Cocoa Beach, Florida

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Cocoa Beach, Florida
City
City of Cocoa Beach
Motto: "Open for Business!"
Location in Brevard County and the state of Florida
Location in Brevard County and the state of Florida
Coordinates: 28°9′7″N 80°35′42″W / 28.15194°N 80.59500°W / 28.15194; -80.59500
COCOA BEACH FLORIDA Latitude and Longitude:

28°9′7″N 80°35′42″W / 28.15194°N 80.59500°W / 28.15194; -80.59500
Country   United States of America
State   Florida
County Brevard
Area [1]
 • Total 15.14 sq mi (39.21 km2)
 • Land 4.66 sq mi (12.06 km2)
 • Water 10.48 sq mi (27.15 km2)
Elevation 10 ft (3 m)
Population ( 2010)
 • Total 11,231
 • Estimate (2016) [2] 11,761
 • Density 2,525.45/sq mi (975.15/km2)
Time zone Eastern (EST) ( UTC−5)
 • Summer ( DST) EDT ( UTC−4)
FIPS code 12-33450 [3]
GNIS feature ID 0284502 [4]
Website www.cityofcocoabeach.com

Cocoa Beach is a city in Brevard County, Florida. The population was 11,231 at the 2010 United States Census. [5] It is part of the Palm Bay-Melbourne-Titusville, Florida Metropolitan Statistical Area.

History

The first non-native settlement in the area was by a family of freed slaves following the American Civil War. In 1888, a group of men from Cocoa bought the entire tract of land, which went undeveloped until it was bought out in 1923 by a member of the group—Gus Edwards, Cocoa's city attorney. At that time, Edwards' total holdings included approximately 600 acres (240 ha), and he had stopped practicing law to devote all his efforts to developing the area. [6] [7] [8]

Prior to incorporation, the area was known as Oceanus. [9] The Town of Cocoa Beach was established on June 5, 1925. Cocoa Beach's first official meeting was held at the Cocoa Beach Casino on July 27, 1925, and adopted the City Seal. [10] Gus C. Edwards was elected [10] as mayor and served as a commissioner along with J.A. Haisten, and R.Z. Grabel. A little less than a month later, plans for a pier became official.

In 1935, the FDOT opened up what is now State Road A1A as a one-lane dirt road to Eau Gallie. [11] In 1938, a Deputy Marshal was appointed "to act in emergencies at night or at other times" for $.25/hour. [11] By 1939, the town had 49 residents. In 1940, the town requested that State Road 140 (now A1A) be routed on Orlando Avenue instead of Atlantic Avenue. [11] In 1942, the town prepared to receive men assigned to the newly opened Naval Air Station Banana River. Establishing regular garbage collection was discussed when the town discovered that the Air Station was having theirs collected. [11]

On May 1, 1942, the German submarine U-109 torpedoed the La Paz off the shore of Cocoa Beach. The crew was able to beach it with the help of tugs. Eventually it was returned to shipping. On May 3, the same U-boat sank the SS Laertes near the same spot. [12] Local boys were recruited for salvaging efforts and to rid the beach of subsequent debris. [13] [14] Shortly thereafter, the federal government realized the danger of back-lighting from the coast making easy targets of passing ships and ordered a blackout for the remainder of the war.

During World War II, Cocoa Beach experienced money shortages for employees, and money to fix roads. [11]

