Philippines Information (Geography)
Republic of the Philippines
Republika ng Pilipinas ( Filipino)
Anthem: Lupang Hinirang
(English: "Chosen Land")
Manila (de jure)|
Metro Manila [a] (de facto)
|Recognized regional languages|
Ethnic groups |
(masculine and neutral)
(used for certain common nouns)
|Government||Unitary presidential constitutional republic|
|Lord Allan Velasco|
|House of Representatives|
from the United States
|June 12, 1898|
|December 10, 1898|
|July 4, 1946|
|300,000 km2 (120,000 sq mi) ( 72nd)|
• Water (%)
|0.61  (inland waters)|
|298,170 km2 (115,120 sq mi)|
• 2020 census
|336/km2 (870.2/sq mi) ( 47th)|
|GDP ( PPP)||2021 estimate|
|$1 trillion  ( 29th)|
• Per capita
|$9,061  ( 115th)|
|GDP (nominal)||2021 estimate|
|$402.638 billion  ( 32nd)|
• Per capita
|$3,646  ( 118th)|
|Gini (2018)|| 42.3
medium · 44th
|HDI (2019)|| 0.718
high · 107th
|Currency||Philippine peso ( ₱) ( PHP)|
|Time zone||UTC+08:00 ( PST)|
|Date format||mm/ dd/ yyyy|
|Mains electricity||220 V–60 Hz|
|Driving side||right [b]|
|ISO 3166 code||PH|
The Philippines ( // ( listen); Filipino: Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Filipino: Republika ng Pilipinas), [c] is an archipelagic country in Southeast Asia. It is situated in the western Pacific Ocean, and consists of about 7,640 islands, that are broadly categorized under three main geographical divisions from north to south: Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao. The Philippines is bounded by the South China Sea to the west, the Philippine Sea to the east, and the Celebes Sea to the southwest, and shares maritime borders with Taiwan to the north, Japan to the northeast, Palau to the east and southeast, Indonesia to the south, Malaysia and Brunei to the southwest, Vietnam to the west, and China to the northwest. The Philippines covers an area of 300,000 km2 (120,000 sq mi) and, as of 2020 [update], had a population of around 109 million people, making it the world's twelfth-most populous country. The Philippines is a multinational state, with diverse ethnicities and cultures throughout its islands. Manila is the nation's capital, while the largest city is Quezon City, both lying within the urban area of Metro Manila.
Negritos, some of the archipelago's earliest inhabitants, were followed by successive waves of Austronesian peoples. Adoption of Animism, Hinduism and Islam established island-kingdoms called Kedatuans, Rajahnates and Sultanates. The arrival of Ferdinand Magellan, a Portuguese explorer leading a fleet for Spain, marked the beginning of Spanish colonization. In 1543, Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos named the archipelago Las Islas Filipinas in honor of Philip II of Spain. Spanish settlement through Mexico, beginning in 1565, led to the Philippines becoming part of the Spanish Empire for more than 300 years. During this time, Catholicism became the dominant religion, and Manila became the western hub of trans-Pacific trade. In 1896, the Philippine Revolution began, which then became entwined with the 1898 Spanish–American War. Spain ceded the territory to the United States, while Filipino rebels declared the First Philippine Republic. The ensuing Philippine–American War ended with the United States establishing control over the territory, which they maintained until the Japanese invasion of the islands during World War II. Following liberation, the Philippines became independent in 1946. Since then, the unitary sovereign state has often had a tumultuous experience with democracy, which included the overthrow of a dictatorship by the People Power Revolution.
It is considered to be an emerging market and a newly industrialized country, which has an economy transitioning from being based on agriculture to being based more on services and manufacturing. The Philippines is a founding member of the United Nations, World Trade Organization, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum, and the East Asia Summit. The Philippines' position as an island country on the Pacific Ring of Fire and close to the equator makes the country prone to earthquakes and typhoons. The country has a variety of natural resources and a globally significant level of biodiversity. This low-lying island geography makes the country vulnerable to climate change, increasing risk from typhoons and sea level rise.
Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos, during his expedition in 1542, named the islands of Leyte and Samar "Felipinas" after Philip II of Spain, then the Prince of Asturias. Eventually the name "Las Islas Filipinas" would be used to cover the archipelago's Spanish possessions.  Before Spanish rule was established, other names such as Islas del Poniente (Islands of the West) and Magellan's name for the islands, San Lázaro, were also used by the Spanish to refer to islands in the region.    
During the Philippine Revolution, the Malolos Congress proclaimed the establishment of the República Filipina or the Philippine Republic. From the period of the Spanish–American War (1898) and the Philippine–American War (1899–1902) until the Commonwealth period (1935–1946), American colonial authorities referred to the country as The Philippine Islands, a translation of the Spanish name.  The United States began the process of changing the reference to the country from The Philippine Islands to The Philippines, specifically when it was mentioned in the Philippine Autonomy Act or the Jones Law.  The full official title, Republic of the Philippines, was included in the 1935 constitution as the name of the future independent state,  it is also mentioned in all succeeding constitutional revisions.  
There is evidence of early hominins living in what is now the Philippines as early as 709,000 years ago.  A small number of bones from Callao Cave potentially represent an otherwise unknown species, Homo luzonensis, that lived around 50,000 to 67,000 years ago.   The oldest modern human remains found on the islands are from the Tabon Caves of Palawan, U/Th-dated to 47,000 ± 11–10,000 years ago.  The Tabon Man is presumably a Negrito, who were among the archipelago's earliest inhabitants, descendants of the first human migrations out of Africa via the coastal route along southern Asia to the now sunken landmasses of Sundaland and Sahul. 
The first Austronesians reached the Philippines at around 2200 BC, settling the Batanes Islands and northern Luzon from Taiwan. From there, they rapidly spread downwards to the rest of the islands of the Philippines and Southeast Asia.   This population assimilated with the existing Negritos resulting in the modern Filipino ethnic groups which display various ratios of genetic admixture between Austronesian and Negrito groups.  Genetic signatures also indicate the potential migration of Austroasiatic, Papuan, and South Asian people.  Jade artifacts have been found dated to 2000 BC,   with the lingling-o jade items crafted in Luzon made using raw materials originating from Taiwan.  By 1000 BC, the inhabitants of the archipelago had developed into four kinds of social groups: hunter-gatherer tribes, warrior societies, highland plutocracies, and port principalities. 
Early states (900–1565)
The earliest known surviving written record found in the Philippines is the Laguna Copperplate Inscription.  By the 1300s, a number of the large coastal settlements had emerged as trading centers, and became the focal point of societal changes.  Some polities had exchanges with other states across Asia.      Trade with China is believed to have begun during the Tang dynasty, but grew more extensive during the Song dynasty.  By the 2nd millennium CE, some Philippine polities sent delegations participating in the tributary system of China.   Indian cultural traits, such as linguistic terms and religious practices, began to spread within the Philippines during the 10th century, likely via the Hindu Majapahit empire.    By the 15th century, Islam was established in the Sulu Archipelago and spread from there. 
Polities founded in the Philippines from the 10th–16th centuries include Maynila,  Tondo, Namayan, Pangasinan, Cebu, Butuan, Maguindanao, Lanao, Sulu, and Ma-i.  The early polities were typically made up of three-tier social structure: a nobility class, a class of "freemen", and a class of dependent debtor-bondsmen.   Among the nobility were leaders called " Datus," responsible for ruling autonomous groups called " barangay" or "dulohan".  When these barangays banded together, either to form a larger settlement  or a geographically looser alliance group,  the more esteemed among them would be recognized as a "paramount datu",   rajah, or sultan  which headed the community state.  Warfare developed and escalated during the 14th to 16th centuries  and throughout these periods population density is thought to have been low.  The Luções from Luzon then had economic and military influence in South, Southeast and East Asia.  In 1521, Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan arrived in the area, claimed the islands for Spain, and was then killed by natives at the Battle of Mactan (see also: Lapulapu) . 
Colonial rule (1565–1946)
Colonization began when Spanish explorer Miguel López de Legazpi arrived from Mexico in 1565.  :20–23 In 1571, Spanish Manila became the capital of the Spanish East Indies,  which encompassed Spanish territories in Asia and the Pacific.   The Spanish successfully invaded the different local states by employing the principle of divide and conquer,  bringing most of what is now the Philippines into a single unified administration.   Disparate barangays were deliberately consolidated into towns, where Catholic missionaries were more easily able to convert the inhabitants to Christianity. :53, 68  From 1565 to 1821, the Philippines was governed as part of the Mexico-based Viceroyalty of New Spain, later administered from Madrid following the Mexican War of Independence.  Manila was the western hub of the trans-Pacific trade.  Manila galleons were constructed in Bicol and Cavite.  
During its rule, Spain quelled various indigenous revolts,  as well as defending against external military challenges.   Spanish forces included soldiers from elsewhere in New Spain, many of whom deserted and intermingled with the wider population.    Immigration blurred the racial caste system :98   Spain maintained in towns and cities.  War against the Dutch from the West, in the 17th century, together with conflict with the Muslims in the South nearly bankrupted the colonial treasury. 
Administration of the Philippine islands were considered a drain on the economy of Spain,  and there were debates to abandon it or trade it for other territory. However, this was opposed due to economic potential, security, and the desire to continue religious conversion in the islands and the surrounding region.   The Philippines survived on an annual subsidy provided by the Spanish Crown,  which averaged 250,000 pesos  and was usually paid through the provision of 75 tons of silver bullion being sent from the Americas. 
British forces occupied Manila from 1762 to 1764 during the Seven Years' War, with Spanish rule restored through the 1763 Treaty of Paris. :81–83 The Spanish considered their war with the Muslims in Southeast Asia an extension of the Reconquista.  The Spanish–Moro conflict lasted for several hundred years. In the last quarter of the 19th century, Spain conquered portions of Mindanao and Jolo,  and the Moro Muslims in the Sultanate of Sulu formally recognized Spanish sovereignty.  
In the 19th century, Philippine ports opened to world trade and shifts started occurring within Filipino society.   The Latin American wars of independence and renewed immigration led to shifts in social identity, with the term Filipino shifting from referring to Spaniards born in the Philippines to a term encompassing all people in the archipelago. This identity shift was driven by wealthy families of mixed ancestry, to which it became a national identity.  
Revolutionary sentiments were stoked in 1872 after three activist Catholic priests were executed on weak pretences.    This would inspire a propaganda movement in Spain, organized by Marcelo H. del Pilar, José Rizal, Graciano López Jaena, and Mariano Ponce, lobbying for political reforms in the Philippines. Rizal was eventually executed on December 30, 1896, on charges of rebellion. This radicalized many who had previously been loyal to Spain.  As attempts at reform met with resistance, Andrés Bonifacio in 1892 established the militant secret society called the Katipunan, who sought independence from Spain through armed revolt. 
The Katipunan started the Philippine Revolution in 1896.  Internal disputes led to an election in which Bonifacio lost his position and Emilio Aguinaldo was elected as the new leader of the revolution. :145–147 In 1897, the Pact of Biak-na-Bato brought about the exile of the revolutionary leadership to Hong Kong. In 1898, the Spanish–American War began and reached Philippines. Aguinaldo returned, resumed the revolution, and declared independence from Spain on June 12, 1898. :112–113 The First Philippine Republic was established on January 21, 1899. 
The islands had been ceded by Spain to the United States alongside Puerto Rico and Guam as a result of the latter's victory in the Spanish–American War.   As it became increasingly clear the United States would not recognize the First Philippine Republic, the Philippine–American War broke out.  War resulted in the deaths of 250,000 to 1 million civilians, mostly due to famine and disease.  After the defeat of the First Philippine Republic, an American civilian government was established.  American forces continued to secure and extend their control over the islands, suppressing an attempted extension of the Philippine Republic, :200–202  securing the Sultanate of Sulu,  and establishing control over interior mountainous areas that had resisted Spanish conquest. 
Cultural developments strengthened the continuing development of a national identity,   and Tagalog began to take precedence over other local languages. :121 In 1935, the Philippines was granted Commonwealth status with Manuel Quezon as president and Sergio Osmeña as vice president.  Quezon's priorities were defence, social justice, inequality and economic diversification, and national character.  Tagalog was designated the national language,  women's suffrage was introduced,  and land reform mooted.  
