rivers
 - location 40 kilometres (25 mi) east of Prince Albert, Saskatchewan
 - elevation 380 m (1,247 ft)
 - coordinates 53°14′6″N 105°4′58″W / 53.23500°N 105.08278°W / 53.23500; -105.08278
Mouth Lake Winnipeg
 - location Grand Rapids, Manitoba
 - elevation 220 m (722 ft)
 - coordinates 53°11′6″N 99°15′22″W / 53.18500°N 99.25611°W / 53.18500; -99.25611
SASKATCHEWAN RIVER Latitude and Longitude:

53°11′6″N 99°15′22″W / 53.18500°N 99.25611°W / 53.18500; -99.25611
Length 547 km (340 mi)
Basin 335,900 km2 (129,700 sq mi)
Discharge for The Pas, Manitoba
 - average 634 m3/s (22,389 cu ft/s)
 - max 3,000 m3/s (105,944 cu ft/s)
 - min 54 m3/s (1,907 cu ft/s)
Saskatchewanrivermap.png
Map of Saskatchewan River & Watershed
[1] [2] [3]

The Saskatchewan River ( Cree: kisiskāciwani-sīpiy, "swift flowing river") is a major river in Canada, about 550 kilometres (340 mi) long, flowing roughly eastward across Saskatchewan and Manitoba to empty into Lake Winnipeg. Through its tributaries the North Saskatchewan and South Saskatchewan, its watershed encompasses much of the prairie regions of central Canada, stretching westward to the Rocky Mountains in Alberta and northwestern Montana in the United States. It reaches 1,939 kilometres (1,205 mi) to its farthest headwaters on the Bow River, a tributary of the South Saskatchewan in Alberta. [4]

Description

May 11, 2007 NASA photo
of a portion of the Saskatchewan River Delta and Cedar Lake [5]

It is formed in central Saskatchewan, approximately 40 kilometres (25 mi) east of Prince Albert, by the confluence of its two major branches, the North Saskatchewan and the South Saskatchewan, at the Saskatchewan River Forks. Both source rivers originate from glaciers in the Alberta Rockies. The St. Mary River, draining the Hudson Bay Divide region of Glacier National Park, also empties into the Saskatchewan River via the south fork.

The combined stream flows east-northeast, into Codette Lake formed by the Francois Finlay Dam at Nipawin then into Tobin Lake, formed by the E.B. Campbell Dam. It then flows northeast, passing through a region of marshes, where it is joined from the northwest by the Torch River and the Mossy River. At the northern edge of the marshes it flows east, twisting between a series of small lakes into west-central Manitoba to The Pas, where it is joined from the southwest by the Carrot River. Southeast of The Pas, it forms several streams in a delta on the northwest side of Cedar Lake, then exiting the lake on its southeast end and flowing approximately 5 kilometres (3 mi) to Lake Winnipeg, entering on the northwest shore north of Long Point. The waters of Lake Winnipeg eventually drain into Hudson Bay, via the Nelson River.

The river, like the province of Saskatchewan, takes its name from the Cree word kisiskāciwani-sīpiy, meaning "swift flowing river". The river and its tributaries provided an important route of transportation for First Nations and early European trappers.

Hydroelectric power plants are built on the river at Nipawin, and E.B. Campbell Dam (formerly Squaw Rapids) in Saskatchewan and at Grand Rapids in Manitoba.

Fish species

Fish species include: walleye, sauger, yellow perch, northern pike, lake whitefish, mooneye, goldeye, white sucker, longnose sucker, shorthead redhorse, burbot, rainbow trout, brown trout and lake sturgeon. In 2008 the presence of reproducing Prussian carp were found in the Red Deer River drainage basin which flows into the Saskatchewan River. [6] [7] Illegal introductions of non native species can have serious wide-ranging negative impacts on the ecosystem. While the exact species is not yet determined the genus is Carassius. The Blue Ribbon Bow River Trout fishery may be at risk as a result of this introduction. Illegal introductions of Carassius can be very harmful. [8]

History

The river, labeled as the "Kish-stock-ewen" is identified on a Hudson's Bay Company map of 1760, produced from oral information from a First Nations man named Attickasish who had been Anthony Henday's guide. Another map from 1774 shows a fairly accurate course of the river. [9]

The Saskatchewan River and its two major tributaries formed an important transportation route during the precontact, fur trade, and early settlement periods in the Canadian West. In early fur trading days the South Saskatchewan tributary was known as "La Fourche des Gros Ventres" ("Fork of the Great Gorges") and the North Saskatchewan was known as "Rivière du Pas".

First Nations inhabiting the area of the rivers included at one time or another the Atsina, Cree, Saulteaux, Blackfoot Confederacy, Assiniboine, and Sioux.

Henry Kelsey penetrated the area in the 1690s for the Hudson's Bay Company, and Louis de la Corne, Chevalier de la Corne, established the farthest western post of the French Empire in America (See New France) just east of the Saskatchewan River Forks at Fort de la Corne. In addition to this the Hudson's Bay Company and North West Company both ran numerous fur posts up the river and its two branches throughout the late 18th to late 19th centuries. York boats and canoes formed the primary means of travel during the fur trade period.

In the mid-19th century Metis settlements became important along stretches of the rivers (notably at the Southbranch Settlement, Prince Albert, Saskatchewan, and St. Albert, Alberta).

Riverboats were introduced from the Red River of the North in the 19th century and remained an important means of transportation until the 1890s and the coming of railways to the area. [10]

The earliest settlements in Saskatchewan and Alberta generally were established around the rivers. Examples include Fort Edmonton ( Edmonton, Alberta), Fort Battleford ( Battleford, Saskatchewan), Prince Albert, Saskatchewan, and Cumberland House, Saskatchewan.

Fur trade on the lower river: The first European to ascended the river as far as the forks was Louis-Joseph Gaultier de La Vérendrye in spring 1739. The main posts on the river were (landmarks in parentheses): (Saskatchewan River Forks) Fort Le Jonquière (?), Fort de la Corne, Cumberland House, Saskatchewan, (The Pas):second Fort Paskoya, (inflow to Cedar Lake:) first Fort Paskoya and second Fort Bourbon, (Cedar Lake), (inflow to Lake Winnipeg:) Grand Rapids, Manitoba, and first Fort Bourbon. There were also a number of temporary posts that have left few records. By far the most important post was Cumberland House which was the depot for the route northwest to the rich Athabasca country. To the west, the North Saskatchewan had the greatest number of posts.

In popular culture

The Saskatchewan River is featured in The Arrogant Worms' song " The Last Saskatchewan Pirate", which implies incorrectly that it flows past Regina, Saskatchewan.


SASKATCHEWAN RIVER INFORMATION


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