In 1944, the town successfully fought a bill introduced in the Florida legislature which would have dissolved the city government. [11] In 1947 a single police officer was hired for $1/hour. The same year, the city constructed works for the distribution of potable water. [11] In 1950, a volunteer fire department was created which used a second-hand vehicle. [11] In 1950, a proposal to prevent people from driving on the beach was defeated. [11] In 1951, the city sought to place a stoplight, the city's first, at the intersection of what is now A1A and Minutemen Causeway. [11] In 1953, the city decided to mark the names of all streets. [11] In 1953, the city planned to pave A1A south from 520 down Orlando Avenue. The city intended to bear 1/3 of the costs, the adjacent property owners, 2/3. [11] In 1954, the Women's Club opened a library in the building used by the Fire Department. [11] In 1955, the speed limit in most of the town was raised to 35 miles per hour (56 km/h). [11] In 1955, the city prepared to house the people who were going to be launching missiles from what is now Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. [11] In 1956, the city attorney warned the council that blacks might attempt to use the beach. If they did, he recommended clearing the beach of all persons, both white and black. The 1954 decision, Brown v. Board of Education, had, in theory at least, integrated all general public facilities. Actual integration came later.[ citation needed]

The city proposed selling the town dump to the school board for a junior high school, in order to keep students from being bused to Merritt Island. [11]

On June 29, 1957, the town of Cocoa Beach incorporated into a city. It sold its water system to Cocoa, Florida and contracted with them to furnish water. [15]

In September 1959, the city voted to add more sidewalks, improve the streets in residential areas as well as the main streets, and to pave more roads. [16]

In 1965, Cocoa Beach High School requested that Cocoa Avenue, the street that the school was located on, be renamed Minutemen Boulevard, in honor of the school's mascot, the Minuteman.

Cocoa Beach started its major growth during the 1960s.1000% population increase from 1950 to 1960) as a result of U.S. space program. NASA's John F. Kennedy Space Center is located approximately 15 miles (24 km) north of town. Many people moved to Cocoa Beach due to jobs connected to the space program and in search of new opportunities.

After manned space flights, the town held parades in honor of the astronauts.

After NASA's Apollo program came to an end, and before the Space Shuttle program was in full swing, the town's economy reflected the resulting layoffs. At one point, in 1975, unemployment was 14.3%. [8] Many families lost their jobs or simply moved away. The housing market plummeted and some people unable to sell their homes simply abandoned them.[ citation needed]

Cocoa Beach was the setting for the 1960s sitcom I Dream of Jeannie, although no episodes were actually filmed there, and star Barbara Eden only made two visits during the show's production — both in 1969, for publicity. [17] Cocoa Beach High School was used as the school in the 2002 movie Race to Space. [18]

The 2010 Nebula Awards were held in the city. [19]

In 2016, the largest mansion in the city was destroyed by fire. It had been built on the beach by Al Neuharth in 1975. It contained 10,000 square feet (930 m2) of living space, 11 bedrooms and 12 bathrooms. It was valued at several million dollars. [20]

Geography

Cocoa Beach Pier, built in 1962, extends into the Atlantic Ocean

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 15.0 square miles (39 km2). 4.9 square miles (13 km2) of it is land and 10.1 square miles (26 km2) of it (67.49%) is water. Bordering the city on the north is Cape Canaveral; on the south is Crescent Beach; on the east is the Atlantic Ocean (5.6 mi or 9.0 km of oceanfront); on the west is the Banana River.

Propelled by a powerful hurricane, the ocean pushed its way through the barrier islands centuries ago and formed the Thousand Islands in the Banana River. [21]

There are a number of boating channels dredged in the area: the 0-99 Channel, the 100 Channel, the 200 Channel for houseboats, the 300 Channel, the 400 Channel near housing for private boats, the 500 Channel and the 600 Channel. Dredged material is placed on one of the Thousand Islands, but is now controlled. [22] [23]

Many of the homes in Cocoa Beach are built on dredged mud and sand from the Banana River.