During World War II the Japanese Empire invaded  and the Second Philippine Republic, under Jose P. Laurel, was established as a puppet state.   From 1942 the Japanese occupation of the Philippines was opposed by large-scale underground guerrilla activity.    Atrocities and war crimes were committed during the war, including the Bataan Death March and the Manila massacre.   Allied troops defeated the Japanese in 1945. By the end of the war it is estimated that over a million Filipinos had died.   On October 11, 1945, the Philippines became one of the founding members of the United Nations.   On July 4, 1946, the Philippines was officially recognized by the United States as an independent nation through the Treaty of Manila, during the presidency of Manuel Roxas.   
Postcolonial period (1946–present)
Efforts to end the Hukbalahap Rebellion began during Elpidio Quirino's term,  however, it was only during Ramon Magsaysay's presidency was the movement suppressed.  Magsaysay's successor, Carlos P. Garcia, initiated the Filipino First Policy,  which was continued by Diosdado Macapagal, with celebration of Independence Day moved from July 4 to June 12, the date of Emilio Aguinaldo's declaration,   and pursuit of a claim on the eastern part of North Borneo.  
In 1965, Macapagal lost the presidential election to Ferdinand Marcos. Early in his presidency, Marcos initiated numerous infrastructure projects  but, together with his wife Imelda, was accused of corruption and embezzling billions of dollars in public funds.  Nearing the end of his term, Marcos declared martial law on September 21, 1972.   This period of his rule was characterized by political repression, censorship, and human rights violations. 
On August 21, 1983, Marcos' chief rival, opposition leader Benigno Aquino Jr., was assassinated on the tarmac at Manila International Airport. Marcos called a snap presidential election in 1986.  Marcos was proclaimed the winner, but the results were widely regarded as fraudulent.  The resulting protests led to the People Power Revolution,  which forced Marcos and his allies to flee to Hawaii, and Aquino's widow, Corazon Aquino, was installed as president.  
The return of democracy and government reforms beginning in 1986 were hampered by national debt, government corruption, coup attempts,   a persistent communist insurgency,   and a military conflict with Moro separatists.  The administration also faced a series of disasters, including the sinking of the MV Doña Paz in December 1987  and the eruption of Mount Pinatubo in June 1991.   Aquino was succeeded by Fidel V. Ramos, whose economic performance, at 3.6% growth rate,   was overshadowed by the onset of the 1997 Asian financial crisis.  
Ramos' successor, Joseph Estrada, was overthrown by the 2001 EDSA Revolution and succeeded by his vice president, Gloria Macapagal Arroyo, on January 20, 2001.  Arroyo's 9-year administration was marked by economic growth,  but was tainted by graft and political scandals.   On November 23, 2009, 34 journalists and several civilians were killed in Maguindanao.  
Economic growth continued during Benigno Aquino III's administration, which pushed for good governance and transparency.   In 2015, a clash which took place in Mamasapano, Maguindanao killed 44 members of the Philippine National Police- Special Action Force, resulting in efforts to pass the Bangsamoro Basic Law reaching an impasse.   Former Davao City mayor Rodrigo Duterte won the 2016 presidential election, becoming the first president from Mindanao.   Duterte launched an anti-drug campaign   and an infrastructure plan.   The implementation of the Bangsamoro Organic Law led to the creation of the autonomous Bangsamoro region in Mindanao.   In early 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic reached the country   causing the economy to contract by 9.5% in terms of gross domestic product since records began in 1947. 
Geography and environment
The Philippines is an archipelago composed of about 7,640 islands,   covering a total area, including inland bodies of water, of around 300,000 square kilometers (115,831 sq mi),   with cadastral survey data suggesting it may be larger.  Its 36,289 kilometers (22,549 mi) coastline gives it the world's fifth-longest coastline.  The EEZ of the Philippines covers 2,263,816 km2 (874,064 sq mi).  It is located between 116° 40', and 126° 34' E longitude and 4° 40' and 21° 10' N latitude and is bordered by the Philippine Sea to the east,   the South China Sea to the west,  and the Celebes Sea to the south.  The island of Borneo is located a few hundred kilometers southwest,  and Taiwan is located directly to the north. Sulawesi is located to the southwest and Palau is located to the east of the islands.  
The highest mountain is Mount Apo. It measures up to 2,954 meters (9,692 ft) above sea level and is located on the island of Mindanao.  Running east of the archipelago, the Philippine Trench extendes 10,540-metre (34,580 ft) down at the Emden Deep.    The longest river is the Cagayan River in northern Luzon, measuring about 520 kilometers (320 mi).  Manila Bay,  upon the shore of which the capital city of Manila lies, is connected to Laguna de Bay,  the largest lake in the Philippines, by the Pasig River.  The Puerto Princesa Subterranean River, which runs 8.2 kilometers (5.1 mi) underground through a karst landscape before reaching the ocean, is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. 
Situated on the western fringes of the Pacific Ring of Fire, the Philippines experiences frequent seismic and volcanic activity.  The Benham Plateau to the east in the Philippine Sea is an undersea region active in tectonic subduction.  Around 20 earthquakes are registered daily, though most are too weak to be felt. The last major earthquake was the 1990 Luzon earthquake.  There are many active volcanoes such as the Mayon Volcano, Mount Pinatubo, and Taal Volcano.  The eruption of Mount Pinatubo in June 1991 produced the second largest terrestrial eruption of the 20th century.  The Philippines is the world's second-biggest geothermal energy producer behind the United States, with 18% of the country's electricity needs being met by geothermal power. 
The country has valuable,  mineral deposits as a result of the its complex geologic structure and high level of seismic activity.   The Philippine are thought to have the second-largest gold deposits after South Africa, along with a large amount of copper deposits,  and the world's largest deposits of palladium.  Other minerals include chromite, nickel, and zinc. Despite this, a lack of law enforcement, poor management, opposition due to the presence of indigenous communities, and past instances of environmental damage and disaster, have resulted in these mineral resources remaining largely untapped.  
The Philippines is a megadiverse country.   Eight major types of forests are distributed throughout the Philippines; dipterocarp, beach forest, pine forest, molave forest, lower montane forest, upper montane or mossy forest, mangroves, and ultrabasic forest.  As of 2021, the Philippines has only 7 million hectares of forest cover left, according to official estimates (roughly 23% of the country’s total land area), though experts contend that the actual figure is likely much lower.  Deforestation, often the result of illegal logging, is an acute problem in the Philippines. Forest cover declined from 70% of the Philippines's total land area in 1900 to about 18.3% in 1999. 
Around 1,100 land vertebrate species can be found in the Philippines including over 100 mammal species and 170 bird species not thought to exist elsewhere.  The Philippines has among the highest rates of discovery in the world with sixteen new species of mammals discovered in the last ten years. Because of this, the rate of endemism for the Philippines has risen and likely will continue to rise.  Parts of its marine waters contain the highest diversity of shorefish species in the world. 
Large reptiles include the Philippine crocodile  and saltwater crocodile.  The largest crocodile in captivity, known locally as Lolong, was captured in the southern island of Mindanao,  and died on February 10, 2013, from pneumonia and cardiac arrest.  The national bird, known as the Philippine eagle, has the longest body of any eagle; it generally measures 86 to 102 cm (2.82 to 3.35 ft) in length and weighs 4.7 to 8.0 kg (10.4 to 17.6 lb).   The Philippine eagle is part of the family Accipitridae and is endemic to the rainforests of Luzon, Samar, Leyte, and Mindanao. 
Philippine maritime waters encompass as much as 2,200,000 square kilometers (849,425 sq mi) producing unique and diverse marine life,  an important part of the Coral Triangle, a territory shared with other countries.   The total number of corals and marine fish species was estimated at 500 and 2,400 respectively.  New records   and species discoveries continue.    The Tubbataha Reef in the Sulu Sea was declared a World Heritage Site in 1993.  Philippine waters also sustain the cultivation of fish, crustaceans, oysters, and seaweeds.  One species of oyster, Pinctada maxima, produces pearls that are naturally golden in color.  Pearls have been declared a "National Gem". 
With an estimated 13,500 plant species in the country, 3,200 of which are unique to the islands,  Philippine rainforests boast an array of flora,  including many rare types of orchids  and rafflesia.  Many species are endangered and scientists say that Southeast Asia, which the Philippines is part of, faces a catastrophic extinction rate of 20% by the end of the 21st century due in part to habitat loss resulting from deforestation. 
The Philippines has a tropical maritime climate that is usually hot and humid. There are three seasons: a hot dry season or summer from March to May; a rainy season from June to November; and a cool dry season from December to February. The southwest monsoon lasts from May to October, and the northeast monsoon from November to April. Temperatures usually range from 21 °C (70 °F) to 32 °C (90 °F). The coolest month is January; the warmest is May. 
The average yearly temperature is around 26.6 °C (79.9 °F). In considering temperature, location in terms of latitude and longitude is not a significant factor, and temperatures at sea level tend to be in the same range. Altitude usually has more of an impact. The average annual temperature of Baguio at an elevation of 1,500 meters (4,900 ft) above sea level is 18.3 °C (64.9 °F), making it a popular destination during hot summers.  Annual rainfall measures as much as 5,000 millimeters (200 in) in the mountainous east coast section but less than 1,000 millimeters (39 in) in some of the sheltered valleys. 
Sitting astride the typhoon belt, the islands experience 15–20 typhoons annually from July to October,  with around nineteen typhoons  entering the Philippine area of responsibility in a typical year and eight or nine making landfall.   Historically typhoons were sometimes referred to as baguios.  The wettest recorded typhoon to hit the Philippines dropped 2,210 millimeters (87 in) in Baguio from July 14 to 18, 1911.  The Philippines is highly exposed to climate change and is among the world's ten countries that are most vulnerable to climate change risks. 
Government and politics
The Philippines has a democratic government in the form of a constitutional republic with a presidential system.  The President functions as both head of state and head of government  and is the commander-in-chief of the armed forces.  The president is elected by popular vote for a single six-year term,  during which he or she appoints and presides over the cabinet. :213–214 Rodrigo Duterte was elected to a six-year term as president in 2016.  The bicameral Congress is composed of the Senate, serving as the upper house, with members elected to a six-year term, and the House of Representatives, serving as the lower house, with members elected to a three-year term.  Philippine politics tends to be dominated by those with well-known names, such as members of political dynasties or celebrities.  
Senators are elected at large  while the representatives are elected from both legislative districts and through sectoral representation. :162–163 The judicial power is vested in the Supreme Court, composed of a Chief Justice as its presiding officer and fourteen associate justices,  all of whom are appointed by the President from nominations submitted by the Judicial and Bar Council.  The capital city of the Philippines is Manila and the most populous city is Quezon City, both within the single urban area of Metro Manila. 
There have been attempts to change the government to a federal, unicameral, or parliamentary government since the Ramos administration.  There is a significant amount of corruption in the Philippines,    which some historians attribute to the system of governance put in place during the Spanish colonial period. 
As a founding and active member of the United Nations,  the country has been elected to the Security Council.  Carlos P. Romulo was a former President of the United Nations General Assembly.   The country is an active participant in peacekeeping missions, particularly in East Timor.   Over 10 million Filipinos live and work overseas.  
The Philippines is a founding and active member of ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations).  It has hosted several summits and is an active contributor to the direction and policies of the bloc.   It is also a member of the East Asia Summit (EAS),  the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Group of 24, and the Non-Aligned Movement.  The country is also seeking to obtain observer status in the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation.  
The Philippines has a long relationship with the United States, covering economics, security, and people-to-people relations.  A mutual defense treaty between the two countries was signed in 1951, and supplemented later with the 1999 Visiting Forces Agreement and the 2016 Enhanced Defense Cooperation Agreement.  The Philippines supported American policies during the Cold War and participated in the Korean and Vietnam wars.   In 2003 the Philippines was designated a Major non-NATO ally.  Under President Duterte ties with the United States have weakened  with military purchases instead coming from China and Russia,   while Duterte states that the Philippines will no longer participate in any US-led wars.  In 2021, it was revealed the United States would defend the Philippines including the South China sea. 
The Philippines attaches great importance in its relations with China, and has established significant cooperation with the country.       Japan is the biggest bilateral contributor of official development assistance to the country.    Although historical tensions exist due to the events of World War II, much of the animosity has faded. 
Historical and cultural ties continue to affect relations with Spain.   Relations with Middle Eastern countries are shaped by the high number of Filipinos working in these countries,  and by issues relating the Muslim minority in the Philippines.  Concerns have been raised regarding issues such as domestic abuse and war affecting   the around 2.5 million overseas Filipino workers in the region. 
The Philippines has claims in the Spratly Islands which overlap with claims by China, Malaysia, Taiwan, and Vietnam. The largest of its controlled islands in Thitu Island, which contains the Philippine's smallest village.   The Scarborough Shoal standoff in 2012, where China took control of the shoal from the Philippines, led to an international arbitration case  and has made the shoal a prominent symbol in the wider dispute. 
The Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP) consist of three branches: the Philippine Air Force, the Philippine Army, and the Philippine Navy.  The Armed Forces of the Philippines are a volunteer force.  Civilian security is handled by the Philippine National Police under the Department of the Interior and Local Government (DILG).  
In Bangsamoro, the largest separatist organizations, the Moro National Liberation Front and the Moro Islamic Liberation Front were engaging the government politically as of 2007 [update]. [ needs update] Other more militant groups like the Abu Sayyaf have kidnapped foreigners for ransom, particularly in the Sulu Archipelago.     Their presence decreased due to successful security provided by the Philippine government.   The Communist Party of the Philippines and its military wing, the New People's Army, have been waging guerrilla warfare against the government since the 1970s, reaching its apex in 1986 when Communist guerrillas gained control of a fifth of the country's territory, before significantly dwindling militarily and politically after the return of democracy in 1986.   As of 2018 [update], $2.843 billion,  or 1.1 percent of GDP is spent on military forces. 
The Philippines is governed as a unitary state, with the exception of the Bangsamoro Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (BARMM),  although there has been several steps towards decentralization within the unitary framework.   A 1991 law devolved some powers to local governments.  The country is divided into 17 regions, 81 provinces, 146 cities, 1,488 municipalities, and 42,036 barangays.  Regions other than Bangsamoro serve primarily to organize the provinces of the country for administrative convenience.  As of 2015 [update], Calabarzon was the most populated region while the National Capital Region (NCR) the most densely populated. 
(as of 2015 [update]) 
|% of Population||Population density |
|NCR||National Capital Region||619.54 km2 (239.21 sq mi)||12,877,253||12.75%||20,785/km2 (53,830/sq mi)|
|Region I||Ilocos Region||12,964.62 km2 (5,005.67 sq mi)||5,026,128||4.98%||388/km2 (1,000/sq mi)|
|CAR||Cordillera Administrative Region||19,818.12 km2 (7,651.82 sq mi)||1,722,006||1.71%||87/km2 (230/sq mi)|
|Region II||Cagayan Valley||29,836.88 km2 (11,520.08 sq mi)||3,451,410||3.42%||116/km2 (300/sq mi)|
|Region III||Central Luzon||22,014.63 km2 (8,499.90 sq mi)||11,218,177||11.11%||512/km2 (1,330/sq mi)|
|Region IV-A||Calabarzon||16,576.26 km2 (6,400.13 sq mi)||14,414,774||14.27%||870/km2 (2,300/sq mi)|
|Region IV-B||Mimaropa||29,606.25 km2 (11,431.04 sq mi)||2,963,360||2.93%||100/km2 (260/sq mi)|
|Region V||Bicol Region||18,114.47 km2 (6,994.04 sq mi)||5,796,989||5.74%||320/km2 (830/sq mi)|
|Region VI||Western Visayas||20,778.29 km2 (8,022.54 sq mi)||7,536,383||7.46%||363/km2 (940/sq mi)|
|Region VII||Central Visayas||15,872.58 km2 (6,128.44 sq mi)||7,396,898||7.33%||466/km2 (1,210/sq mi)|
|Region VIII||Eastern Visayas||23,234.78 km2 (8,971.00 sq mi)||4,440,150||4.40%||191/km2 (490/sq mi)|
|Region IX||Zamboanga Peninsula||16,904.03 km2 (6,526.68 sq mi)||3,629,783||3.59%||215/km2 (560/sq mi)|
|Region X||Northern Mindanao||20,458.51 km2 (7,899.07 sq mi)||4,689,302||4.64%||229/km2 (590/sq mi)|
|Region XI||Davao Region||20,433.38 km2 (7,889.37 sq mi)||4,893,318||4.85%||239/km2 (620/sq mi)|
|Region XII||Soccsksargen||22,610.08 km2 (8,729.80 sq mi)||4,245,838||4.20%||188/km2 (490/sq mi)|
|Region XIII||Caraga||21,120.56 km2 (8,154.69 sq mi)||2,596,709||2.57%||123/km2 (320/sq mi)|
|BARMM||Bangsamoro||36,826.95 km2 (14,218.96 sq mi)||4,080,825||4.04%||111/km2 (290/sq mi)|
The Commission on Population estimated the country's population to be 107,190,081 as of December 31, 2018, based on the latest population census of 2015 conducted by the Philippine Statistics Authority.  The population increased from 1990 to 2008 by approximately 28 million, a 45% growth in that time frame.  The first official census in the Philippines was carried out in 1877 and recorded a population of 5,567,685. 
A third of the population resides in Metro Manila and its immediately neighboring regions.  The 2.34% average annual population growth rate between 1990 and 2000 decreased to an estimated 1.90% for the 2000–2010 period.  Government attempts to reduce population growth have been a contentious issue.  The population's median age is 22.7 years with 60.9% aged from 15 to 64 years old.  Life expectancy at birth is 69.4 years, 73.1 years for females and 65.9 years for males.  Poverty incidence dropped to 21.6% in 2015 from 25.2% in 2012. 
Metro Manila is the most populous of the 3 defined metropolitan areas in the Philippines  and the 5th most populous in the world.  Census data from 2015 showed it had a population of 12,877,253 constituting almost 13% of the national population.  Including suburbs in the adjacent provinces ( Bulacan, Cavite, Laguna, and Rizal) of Greater Manila, the population is around 23,088,000.  Across the country, the Philippines has a total urbanization rate of 51.2 percent.  Metro Manila's gross regional product was estimated as of 2009 [update] to be ₱468.4 billion (at constant 1985 prices) and accounts for 33% of the nation's GDP.  In 2011 Manila ranked as the 28th wealthiest urban agglomeration in the world and the 2nd in Southeast Asia. 
Largest cities in the Philippines
|1||Quezon City||National Capital Region||2,960,048||11||Valenzuela||National Capital Region||714,978||
|2||Manila||National Capital Region||1,846,513||12||Dasmariñas||Calabarzon||703,141|
|3||Davao City||Davao Region||1,776,949||13||General Santos||Soccsksargen||697,315|
|4||Caloocan||National Capital Region||1,661,584||14||Parañaque||National Capital Region||689,992|
|5||Zamboanga City||Zamboanga Peninsula||977,234||15||Bacoor||Calabarzon||664,625|
|6||Cebu City||Central Visayas||964,169||16||San Jose del Monte||Central Luzon||651,813|
|7||Antipolo||Calabarzon||887,399||17||Makati||National Capital Region||629,616|
|8||Taguig||National Capital Region||886,722||18||Las Piñas||National Capital Region||606,293|
|9||Pasig||National Capital Region||803,159||19||Bacolod||Western Visayas||600,783|
|10||Cagayan de Oro||Northern Mindanao||728,402||20||Muntinlupa||National Capital Region||543,445|
There is substantial ethnic diversity with the Philippines, a product of the seas and mountain ranges dividing the archipelago along with significant foreign influences.  According to the 2010 census, 24.4% of Filipinos are Tagalog, 11.4% Visayans/Bisaya (excluding Cebuano, Hiligaynon and Waray), 9.9% Cebuano, 8.8% Ilocano, 8.4% Hiligaynon, 6.8% Bikol, 4% Waray, and 26.2% are "others",   which can be broken down further to yield more distinct non-tribal groups like the Moro, the Kapampangan, the Pangasinense, the Ibanag, and the Ivatan.  There are also indigenous peoples[ clarification needed] like the Igorot, the Lumad, the Mangyan, the Bajau, and the tribes of Palawan. [ failed verification]
Negritos are considered among the earliest inhabitants of the islands.  These minority aboriginal settlers are an Australoid group and are a left-over from the first human migration out of Africa to Australia, and were likely displaced by later waves of migration.  At least some Negritos in the Philippines have Denisovan admixture in their genomes.   Ethnic Filipinos generally belong to several Southeast Asian ethnic groups classified linguistically as part of the Austronesian or Malayo-Polynesian speaking people.  There is some uncertainty over the origin of this Austronesian speaking population, with it being likely that ancestors related to Taiwanese aborigines brought their language and mixed with existing populations in the area.   The Manobo and Sama ethnic groups have ancestral affinity with the Austroasiatic Mlabri and Htin peoples of mainland Southeast Asia. South Asian ancestry was also detected with Filipinos and peaking among the Dilaut people. There was also a westward expansion of Papuan ancestry from Papua New Guinea to Eastern Indonesia and Mindanao detected among the Blaan and Sangir.  European DNA is present in many Filipinos today.  A craniometric study reveals that samples taken from graveyards across the Philippines show a mean ratio of European descent of circa 6%.  Under Spanish rule there was also immigration from elsewhere in the empire, especially from Latin America. 
Chinese Filipinos are mostly the descendants of immigrants from Fujian in China after 1898,  numbering around 2 million, although there are an estimated 20 percent of Filipinos who have partial Chinese ancestry, stemming from precolonial and colonial Chinese migrants.  While a distinct minority, Chinese Filipinos are well-integrated into Filipino society.   As of 2015, there were 220,000 to 600,000 American citizens living in the country.  There are also up to 250,000 Amerasians scattered across the cities of Angeles, Manila, and Olongapo.  Other important non-indigenous minorities include Indians  and Arabs.  There are also Japanese people, which include escaped Christians ( Kirishitan) who fled the persecutions of Shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu which the Spanish empire in the Philippines had offered asylum from.  The descendants of mixed-race couples are known as Tisoy. 
|Other local languages/dialects||26.09 %||24,027,005|
|Other foreign languages/dialects||0.09 %||78,862|
|Not reported/not stated||0.01 %||6,450|
|Source: Philippine Statistics Authority |
Ethnologue lists 186 individual languages in the Philippines, 182 of which are living languages, while 4 no longer have any known speakers. Most native languages are part of the Philippine branch of the Malayo-Polynesian languages, which is itself a branch of the Austronesian language family.   In addition, various Spanish-based creole varieties collectively called Chavacano exist.  There are also many Philippine Negrito languages that have unique vocabularies that survived Austronesian acculturation. 
Filipino and English are the official languages of the country.  Filipino is a standardized version of Tagalog, spoken mainly in Metro Manila.  Both Filipino and English are used in government, education, print, broadcast media, and business, with third local languages often being used at the same time.  The Philippine constitution provides for the promotion of Spanish and Arabic on a voluntary and optional basis.  Spanish, which was widely used as a lingua franca in the late nineteenth century, has since declined greatly in use,  although Spanish loanwords are still present today in Philippine languages,   while Arabic is mainly taught in Islamic schools in Mindanao. 
Nineteen regional languages act as auxiliary official languages used as media of instruction: Aklanon, Bikol, Cebuano, Chavacano, Hiligaynon, Ibanag, Ilocano, Ivatan, Kapampangan, Kinaray-a, Maguindanao, Maranao, Pangasinan, Sambal, Surigaonon, Tagalog, Tausug, Waray, and Yakan.  Other indigenous languages such as, Cuyonon, Ifugao, Itbayat, Kalinga, Kamayo, Kankanaey, Masbateño, Romblomanon, Manobo, and several Visayan languages are prevalent in their respective provinces.  Article 3 of Republic Act No. 11106 declared the Filipino Sign Language as the national sign language of the Philippines, specifying that it shall be recognized, supported and promoted as the medium of official communication in all transactions involving the deaf, and as the language of instruction of deaf education.  