Surrounding areas

Climate

Cocoa Beach's has a humid Subtropical Climate Köppen climate classification of Cfa. This climate features hot and humid summers with frequent tropical downpours and daily thundershowers, and warm, dry, and sunny winters. The average high temperature in the warmest month (July) in Cocoa Beach is 91 °F (33 °C) and the average high in the coolest month (January) is 72 °F (22 °C). [24]

Monthly Normal and Record High and Low Temperatures
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Rec High °F 89 92 93 97 97 101 102 101 98 96 91 89
Norm High °F 72 73 77 81 85 89 91 90 88 83 78 73
Norm Low °F 50 51 55 60 66 71 72 73 72 67 60 53
Rec Low °F 17 27 25 35 47 55 60 60 58 41 30 21
Precip (in) 2.48 2.49 2.92 2.08 3.94 5.83 5.38 5.78 7.20 4.76 3.12 2.31
Source: The Weather Channel [25]

Tourism

Surfing manufacture and tourism add to Cocoa Beach's economy.
Ron Jon Surf Shop

Tourist markets are the beach and cruising. Business travelers constitute a secondary market. [26]

Ron Jon's, a surf shop, receives 2 million visitors a year. [27] Cocoa Beach is home to the East Coast Surfing Hall of Fame.

It is estimated that there are 2.4 million day trippers annually. While businesses appreciate the tourism, it creates a parking problem for the city. [28] There are 1,780 paved parking spaces and 607 spaces on the streets downtown, near the beach. [29]

The Cocoa Beach Pier, formerly known as the Cape Canaveral Pier, was built in 1962. An annual Easter Surfing Festival began in 1964. An estimated 100,000 spectators attend annually. [30] An annual Beach Fest is held in May.

An air show in 2009 drew a crowd estimated at 30,000. [31]

The Ron Jon Easter Surfing Festival drew 50,000 visitors in 2009. [32]

The largest charity surfing festival, National Kidney Foundation Pro-Am Surfing Festival, has been held every Labor Day Weekend in Cocoa Beach since 1985. [33] [34]

In 2015 businesses in the city collected $5.6 million in tourist tax, over half the tourist tax collected in the county and more than any other municipality, $$1.4 million. [35]

Workforce

In 2007, Cocoa Beach's median labor force was 6,344. Of that group, 6,006 were employed and 338 were unemployed, for an unemployment rate of 5.3%. [36]

Housing

In 2008, 6 building permits were issued. This was down from 9 permits for 11 units in 2007, which was down from 20 permits for 34 units in 2006. [37]

The median home price in 2007 was $409,000. [36]

Education

The city has three public schools:

Freedom 7 Elementary school and Cocoa Beach Jr./Sr High School both are certified International Baccalaureate schools. Freedom 7 Elementary has a primary years program, and Cocoa Beach Jr./Sr High has both a middle years program and a diploma program.

94% of all residents 25 years or older are high school graduates. 38.6% have a Bachelor's Degree or higher. [36]

Landmarks

Cocoa Beach Pier
  • Cocoa Beach Pier
  • Alan Shepard Beachfront Park
  • Thousand Islands Conservation Area
  • Cocoa Beach Aquatic Center and Pool Complex
  • I Dream of Jeannie Lane

Former

  • In 1960, a structure on A1A was built that contained a branch of the First Federal Bank of Florida. It was glass and stood on spindly legs. Despite a major overhaul in 1981 that covered much of the glass structure in concrete, it was still called the "Glass Bank" by locals. It was damaged by Hurricane Frances, and was later demolished in early 2015. [38]

Infrastructure

Roads

The following roads are usually called by their numbers when spoken:

  • Florida A1A.svg SR A1A Proceeding northbound from the southern border of the city limits, the road forks into two double-laned roads north of the Oceanus Circle intersection. The southbound road is called "Orlando Avenue"; the northbound one, "Atlantic Avenue". The two roads merge into one again, just north of the intersection with Sunflower Street.
  • Florida 520.svg SR 520

Public transportation

Public transportation in Cocoa Beach, Cape Canaveral, and surrounding Brevard County is provided by Space Coast Area Transit.

Utilities

The city contracted directly with Florida Power & Light for electricity, paying 10.689 cents per kilowatt hour in 2010. [39]

Canals

The city has 37 canals, totaling 9 miles (14 km), serving residential homes, plus 17 miles (27 km) of channels. These are maintained by the city. [40]

Notable people


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