The Philippines is a secular state which protects freedom of religion. Christianity is the dominant faith,   shared by over 92% of the population.  As of 2013 [update], the country had the world's third largest Roman Catholic population, and was the largest Christian nation in Asia.  Census data from 2015 found that about 79.53% of the population professed Catholicism.  Around 37% of the population regularly attend Mass. 29% of self-identified Catholics consider themselves very religious.  An independent Catholic church, the Philippine Independent Church, has around 66,959 adherents.  Protestants were 10.8% of the population in 2010.  2.64% of the population are members of Iglesia ni Cristo.  The combined following of the Philippine Council of Evangelical Churches comes to 2.42% of the total population.  
Islam is the second largest religion. The Muslim population of the Philippines was reported as 6.01% of the total population according to census returns in 2015.  Conversely, a 2012 report by the National Commission of Muslim Filipinos (NCMF) stated that about 10,700,000 or 11% of Filipinos are Muslims.  The majority of Muslims live in Mindanao and nearby islands.   Most practice Sunni Islam under the Shafi'i school.  
The percentage of combined positive atheist and agnostic people in the Philippines was measured to be about 3% of the population as of 2008.  The 2015 Philippine Census reported the religion of about 0.02% of the population as "none".  A 2014 survey by Gallup International Association reported that 21% of its respondents identify as "not a religious person".  Around 0.24% of the population practice indigenous Philippine folk religions,  whose practices and folk beliefs are often syncretized with Christianity and Islam.   Buddhism is practiced by around 0.03% of the population,  concentrated among Filipinos of Chinese descent. 
In 2016, 63.1% of healthcare came from private expenditures while 36.9% was from the government (12.4% from the national government, 7.1% from the local government, and 17.4% from social health insurance).  Total health expenditure share in GDP for the year 2016 was 4.5%. Per capita health expenditure rate in 2015 was US$323, which was one of the lowest in Southeast Asia.  The budget allocation for Healthcare in 2019 was ₱98.6 billion  and had an increase in budget in 2014 with a record high in the collection of taxes from the House Bill 5727 (commonly known as Sin tax Bill). 
There were 101,688 hospital beds in the country in 2016, with government hospital beds accounting for 47% and private hospital beds for 53%.  In 2009, there were an estimated 90,370 physicians or 1 per every 833 people, 480,910 nurses and 43,220 dentists.  Retention of skilled practitioners is a problem. Seventy percent of nursing graduates go overseas to work. As of 2007 [update], the Philippines was the largest supplier of nurses for export.  The Philippines suffers a triple burden of high levels of communicable diseases, high levels of non-communicable diseases, and high exposure to natural disasters. 
In 2018, there were 1,258 hospitals licensed by the Department of Health, of which 433 (34%) were government-run and 825 (66%) private.  A total of 20,065 barangay health stations (BHS) and 2,590 rural health units (RHUs) provide primary care services throughout the country as of 2016.  Cardiovascular diseases account for more than 35% of all deaths.   9,264 cases of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) were reported for the year 2016, with 8,151 being asymptomatic cases.  At the time the country was considered a low-HIV-prevalence country, with less than 0.1% of the adult population estimated to be HIV-positive.  HIV/AIDS cases increased from 12,000 in 2005  to 39,622 as of 2016, with 35,957 being asymptomatic cases. 
There is improvement in patients access to medicines due to Filipinos' growing acceptance of generic drugs, with 6 out of 10 Filipinos already using generics.  While the country's universal healthcare implementation is underway as spearheaded by the state-owned Philippine Health Insurance Corporation,  most healthcare-related expenses are either borne out of pocket  or through health maintenance organization (HMO)-provided health plans. As of April 2020, there are only about 7 million individuals covered by these plans. 
The Philippines had a simple literacy rate of 98.3% as of 2015, and a functional literacy rate of 90.3% as of 2013.  Education takes up a significant proportion of the national budget. In the 2020 budget, education was allocated PHP17.1 billion from the PHP4.1 trillion budget. 
The Commission on Higher Education (CHED) lists 2,180 higher education institutions, among which 607 are public and 1,573 are private.  Classes start in June and end in March. The majority of colleges and universities follow a semester calendar from June to October and November to March, while some have adopted an increasingly common semester calendar from August to December and January to May. [ failed verification] Primary and secondary schooling is divided between a 6-year elementary period, a 4-year junior high school period, and a 2-year senior high school period.   
The Department of Education (DepEd) covers elementary, secondary, and non-formal education.  The Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA) administers middle-level education training and development.   The Commission on Higher Education (CHED) was created in 1994 to, among other functions, formulate and recommend development plans, policies, priorities, and programs on higher education and research. 
In 2004, madaris were mainstreamed in 16 regions nationwide, mainly in Muslim areas in Mindanao under the auspices and program of the Department of Education.  Public universities are all non-sectarian entities, and are further classified as State Universities and Colleges (SUC) or Local Colleges and Universities (LCU).  The University of the Philippines, a system of eight constituent universities, is the national university system of the Philippines.  The country's top ranked universities are as follows: University of the Philippines, Ateneo de Manila University, De La Salle University, and University of Santo Tomas.    The University of Santo Tomas, established in 1611, has the oldest extant university charter in the Philippines and Asia.  
The Philippine economy has produced an estimated gross domestic product (nominal) of $356.8 billion.  Primary exports include semiconductors and electronic products, transport equipment, garments, copper products, petroleum products, coconut oil, and fruits. Major trading partners include the United States, Japan, China, Singapore, South Korea, the Netherlands, Hong Kong, Germany, Taiwan, and Thailand.  Its unit of currency is the Philippine peso (₱  or PHP ). 
A newly industrialized country,  the Philippine economy has been transitioning from one based upon agriculture to an economy with more emphasis upon services and manufacturing.  Of the country's 2018 labor force of around 43.46 million, the agricultural sector employed 24.3%,  and accounted for 8.1% of 2018 GDP.  The industrial sector employed around 19% of the workforce and accounted for 34.1% of GDP, while 57% of the workers involved in the services sector were responsible for 57.8% of GDP.  
The unemployment rate as of October 2019 [update], stands at 4.5%.  Meanwhile, due to lower charges in basic necessities, the inflation rate eased to 1.7% in August 2019.  Gross international reserves as of October 2013 are $83.201 billion.  The Debt-to-GDP ratio continues to decline to 37.6% as of the second quarter of 2019   from a record high of 78% in 2004.  The country is a net importer  but it is also a creditor nation.  Manila hosts the headquarters of the Asian Development Bank. 
The 1997 Asian Financial Crisis affected the economy, resulting in a lingering decline of the value of the peso and falls in the stock market. The extent it was affected initially was not as severe as that of some of its Asian neighbors. This was largely due to the fiscal conservatism of the government, partly as a result of decades of monitoring and fiscal supervision from the International Monetary Fund (IMF), in comparison to the massive spending of its neighbors on the rapid acceleration of economic growth.  There have been signs of progress since. In 2004, the economy experienced 6.4% GDP growth and 7.1% in 2007, its fastest pace of growth in three decades.   Average annual GDP growth per capita for the period 1966–2007 still stands at 1.45% in comparison to an average of 5.96% for the East Asia and the Pacific region as a whole. The daily income for 45% of the population of the Philippines remains less than $2.   [ obsolete source]
Remittances from overseas Filipinos contribute significantly to the Philippine economy.  Remittances peaked in 2006 at 10.4% of the national GDP, and were 8.6% and 8.5% in 2012 and in 2014 respectively.  In 2014 the total worth of foreign exchange remittances was US$28 billion.  Regional development is uneven, with Luzon – Metro Manila in particular – gaining most of the new economic growth at the expense of the other regions.   Service industries such as tourism  and business process outsourcing have been identified as areas with some of the best opportunities for growth for the country.  The Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) industry is composed of eight sub-sectors, namely, knowledge process outsourcing and back offices, animation, call centers, software development, game development, engineering design, and medical transcription.  In 2010 [update], the Philippines was reported as having eclipsed India as the main center of BPO services in the world.   
Science and technology
The Department of Science and Technology is the governing agency responsible for the development of coordination of science and technology-related projects in the Philippines.  Research organizations in the country include the International Rice Research Institute,  which focuses on the development of new rice varieties and rice crop management techniques. 
The Philippines bought its first satellite in 1996.  In 2016, the Philippines first micro-satellite, Diwata-1 was launched aboard the US Cygnus spacecraft.  The Philippines has a high concentration of cellular phone users.  Text messaging is a popular form of communication and, in 2007, the nation sent an average of one billion SMS messages per day.  The country has a high level of mobile financial services utilization.  The Philippine Long Distance Telephone Company, commonly known as PLDT, is a formerly nationalized telecommunications provider.  It is also the largest company in the country.  The National Telecommunications Commission is the agency responsible for the supervision, adjudication and control over all telecommunications services throughout the country.  There are approximately 417 AM and 1079 FM radio stations and 438 television and 1,551 cable television stations.  On March 29, 1994, the country was connected to the Internet via a 64 kbit/s connection from a router serviced by PLDT to a Sprint router in California.  Estimates for Internet penetration in the Philippines vary widely ranging from a low of 2.5 million to a high of 24 million people.   Social networking and watching videos are among the most frequent Internet activities.  The Philippine population is the world's top internet user. 
The travel and tourism sector contributed 10.6% of the country's GDP in 2015  and providing 1,226,500 jobs in 2013.  8,260,913 international visitors arrived from January to December 2019, up by 15.24% for the same period in 2018.  58.62% (4,842,774) of these came from East Asia, 15.84% (1,308,444) came from North America, and 6.38% (526,832) came from other ASEAN countries.  The island of Boracay, popular for its beaches, was named as the best island in the world by Travel + Leisure in 2012.  The Philippines is also a popular retirement destination for foreigners due to its climate and low cost of living. 
Transportation in the Philippines is facilitated by road, air, rail and waterways. As of December 2018, there are 210,528 kilometers (130,816 mi) of roads in the Philippines, with only 65,101 kilometers (40,452 mi) of roads paved.  The 919-kilometer (571 mi) Strong Republic Nautical Highway (SRNH), an integrated set of highway segments and ferry routes covering 17 cities was established in 2003.  The Pan-Philippine Highway connects the islands of Luzon, Samar, Leyte, and Mindanao, forming the backbone of land-based transportation in the country.  Roads are the dominant form of transport, carrying 98% of people and 58% of cargo. A network of expressways extends from the capital to other areas of Luzon.  The 8.25-kilometre (5.13 mi) Cebu–Cordova Link Expressway in Cebu will be finished by 2021.  Traffic is a significant issue facing the country, especially within Manila and on arterial roads connecting to the capital. 
Public transport in the country include buses, jeepneys, UV Express, TNVS, Filcab, taxis, and tricycles.   Jeepneys are a popular and iconic public utility vehicle.  Jeepneys and other Public Utility Vehicles which are older than 15 years are being phased out gradually in favor of a more efficient and environmentally friendly Euro 4 compliant vehicles.  
Despite wider historical use, rail transport in the Philippines is extremely limited, being confined to transporting passengers within Metro Manila and neighboring Laguna, with a separate short track in the Bicol Region.  There are plans to revive Freight transport to reduce road congestion.   As of 2019 [update], the country had a railway footprint of only 79 kilometers, which it had plans to expand up to 244 kilometers.   Metro Manila is served by three rapid transit lines: LRT Line 1, LRT Line 2 and MRT Line 3.    The PNR South Commuter Line transports passengers between Metro Manila and Laguna.  Railway lines that are under-construction include the 4-kilometre (2.5 mi) Line 2 East Extension Project (2020),  the 22.8-kilometre (14.2 mi) MRT Line 7 (2020),  the 35-kilometre (22 mi) Metro Manila Subway (2025),  and the 109-kilometre (68 mi) PNR North–South Commuter Railway which is divided into several phases, with partial operations to begin in 2022.  The civil airline industry is regulated by the Civil Aviation Authority of the Philippines.  Philippine Airlines is Asia's oldest commercial airline still operating under its original name.   Cebu Pacific is the countries leading low-cost carrier. 
As an archipelago, inter-island travel using watercraft is often necessary.  Boats have always been important to societies in the Philippines.   Most boats are double-outrigger vessels, which can reach up to 30 metres (98 ft) in length, known as banca /bangka,  parao, prahu, or balanghay. A variety of boat types are used throughout the islands, such as dugouts (baloto) and house-boats like the lepa-lepa.  Terms such as bangka and baroto are also used as general names for a variety of boat types.  Modern ships use plywood in place of logs and motor engines in place of sails.  These ships are used both for fishing and for inter-island travel.  The principal seaports of Manila, Batangas, Subic Bay, Cebu, Iloilo, Davao, Cagayan de Oro, General Santos, and Zamboanga form part of the ASEAN Transport Network.   The Pasig River Ferry serves the cities of Manila, Makati, Mandaluyong, Pasig and Marikina in Metro Manila.  
Water supply and sanitation
In 2015, it was reported by the Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation that 74% of the population had access to improved sanitation, and that "good progress" had been made between 1990 and 2015.  As of 2016, 96% of Filipino households have an improved source of drinking water, and 92% of households had sanitary toilet facilities, although connections of these toilet facilities to appropriate sewerage systems remain largely insufficient especially in rural and urban poor communities. 
There is significant cultural diversity across the islands, reinforced by the fragmented geography of the country.  The cultures within Mindanao and the Sulu Archipelago developed in a particularly distinct manner, due to very limited degree of Spanish influence and greater influence from nearby Islamic regions.  Despite this, a national identity emerged in the 19th century, the development of which is represented by shared national symbols and other cultural and historical touchstones. 
One of the most visible Hispanic legacies is the prevalence of Spanish names and surnames among Filipinos; a Spanish name and surname, however, does not necessarily denote Spanish ancestry. This peculiarity, unique among the people of Asia, came as a result of a colonial edict by Governor-General Narciso Clavería y Zaldua, which ordered the systematic distribution of family names and implementation of Hispanic nomenclature on the population.  The names of many locations are also Spanish, or stem from Spanish roots and origins. 
There is a substantial American influence on modern Filipino culture.  The common use of the English language is an example of the American impact on Philippine society. It has contributed to the influence of American pop cultural trends.  This affinity is seen in Filipinos' consumption of fast food and American film and music.  American global fast-food chain stalwarts have entered the market, but local fast-food chains like Goldilocks  and most notably Jollibee, the leading fast-food chain in the country, have emerged and compete successfully against foreign chains. 
As a general description, the distinct value system of Filipinos is rooted primarily in personal alliance systems, especially those based in kinship, obligation, friendship, religion (particularly Christianity), and commercial relationships. 
Filipino values are, for the most part, centered around maintaining social harmony, motivated primarily by the desire to be accepted within a group. The main sanction against diverging from these values are the concepts of "Hiya", roughly translated as 'a sense of shame',  and "Amor propio" or 'self-esteem'.  Social approval, acceptance by a group, and belonging to a group are major concerns. Caring about what others will think, say or do, are strong influences on social behavior among Filipinos. 
Other elements of the Filipino value system are optimism about the future, pessimism about present situations and events, concern and care for other people, the existence of friendship and friendliness, the habit of being hospitable, religious nature, respectfulness to self and others, respect for the female members of society, the fear of God, and abhorrence of acts of cheating and thievery.  
Spanish architecture has left an imprint in the Philippines in the way many towns were designed around a central square or plaza mayor, but many of the buildings bearing its influence were demolished during World War II.  Four Philippine baroque churches are included in the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites: the San Agustín Church in Manila, Paoay Church in Ilocos Norte, Nuestra Señora de la Asunción (Santa María) Church in Ilocos Sur, and Santo Tomás de Villanueva Church in Iloilo.  Vigan in Ilocos Sur is also known for the many Hispanic-style houses and buildings preserved there. 
American rule introduced new architectural styles. This led to the construction of government buildings and Art Deco theaters. During the American period, some semblance of city planning using the architectural designs and master plans by Daniel Burnham was done on the portions of the city of Manila. Part of the Burnham plan was the construction of government buildings that resembled Greek or Neoclassical architecture.  In Iloilo, structures from both the Spanish and American periods can still be seen, especially in Calle Real.  Certain areas of the country like Batanes have slight differences as both Spanish and Filipino ways of architecture assimilated differently due to the climate. Limestones were used as a building material, with houses being built to withstand typhoons. 
In general, there are two types of Philippine traditional folk dance. The first one reflects the influence under the Spanish occupation and the other, the country's profuseness of tribes that offer their own tribal dances. The music that incorporates the former are mostly bandurria-based bands that utilizes 14th string guitars. One example of such type is the Cariñosa. A Hispanic Filipino dance, unofficially considered as the "National Dance of the Philippines".  Another example is the Tinikling.  While native dances had become less popular over time, :77 a revival of folk dances began in the 1920s. :82 In the Modern and Post-Modern time periods, dances may vary from the delicate ballet up to the more street-oriented styles of breakdancing.  
Locally produced spoken dramas became established in the late 1870s. Around the same time, Spanish influence led to the introduction of zarzuela plays which integrated musical pieces,  and of comedia plays which included more significant dance elements. Such performances became popular throughout the country, :69–70 and were written in a number of local languages.  American influence led to the introduction of vaudeville and ballet. :69–70 During the 20th century the realism genre became more dominant, with performances written to focus on contemporary political and societal issues. 
During the Spanish era Rondalya music, where traditional string orchestra mandolin type instruments were used, was widespread.  Kundiman developed in the 1920s and 30's,  and had a renaissance in the postwar period.  The American colonial period exposed many Filipinos to US culture and popular forms of music.  Rock music was introduced to Filipinos in the 1960s, and developed into Filipino rock, or "Pinoy rock", a term encompassing diverse styles such as pop rock, alternative rock, heavy metal, punk, new wave, ska, and reggae. Martial law in the 1970s produced several Filipino folk rock bands and artists who were at the forefront of political demonstrations.  The 1970s also saw the birth of Manila Sound  and Original Pilipino Music (OPM).  Filipino hip-hop traces its origins back to 1979, entering the mainstream in 1990.   Recently K-pop has become popular.  Karaoke is a popular activity in the country. 
Philippine mythology has been handed down primarily through the traditional oral folk literature of the Filipino people. Some popular figures from Philippine mythologies are Maria Makiling, Lam-Ang, and the Sarimanok. 
Philippine literature comprises works usually written in Filipino, Spanish, or English. Some of the most known were created from the 17th to 19th century.  Adarna, for example, is a famous epic about an eponymous magical bird allegedly written by José de la Cruz or "Huseng Sisiw".  Francisco Balagtas, the poet and playwright who wrote Florante at Laura, is recognized as a preeminent writer in the Tagalog (Filipino) language.  José Rizal wrote the novels Noli Me Tángere (Touch Me Not) and El Filibusterismo (The Filibustering, also known as The Reign of Greed). 
Philippine cinema began at the end of the 19th century,  and made up around 20% of the domestic market during the second half of the 20th century. During the 21st century however, the industry has struggled to compete with larger budget foreign films.  Critically acclaimed Philippines films include Himala (Miracle).    Moving pictures were first shown in the Philippines on January 1, 1897.   All films were all in Spanish since Philippine cinema was first introduced during the final years of the Spanish era of the country. Antonio Ramos was the first known movie producer.   Meanwhile, Jose Nepomuceno was dubbed as the "Father of Philippine Movies".  His work marked the start of the local production of movies. Production companies remained small during the era of silent film, but 1933 saw the emergence of sound films and the arrival of the first significant production company. The postwar 1940s and the 1950s are regarded as a high point for Philippine cinema. 
Philippine media uses mainly Filipino and English, though broadcasting has shifted to Filipino.  There are large numbers of both radio stations and newspapers.  The top three newspapers by nationwide readership as well as credibility  are the Philippine Daily Inquirer, Manila Bulletin, and The Philippine Star.   While freedom of the press is protected by the constitution, the country is very dangerous for journalists.   The dominant television networks were ABS-CBN and GMA, both being free to air.  ABS-CBN, at the time the largest network  was shut down following a cease and desist order issued by the National Telecommunications Commission on May 5, 2020, a day after the expiration of the network's franchise.  Prior to this move, Duterte accused ABS-CBN of being biased against his administration and vowed to block the renewal of their franchise. However, critics of the Duterte administration, human rights groups, and media unions said the shutdown of ABS-CBN was an attack on press freedom.   On July 10, 2020, the House of Representatives declined a renewal of ABS-CBN's TV and radio franchise, voted 70–11. 
TV, the Internet,  and social media, particularly Facebook, remain the top source of news and information for majority of Filipinos as newspaper readership continues to decline.   English broadsheets are popular among executives, professionals and students.  Cheaper Tagalog tabloids, which feature crime, sex, gossips and gore, saw a rise in the 1990s, and tend to be popular among the masses, particularly in Manila.   
Regional variations exist throughout the islands, for example rice is a standard starch in Luzon while cassava is more common in Mindanao.  Filipino taste buds tend to favor robust flavors, but the cuisine is not as spicy as those of its neighbors. 
Unlike many Asians, most Filipinos do not eat with chopsticks; they use Western cutlery. However, possibly due to rice being the primary staple food and the popularity of a large number of stews and main dishes with broth in Filipino cuisine, the main pairing of utensils seen at the Filipino dining table is that of spoon and fork, not knife and fork. 
The traditional way of eating with the hands known as kamayan (using the hand for bringing food to the mouth)  was previously more often seen in the less urbanized areas.  However, due to the various Filipino restaurants that introduced Filipino food to people of other nationalities, as well as to Filipino urbanites, kamayan fast became popular.   This recent trend also sometimes incorporates the " Boodle fight" concept (as popularized and coined by the Philippine Army), wherein banana leaves are used as giant plates on top of which rice portions and Filipino viands are placed all together for a filial, friendly or communal kamayan feasting. 
Basketball is played at both amateur and professional levels and is considered to be the most popular sport in the Philippines.  In 2010, Manny Pacquiao was named "Fighter of the Decade" for the 2000s by the Boxing Writers Association of America.  The national martial art and sport of the country is Arnis.   Sabong or cockfighting is another popular entertainment especially among Filipino men, and was documented by Magellan's voyage as a pastime in the kingdom of Taytay.  Filipinos also play football, and their football team has participated in only one Asian Cup. 
Beginning in 1924, the Philippines has competed in every Summer Olympic Games, except when they participated in the American-led boycott of the 1980 Summer Olympics.   The Philippines is also the first tropical nation to compete at the Winter Olympic Games debuting in the 1972 edition.   In 2021, the country tallied its first ever Olympic gold medal via weightlifter Hidilyn Diaz's victory at the delayed Tokyo Olympics.
- While Manila is designated as the nation's capital, the seat of government is the National Capital Region, commonly known as " Metro Manila", of which the city of Manila is a part.   Many national government institutions aside from Malacañang Palace and some agencies/institutions are located within the NCR.
- Since March 10, 1945  
- In the recognized regional
languages of the Philippines:
- Aklan: Republika it Pilipinas
- Bikol: Republika kan Filipinas
- Cebuano: Republika sa Pilipinas
- Chavacano: República de Filipinas
- Hiligaynon: Republika sang Filipinas
- Ibanag: Republika nat Filipinas
- Ilocano: Republika ti Filipinas
- Ivatan: Republika nu Filipinas
- Kapampangan: Republika ning Filipinas
- Kinaray-a: Republika kang Pilipinas
- Maguindanaon: Republika nu Pilipinas
- Maranao: Republika a Pilipinas
- Pangasinan: Republika na Filipinas
- Sambal: Republika nin Pilipinas
- Surigaonon: Republika nan Pilipinas
- Tagalog: Republika ng Pilipinas
- Tausug: Republika sin Pilipinas
- Waray: Republika han Pilipinas
- Yakan: Republika si Pilipinas
In the recognized optional languages of the Philippines:
- "Republic Act No. 8491". Republic of the Philippines. Retrieved March 8, 2014.
- "Presidential Decree No. 940, s. 1976". Manila: Malacanang. Retrieved April 4, 2015.
- "Quezon City Local Government – Background". Quezon City Local Government. Archived from the original on August 20, 2020. Retrieved August 25, 2020.
- DepEd adds 7 languages to mother tongue-based education for Kinder to Grade 3. GMA News. July 13, 2013.
- "East Asia/Southeast Asia :: Philippines — The World Factbook – Central Intelligence Agency". www.cia.gov.
- "East & Southeast Asia :: Philippines". The World Factbook. Washington, DC: Central Intelligence Agency. October 28, 2009. Retrieved November 7, 2009.
- "2020 Census of Population and Housing (2020 CPH) Population Counts Declared Official by the President". Philippine Statistics Authority.
- "World Economic Outlook database: April 2021". International Monetary Fund. April 2021. Retrieved April 6, 2021.
- "Gini Index". World Bank. Retrieved March 2, 2011.
- "Human Development Report 2020" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. December 15, 2020. Retrieved December 15, 2020.
- "Executive Order No. 34, s. 1945". Manila: Malacanang. Retrieved February 9, 2021.
- Lucas, Brian (August 2005). "Which side of the road do they drive on?". Retrieved February 22, 2009.
- Scott 1994, p. 6.
- Spate, Oskar H.K. (1979). "Chapter 4. Magellan's Successors: Loaysa to Urdaneta. Two failures: Grijalva and Villalobos". The Spanish Lake – The Pacific since Magellan, Volume I. Taylor & Francis. p. 97. ISBN 978-0-7099-0049-8. Archived from the original on August 5, 2008. Retrieved July 6, 2020.
- Friis, Herman Ralph, ed. (1967). The Pacific Basin: A History of Its Geographical Exploration. American Geographical Society. p. 369.
- Galang, Zoilo M., ed. (1957). Encyclopedia of the Philippines, Volume 15 (3rd ed.). E. Floro. p. 46.
- Tarling, Nicholas (1999). The Cambridge History of Southeast Asia – Volume One, Part Two – From c. 1500 to c. 1800. Cambridge University Press. p. 12. ISBN 978-0-521-66370-0.
- Constantino, R (1975). The Philippines: a Past Revisited. Quezon City: Tala Pub. Services.
- "The Jones Law of 1916". Official Gazette of the Philippines. August 29, 1916. Retrieved March 12, 2021., "The provisions of this Act and the name “The Philippines” as used in this Act shall apply to and include the Philippine Islands"
- Quezon, Manuel, III (March 28, 2005). "The Philippines are or is?". Manuel L. Quezon III: The Daily Dose. Retrieved July 6, 2020.
- "1973 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines". Official Gazette of the Philippines. January 17, 1973. Retrieved March 14, 2021.
- "The Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines". Official Gazette of the Philippines. February 11, 1987. Retrieved March 14, 2021.
- Ingicco, T.; van den Bergh, G.D.; Jago-on, C.; Bahain, J.-J.; Chacón, M.G.; Amano, N.; Forestier, H.; King, C.; Manalo, K.; Nomade, S.; Pereira, A.; Reyes, M.C.; Sémah, A.-M.; Shao, Q.; Voinchet, P.; Falguères, C.; Albers, P.C.H.; Lising, M.; Lyras, G.; Yurnaldi, D.; Rochette, P.; Bautista, A.; de Vos, J. (May 1, 2018). "Earliest known hominin activity in the Philippines by 709 thousand years ago". Nature. 557 (7704): 233–237. Bibcode: 2018Natur.557..233I. doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0072-8. PMID 29720661. S2CID 13742336.
- Greshko, Michael; Wei-Haas, Maya (April 10, 2019). "New species of ancient human discovered in the Philippines". National Geographic. Retrieved October 24, 2020.
- Rincon, Paul (April 10, 2019). "New human species found in Philippines". BBC News. Retrieved October 24, 2020.
- Détroit, Florent; Dizon, Eusebio; Falguères, Christophe; Hameau, Sébastien; Ronquillo, Wilfredo; Sémah, François (2004). "Upper Pleistocene Homo sapiens from the Tabon cave (Palawan, The Philippines): description and dating of new discoveries" (PDF). Human Palaeontology and Prehistory. 3 (2004): 705–712. doi: 10.1016/j.crpv.2004.06.004.
- Jett, Stephen C. (2017). Ancient Ocean Crossings: Reconsidering the Case for Contacts with the Pre-Columbian Americas. University of Alabama Press. pp. 168–171. ISBN 978-0-8173-1939-7.
- Chambers, Geoff (2013). "Genetics and the Origins of the Polynesians". eLS. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. doi: 10.1002/9780470015902.a0020808.pub2. ISBN 978-0-470-01617-6.
- Mijares, Armand Salvador B. (2006). "The Early Austronesian Migration To Luzon: Perspectives From The Peñablanca Cave Sites". Bulletin of the Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association (26): 72–78. Archived from the original on July 7, 2014.
- Lipson, Mark; Loh, Po-Ru; Patterson, Nick; Moorjani, Priya; Ko, Ying-Chin; Stoneking, Mark; Berger, Bonnie; Reich, David (2014). "Reconstructing Austronesian population history in Island Southeast Asia" (PDF). Nature Communications. 5 (1): 4689. Bibcode: 2014NatCo...5E4689L. doi: 10.1038/ncomms5689. PMC 4143916. PMID 25137359.
- Larena, Maximilian; Sanchez-Quinto, Federico; Sjödin, Per; McKenna, James; Ebeo, Carlo; Reyes, Rebecca; Casel, Ophelia; Huang, Jin-Yuan; Hagada, Kim Pullupul; Guilay, Dennis; Reyes, Jennelyn (March 30, 2021). "Multiple migrations to the Philippines during the last 50,000 years". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 118 (13): e2026132118. doi: 10.1073/pnas.2026132118. ISSN 0027-8424. PMC 8020671. PMID 33753512.
- Scott 1984, p. 17.
- Ness, Immanuel (2014), The Global Prehistory of Human Migration, John Wiley & Sons, p. 289, ISBN 978-1-118-97059-1
- Hsiao-Chun, Hung (December 11, 2007). "Ancient jades map 3,000 years of prehistoric exchange in Southeast Asia". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 104 (50): 19745–19750. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0707304104. PMC 2148369. PMID 18048347.
- Legarda, Benito Jr. (2001). "Cultural Landmarks and their Interactions with Economic Factors in the Second Millennium in the Philippines". Kinaadman (Wisdom) A Journal of the Southern Philippines. 23: 40.
- Postma, Antoon (1992). "The Laguna Copper-Plate Inscription: Text and Commentary". Philippine Studies. 40 (2): 182–203.
- Jocano, F. Landa (2001). Filipino Prehistory: Rediscovering Precolonial Heritage. Quezon City: Punlad Research House, Inc. ISBN 978-971-622-006-3.[ page needed]
- Junker, Laura Lee (1999). Raiding, Trading, and Feasting: The Political Economy of Philippine Chiefdoms. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. p. 3. ISBN 978-0-8248-2035-0. Retrieved July 29, 2020.
- Miksic, John N. (2009). Southeast Asian Ceramics: New Light on Old Pottery. Editions Didier Millet. ISBN 978-981-4260-13-8.[ page needed]
- Sals, Florent Joseph (2005). The history of Agoo : 1578–2005. La Union: Limbagan Printhouse. p. 80.
- Jocano, Felipe Jr. (August 7, 2012). Wiley, Mark (ed.). A Question of Origins. Arnis: Reflections on the History and Development of Filipino Martial Arts. Tuttle Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4629-0742-7.[ page needed]
- "Timeline of history". Archived from the original on November 23, 2009. Retrieved October 9, 2009.
- Glover, Ian; Bellwood, Peter; Bellwood, Peter S.; Glover, Dr (2004). Southeast Asia: From Prehistory to History. Psychology Press. p. 267. ISBN 978-0-415-29777-6. Retrieved August 10, 2020.
- Scott 1994, pp. 177–178.
- Osborne, Milton (2004). Southeast Asia: An Introductory History (Ninth ed.). Australia: Allen & Unwin. ISBN 978-1-74114-448-2.[ page needed]
- McAmis, Robert Day. (2002). Malay Muslims: The History and Challenge of Resurgent Islam in Southeast Asia. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. pp. 18–24, 53–61. ISBN 0-8028-4945-8. Retrieved January 7, 2010.
- Ring, Trudy; Robert M. Salkin & Sharon La Boda (1996). International Dictionary of Historic Places: Asia and Oceania. Taylor & Francis. pp. 565–569. ISBN 978-1-884964-04-6. Retrieved January 7, 2010.
- Historical Atlas of the Republic. The Presidential Communications Development and Strategic Planning Office. 2016. p. 64. ISBN 978-971-95551-6-2.
- Carley, Michael (November 4, 2013) .
"7". Urban Development and Civil Society: The Role of Communities in Sustainable Cities. Routledge. p. 108.
9781134200504. Retrieved September 11, 2020.
Each boat carried a large family group, and the master of the boat retained power as leader, or datu, of the village established by his family. This form of village social organization can be found as early as the 13th century in Panay, Bohol, Cebu, Samar and Leyte in the Visayas, and in Batangas, Pampanga and Tondo in Luzon. Evidence suggests a considerable degree of independence as small city-states with their heads known as datu, rajah or sultan.
- Tan, Samuel K. (2008). A History of the Philippines. UP Press. p. 37. ISBN 978-971-542-568-1. Retrieved August 10, 2020.
- Reyeg, Fernardo; Marsh, Ned (December 2011). "2" (PDF). The Filipino Way of War: Irregular Warfare Through The Centuries (Post Graduate). Naval Postgraduate School Monterey, California. p. 21. Retrieved February 15, 2021.
- Newson, Linda (2009) . "2".
Conquest and Pestilence in the Early Spanish Philippines. University of Hawaii Press. p. 18.
9780824832728. Retrieved September 11, 2020.
Given the significance of the size and distribution of the population to the spread of diseases and their ability to become endemic, it is worth commenting briefly on the physical and human geography of the Philippines. The hot and humid tropical climate would have generally favored the propagation of many diseases, especially water-borne infections, though there might be regional or seasonal variations in climate that might affect the incidence of some diseases. In general, however, the fact that the Philippines comprise some seven thousand islands, some of which are uninhabited even today, would have discouraged the spread of infections, as would the low population density.
- The Mediterranean Connection By William Henry Scott (Published in "Philippine Studies" ran by Ateneo de Manila University Press)
- Zaide, Gregorio F.; Sonia M. Zaide (2004). Philippine History and Government (6th ed.). All-Nations Publishing Company. pp. 52–55. ISBN 971-642-222-9.
- Education, United States. Office of (1961). Bulletin. U.S. Government Printing Office. p. 7.
- de Borja, Marciano R. (2005). Basques In The Philippines. University of Nevada Press. ISBN 9780874175905.
- Fernando A. Santiago Jr. (2006). "Isang Maikling Kasaysayan ng Pandacan, Maynila 1589–1898". Malay. 19 ( 2): 70–87. Retrieved July 18, 2008.
- Manuel L. Quezon III (June 12, 2017). "The Philippines Isn't What It Used to Be". SPOT.PH. Retrieved October 24, 2020.
- Andrade, Tonio (2005). "La Isla Hermosa: The Rise of the Spanish Colony in Northern Taiwan". How Taiwan Became Chinese: Dutch, Spanish and Han colonialization in the Seventeenth Century. Columbia University Press.
- Guillermo, Artemio (2012) .
Historical Dictionary of the Philippines. The Scarecrow Press Inc. p. 374.
9780810875111. Retrieved September 11, 2020.
To pursue their mission of conquest, the Spaniards dealt individually with each settlement or village and with each province or island until the entire Philippine archipelago was brought under imperial control. They saw to it that the people remained divided or compartmentalized and with the minimum of contact or communication. The Spaniards adopted the policy of divide et impera (divide and conquer).
- Llobet, Ruth de (June 23, 2015). "The Philippines. A mountain of difference: The Lumad in early colonial Mindanao By Oona Paredes Ithaca: Southeast Asia Program Publications, Cornell University, 2013. Pp. 195. Maps, Appendices, Notes, Bibliography, Index". Journal of Southeast Asian Studies. 46 (2): 332–334. doi: 10.1017/S0022463415000211 – via Cambridge University Press.
- Acabado, Stephen (March 1, 2017). "The Archaeology of Pericolonialism: Responses of the "Unconquered" to Spanish Conquest and Colonialism in Ifugao, Philippines". International Journal of Historical Archaeology. 21 (1): 1–26. doi: 10.1007/s10761-016-0342-9. S2CID 147472482 – via Springer Link.
- Abinales, P. N.; Amoroso, Donna J. (2005). State and Society in the Philippines. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 53, 68. ISBN 978-0-7425-1024-1. Retrieved January 12, 2021.
- Constantino, Renato; Constantino, Letizia R. (1975). A History of the Philippines. NYU Press. pp. 58–59. ISBN 978-0-85345-394-9. Retrieved January 12, 2021.
- Gutierrez, Pedro Luengo. "Dissolution of Manila-Mexico Architectural Connections between 1784 and 1810". Transpacific Exchanges: 62–63.
- Kane, Herb Kawainui (1996). "The Manila Galleons". In Bob Dye (ed.). Hawaiʻ Chronicles: Island History from the Pages of Honolulu Magazine. I. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. pp. 25–32. ISBN 978-0-8248-1829-6.
- Bolunia, Mary Jane Louise A. "Astilleros: the Spanish shipyards of Sorsogon" (PDF). Archaeology Division, National Museum of the Philippines. p. 1. Retrieved October 26, 2015.
- William J. McCarthy (December 1, 1995). "The Yards at Cavite: Shipbuilding in the Early Colonial Philippines". International Journal of Maritime History. 7 (2): 149–162. doi: 10.1177/084387149500700208. S2CID 163709949.
- Halili, Maria Christine N. (2004). Philippine History. Rex Bookstore. pp. 111–122. ISBN 978-971-23-3934-9.
- Ooi, Keat Gin (2004).
Southeast Asia: A Historical Encyclopedia, from Angkor Wat to East Timor. ABC-CLIO. p. 1077.
978-1-57607-770-2. Retrieved January 29, 2021.
Because local resources did not yield enough money to maintain the colonial administration, the government was constantly running a deficit and had to be supported with an annual subsidy from the Spanish government in Mexico, the situado.
- Iaccarino, Ubaldo (October 2017). ""The Centre of a Circle": Manila's Trade with East and Southeast Asia at the Turn of the Sixteenth Century" (PDF). Crossroads. OSTASIEN Verlag. 16. ISSN 2190-8796.[ failed verification]
Mehl, Eva Maria (2016). "Chapter 6 – Unruly Mexicans in Manila".
Forced Migration in the Spanish Pacific World From Mexico to the Philippines, 1765–1811. Cambridge University Press.
In Governor Anda y Salazar’s opinion, an important part of the problem of vagrancy was the fact that Mexicans and Spanish disbanded after finishing their military or prison terms "all over the islands, even the most distant, looking for subsistence.~CSIC riel 208 leg.14
- Garcıa de los Arcos, "Grupos etnicos," ´ 65–66 Garcia de los Arcos, Maria Fernanda (1999). "Grupos éthnicos y Clases sociales en las Filipinas de Finales del Siglo XVIII". Archipel. 57 (2): 55–71. doi: 10.3406/arch.1999.3515. Retrieved August 19, 2020.
Mehl, Eva Maria (2016).
"Chapter 1 – Intertwined Histories in the Pacific". Forced Migration in the Spanish Pacific World From Mexico to the Philippines, 1765–1811. Cambridge University Press. p. 246.
The military organization of Manila might have depended to some degree on non-European groups, but colonial authorities measured a successful imperial policy of defense on the amount of European and American recruits that could be accounted for in the military forces.~CSIC ser. Consultas riel 301 leg.8 (1794)
"Filipino-Mexican-Central-and-South American Connection, Tales of Two Sisters: Manila and Mexico". June 21, 1997. Retrieved January 1, 2021.
Tomás de Comyn, general manager of the Compañia Real de Filipinas, in 1810 estimated that out of a total population of 2,515,406, "the European Spaniards, and Spanish creoles and mestizos do not exceed 4,000 persons of both sexes and all ages, and the distinct castes or modifications known in America under the name of mulatto, quarteroons, etc., although found in the Philippine Islands, are generally confounded in the three classes of pure Indians, Chinese mestizos and Chinese." In other words, the Mexicans who had arrived in the previous century had so intermingled with the local population that distinctions of origin had been forgotten by the 19th century. The Mexicans who came with Legázpi and aboard succeeding vessels had blended with the local residents so well that their country of origin had been erased from memory.
- (Page 10) Pérez, Marilola (2015).
Cavite Chabacano Philippine Creole Spanish: Description and Typology (PDF) (PhD). University of California, Berkeley. Archived from
the original on January 14, 2021.
The galleon activities also attracted a great number of Mexican men that arrived from the Mexican Pacific coast as ships’ crewmembers (Grant 2009: 230). Mexicans were administrators, priests and soldiers (guachinangos or hombres de pueblo) (Bernal 1964: 188) many though, integrated into the peasant society, even becoming tulisanes ‘bandits’ who in the late 18th century “infested” Cavite and led peasant revolts (Medina 2002: 66). Meanwhile, in the Spanish garrisons, Spanish was used among administrators and priests. Nonetheless, there is not enough historical information on the social role of these men. In fact some of the few references point to a quick integration into the local society: “los hombres del pueblo, los soldados y marinos, anónimos, olvidados, absorbidos en su totalidad por la población Filipina.” (Bernal 1964: 188). In addition to the Manila-Acapulco galleon, a complex commercial maritime system circulated European and Asian commodities including slaves. During the 17th century, Portuguese vessels traded with the ports of Manila and Cavite, even after the prohibition of 1644 (Seijas 2008: 21). Crucially, the commercial activities included the smuggling and trade of slaves: “from the Moluccas, and Malacca, and India… with the monsoon winds” carrying “clove spice, cinnamon, and pepper and black slaves, and Kafir [slaves]” (Antonio de Morga cf Seijas 2008: 21).” Though there is no data on the numbers of slaves in Cavite, the numbers in Manila suggest a significant fraction of the population had been brought in as slaves by the Portuguese vessels. By 1621, slaves in Manila numbered 1,970 out of a population of 6,110. This influx of slaves continued until late in the 17th century; according to contemporary cargo records in 1690, 200 slaves departed from Malacca to Manila (Seijas 2008: 21). Different ethnicities were favored for different labor; Africans were brought to work on the agricultural production, and skilled slaves from India served as caulkers and carpenters.
- Tatiana Seijas (2014). "The Diversity and Reach of the Manila Slave Market". Asian Slaves in Colonial Mexico. p. 36. ISBN 978-1-107-06312-9.
- Dolan 1991, The Early Spanish Period.
- Newson, Linda A. (April 16, 2009). Conquest and Pestilence in the Early Spanish Philippines. University of Hawaii Press. pp. 7–8. ISBN 978-0-8248-6197-1. Retrieved January 29, 2021.
- Crossley, John Newsome (July 28, 2013). Hernando de los Ríos Coronel and the Spanish Philippines in the Golden Age. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. pp. 168–169. ISBN 9781409482420.
- Newson, Linda A. (April 16, 2009). Conquest and Pestilence in the Early Spanish Philippines. University of Hawaii Press. p. 8. ISBN 978-0-8248-6197-1.
- Cole, Jeffrey A. (1985). The Potosí mita, 1573–1700 : compulsory Indian labor in the Andes. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press. p. 20. ISBN 978-0-8047-1256-9.
- Hawkley, Ethan (2014).
"Reviving the Reconquista in Southeast Asia: Moros and the Making of the Philippines, 1565–1662". Journal of World History. University of Hawai'i Press. 25 (2–3): 288.
The early modern revival of the Reconquista in the Philippines had a profound effect on the islands, one that is still being felt today. As described above, the Spanish Reconquista served to unify Christians against a common Moro enemy, helping to bring together Castilian, Catalan, Galician, and Basque peoples into a single political unit: Spain. In precolonial times, the Philippine islands were a divided and unspecified part of the Malay archipelago, one inhabited by dozens of ethnolinguistic groups, residing in countless independent villages, strewn across thousands of islands. By the end of the seventeenth century, however, a dramatic change had happened in the archipelago. A multiethnic community had come together to form the colonial beginnings of a someday nation: the Philippines. The powerful influence of Christian-Moro antagonisms on the formation of the early Philippines remains evident more than four hundred years later, as the Philippine national government continues to grapple with Moro separatists groups, even in 2013.
- United States War Department (1903). Annual Report of the Secretary of War. U.S. Government Printing Office. pp. 379–398. Retrieved January 29, 2021.
- Warren, James Francis (2007). The Sulu Zone, 1768–1898: The Dynamics of External Trade, Slavery, and Ethnicity in the Transformation of a Southeast Asian Maritime State. NUS Press. p. 124. ISBN 978-9971-69-386-2. Retrieved August 10, 2020.
- Spain (1893). Colección de los tratados, convenios y documentos internacionales celebrados por nuestros gobiernos con los estados extranjeros desde el reinado de Doña Isabel II. hasta nuestros días. Acompañados de notas histórico-críticas sobre su negociación y cumplimiento y cotejados con los textos originales... (in Spanish). pp. 120–123.
- Hall, Daniel George Edward (1981). History of South East Asia. Macmillan International Higher Education. p. 757. ISBN 978-1-349-16521-6. Retrieved July 30, 2020.
- Bacareza, Hermógenes E. (2003). The German Connection: A Modern History. Hermogenes E. Bacareza. p. 10. ISBN 9789719309543. Retrieved July 30, 2020.
- Hedman, Eva-Lotta; Sidel, John (2005). Philippine Politics and Society in the Twentieth Century: Colonial Legacies, Post-Colonial Trajectories. Routledge. p. 71. ISBN 978-1-134-75421-2. Retrieved July 30, 2020.
- Steinberg, David Joel (2018). "Chapter – 3 A SINGULAR AND A PLURAL FOLK".
THE PHILIPPINES A Singular and a Plural Place. Routledge. p. 47.
The cultural identity of the mestizos was challenged as they became increasingly aware that they were true members of neither the indio nor the Chinese community. Increasingly powerful but adrift, they linked with the Spanish mestizos, who were also being challenged because after the Latin American revolutions broke the Spanish Empire, many of the settlers from the New World, Caucasian Creoles born in Mexico or Peru, became suspect in the eyes of the Iberian Spanish. The Spanish Empire had lost its universality.
- Schumacher, John N. (1997). The Propaganda Movement, 1880–1895. Ateneo University Press. pp. 8–9. ISBN 9789715502092.
- Schumacher, John N. (1998). Revolutionary Clergy: The Filipino Clergy and the Nationalist Movement, 1850–1903. Ateneo University Press. pp. 23–30. ISBN 9789715501217.
- Nuguid, Nati. (1972). "The Cavite Mutiny". in Mary R. Tagle. 12 Events that Have Influenced Philippine History. [Manila]: National Media Production Center. Retrieved December 20, 2009 from StuartXchange Website.
- Ocampo, Ambeth (1999). Rizal Without the Overcoat (Expanded ed.). Pasig: Anvil Publishing, Inc. ISBN 978-971-27-0920-3.[ page needed]
- Halili, M. c (2004). Philippine History. Rex Bookstore, Inc. p. 137. ISBN 978-971-23-3934-9. Retrieved July 29, 2020.
- Borromeo-Buehler, Soledad (1998). The Cry of Balintawak: A Contrived Controversy. Ateneo University Press. p. 7. ISBN 9789715502788.
- Duka, Cecilio D. (2008). Struggle for Freedom. Rex Bookstore, Inc. ISBN 9789712350450.
- Starr, J. Barton (September 1988). The United States Constitution: Its Birth, Growth, and Influence in Asia. Hong Kong University Press. p. 260. ISBN 978-962-209-201-3. Retrieved January 15, 2021.
- Draper, Andrew Sloan (1899). The Rescue of Cuba: An Episode in the Growth of Free Government. Silver, Burdett. pp. 170–172. Retrieved January 29, 2021.
- Fantina, Robert (2006). Desertion and the American Soldier, 1776–2006. Algora Publishing. p. 83. ISBN 978-0-87586-454-9. Retrieved January 29, 2021.
- Linn, Brian McAllister (2000). The Philippine War, 1899–1902. University Press of Kansas. pp. 75–76. ISBN 978-0-7006-1225-3.
- Tucker, Spencer (2009). The Encyclopedia of the Spanish-American and Philippine-American Wars: A Political, Social, and Military History. ABC-CLIO. p. 478. ISBN 9781851099511.
- Gates, John M. (November 2002). "The Pacification of the Philippines". The U.S. Army and Irregular Warfare. Archived from the original on August 5, 2010. Retrieved February 20, 2010.
- Kabigting Abad, Antonio (1955). General Macario L. Sakay: Was He a Bandit or a Patriot?. J. B. Feliciano and Sons Printers-Publishers.[ full citation needed]
- Kho, Madge. "The Bates Treaty". PhilippineUpdate.com. Retrieved December 2, 2007.
- Aguilar-Cariño, Ma. Luisa (1994). "The Igorot as Other: Four Discourses from the Colonial Period". Philippine Studies. 42 (2): 194–209. JSTOR 42633435 – via JSTOR.
- Armes, Roy. "Third World Film Making and the West", p.152. University of California Press, 1987. Retrieved on October 30, 2020.
- "The Role of José Nepomuceno in the Philippine Society: What language did his silent film speaks?". Stockholm University Publications. Retrieved on October 30, 2020.
- Lee Lai To; Zarina Othman (September 1, 2016). Regional Community Building in East Asia: Countries in Focus. Taylor & Francis. p. 145. ISBN 9781317265566.
- Ooi, Keat Gin (2004). Southeast Asia: A Historical Encyclopedia, from Angkor Wat to East Timor. ABC-CLIO. p. 1117. ISBN 9781576077702.
- Thompson, Roger M. (2003). Filipino English and Taglish: Language Switching from Multiple Perspectives. John Benjamins Publishing. pp. 27–29. ISBN 9789027248916.
- Gonzales, Cathrine (April 30, 2020). "Celebrating 83 years of women's suffrage in the Philippines". The Inquirer. Retrieved January 29, 2021.
- Kwiatkowski, Lynn (May 20, 2019). Struggling With Development: The Politics Of Hunger And Gender In The Philippines. Routledge. p. 41. ISBN 9780429965623.
- Manapat, Carlos, et al. Economics, Taxation, and Agrarian Reform. Quezon City: C&E Pub., 2010.Print.[ full citation needed]
- Chamberlain, Sharon W. (March 5, 2019). A Reckoning: Philippine Trials of Japanese War Criminals. University of Wisconsin Press. p. 11. ISBN 9780299318604.
- Karl L. Rankin (November 25, 1943). "FOREIGN RELATIONS OF THE UNITED STATES: DIPLOMATIC PAPERS, 1943, THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH, EASTERN EUROPE, THE FAR EAST, VOLUME III". Office of the Historian. Retrieved February 16, 2021.
- Abinales, Patricio N.; Amoroso, Donna J. (July 6, 2017). State and Society in the Philippines (Second ed.). Rowman & Littlefield. p. 160. ISBN 9781538103951.
- "The Guerrilla War". American Experience. PBS. Archived from the original on January 28, 2017. Retrieved February 24, 2011.
- Jubair, Salah. "The Japanese Invasion". Maranao.Com. Archived from the original on July 27, 2010. Retrieved February 23, 2011.
- Sandler, Stanley (2001). World War II in the Pacific: An Encyclopedia. Taylor & Francis. pp. 819–825. ISBN 9780815318835.
- Jones, Jeffrey Frank. Japanese War Crimes and Related Topics: A Guide to Records at the National Archives. United States: National Archives and Records Administration. pp. 1031–1037. Retrieved December 15, 2020.
- Li, Peter. Japanese War Crimes : The Search for Justice. Transaction Publishers. p. 250. ISBN 978-1-4128-2683-9.
- Rottman, Gordon L. (2002). World War II Pacific Island Guide: A Geo-military Study. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 318. ISBN 978-0-313-31395-0. Retrieved July 30, 2020.
- Zaide, Sonia M. (1994). The Philippines: A Unique Nation. All-Nations Publishing Co. p. 354. ISBN 978-971-642-071-5.
- "Founding Member States". United Nations. Archived from the original on November 21, 2009.
- Bühler, Konrad G. (February 8, 2001). State Succession and Membership in International Organizations: Legal Theories Versus Political Pragmatism. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. pp. 38–41. ISBN 9789041115539.
- Philippines (1946). Treaty of General Relations and Protocol with the Republic of the Philippines: Message from the President of the United States Transmitting the Treaty of General Relations and Protocol Between the United States of America and the Republic of the Philippines, Signed at Manila on July 4, 1946. U.S. Government Printing Office.
- Ooi, Keat Gin (2004). Southeast Asia: A Historical Encyclopedia, from Angkor Wat to East Timor. ABC-CLIO. p. 1152. ISBN 9781576077702.
- Molina, Antonio. The Philippines: Through the centuries. Manila: University of Santo Tomas Cooperative, 1961. Print.[ full citation needed]
- Jeff Goodwin, No Other Way Out, Cambridge University Press, 2001, p.119, ISBN 0-521-62948-9, ISBN 978-0-521-62948-5
- Abinales, P. N.; Amoroso, Donna J. (2005). State and Society in the Philippines. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 182. ISBN 978-0-7425-1024-1. Retrieved September 1, 2020.
- Macapagal, Diosdado. "Proclamation No. 28 Declaring June 12 as Philippine Independence Day". Philippine History Group of Los Angeles. Archived from the original on July 13, 1997. Retrieved November 11, 2009.
- Manuel S. Satorre Jr. "President Diosdado Macapagal set RP Independence Day on June 12". positivenewsmedia.net. Archived from the original on July 24, 2011. Retrieved December 10, 2008.
- "Developing Regional Minorities in Asia" (PDF). Sabri Zain. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 15, 2012. Retrieved January 15, 2016.
- Weatherbee, Donald E.; Ralf Emmers; Mari Pangestu; Leonard C. Sebastian (2005). International relations in Southeast Asia. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 68–69. ISBN 978-0-7425-2842-0.
- Timberman, David G. (1991). A Changeless Land: Continuity and Change in Philippine Politics. Institute of Southeast Asian. p. 58. ISBN 978-981-3035-86-7. Retrieved September 1, 2020.
- McGeown, Kate (January 25, 2013). "What happened to the Marcos fortune?". BBC News. Retrieved November 19, 2020.[ full citation needed]
- "Declaration of Martial Law". Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines. Archived from the original on July 8, 2017. Retrieved September 1, 2020.
- Problems of Communism (March–April 1975; Vol. XXIV ed.). Documentary Studies Section, International Information Administration. 1975. p. 59. Retrieved September 1, 2020.
- To Islands Far Away: the Story of the Thomasites and Their Journey to the Philippines. Manila: US Embassy. 2001.[ full citation needed]
- Chandler, David P. & David Joel Steinberg (1987). In Search of Southeast Asia: A Modern History (Revised 2nd ed.). University of Hawaii Press. pp. 431–442. ISBN 978-0-8248-1110-5.
- Atwood, J. Brian; Schuette, Keith E. A Path to Democratic Renewal (PDF) (Report). p. 350 – via National Democratic Institute for International Affairs and National Republican Institute for International Affairs.
- Kumar, Ravindra (2004), Mahatma Gandhi at the Close of Twentieth Century, Anmol Publications PVT. LTD., p. 168, ISBN 978-81-261-1736-9, retrieved December 2, 2007
- "The Original People Power Revolution". Quartet. p. 77. Retrieved February 28, 2008.
- Kingsbury, Damien (September 13, 2016). Politics in Contemporary Southeast Asia: Authority, Democracy and Political Change. Taylor & Francis. p. 132. ISBN 978-1-317-49628-1. Retrieved August 27, 2020.
- Timberman, David G. (1991). A Changeless Land: Continuity and Change in Philippine Politics. Institute of Southeast Asian. pp. xii, xiii. ISBN 978-981-3035-86-7. Retrieved August 27, 2020.
- Tan, Andrew T. H. (January 2009). A Handbook of Terrorism and Insurgency in Southeast Asia. Edward Elgar Publishing. p. 405. ISBN 978-1-84720-718-0. Retrieved September 2, 2020.
- "The Communist Insurgency in the Philippines: Tactics and Talks" (PDF). Refworld. Asia Report N°202. February 14, 2011. pp. 5–7. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 6, 2020. Retrieved September 2, 2020.
- Mydans, Seth (September 14, 1986). "Philippine Communists Are Spread Widely, but Not Thinly". The New York Times. Archived from the original on May 24, 2015. Retrieved September 2, 2020.
- Associated Press (December 21, 1987). "1,500 Are Feared Lost as Two Ships Collide and Sink Near Philippines". The New York Times. Retrieved December 13, 2008.
- Drogin, Bob (August 11, 1991).
"UNDER THE VOLCANO : As Mt. Pinatubo Continues to Spew Tons of Ash and Rock, Filipinos Wonder How Their Battered Country Will Ever Recover".
Los Angeles Times. Archived from
the original on August 27, 2020. Retrieved August 27, 2020.
President Corazon Aquino’s government is overwhelmed by broken bridges, buried homes and lost crops.
- Reilly, Benjamin (January 22, 2009). Disaster and Human History: Case Studies in Nature, Society and Catastrophe. McFarland. p. 62. ISBN 978-0-7864-3655-2. Retrieved August 27, 2020.
- Gargan, Edward A. (December 11, 1997). "Last Laugh for the Philippines; Onetime Joke Economy Avoids Much of Asia's Turmoil". The New York Times. Retrieved January 25, 2008.
- Pempel, T.J. (1999). The Politics of the Asian Economic Crisis. Cornell University Press. p. 163. ISBN 978-0-8014-8634-0.
- Sheng, Andrew (July 2009). "Financial Crisis and Global Governance: A Network Analysis" (PDF). Retrieved June 11, 2012.
- Yenilmez, Taylan & Saltoglu, Burak. "Analyzing Systemic Risk with Financial Networks During a Financial Crash" (PDF). fma.org. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 8, 2014. Retrieved March 8, 2014.
- Dirk J. Barreveld (2001). Philippine President Estada Impeached!: How the President of the World's 13th Most Populous Country Stumbles Over His Mistresses, a Chinese Conspiracy and the Garbage of His Capital. iUniverse. p. 476. ISBN 978-0-595-18437-8.
- Central Intelligence Agency (2009). The CIA World Factbook 2010. Skyhorse Publishing Inc. p. 541. ISBN 978-1-60239-727-9. Retrieved September 14, 2020.
- Dizon, David (August 4, 2010). "Corruption was Gloria's biggest mistake: survey". ABS-CBN News and Current Affairs. Retrieved April 15, 2012.
- Press, Associated (November 18, 2011).
"Philippines charges Gloria Arroyo with corruption".
The Guardian. Retrieved April 15, 2012.
Former president is formally accused of electoral fraud after government rushed to court as she tried to leave country
- Jimenez-Gutierrez, Jason (November 23, 2010). "Philippines mourns massacre victims". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on June 27, 2015. Retrieved November 23, 2010.
- Perez, Analyn (November 25, 2009). "The Ampatuan Massacre: a map and timeline". GMA News. GMANews.TV.
- Lum, Thomas; Dolven, Ben (April 23, 2014). "The Republic of the Philippines and U.S. Interests—2014" (PDF). Refworld. Congressional Research Service. pp. 1, 3. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 14, 2020. Retrieved September 14, 2020.
- Lucas, Dax (June 8, 2012). "Aquino attributes growth to good governance". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on June 10, 2012. Retrieved September 14, 2020.
- "At least 30 elite cops killed in clash with MILF". ABS-CBN News. Retrieved January 25, 2015.
- Arcon, Dennis (January 26, 2015). "PNP-SAF casualties in encounter now 50 – ARMM police chief". Interaksyon. Archived from the original on February 7, 2015. Retrieved January 26, 2015.
- "Duterte, Robredo win 2016 polls". ABS-CBN. May 27, 2016. Retrieved May 27, 2016.
- "Duterte sworn in as Philippines president". Reuters. June 30, 2016. Retrieved August 24, 2016.
- "Between Duterte and a death squad, a Philippine mayor fights drug-war violence". Reuters. March 16, 2017.
- "5,000 killed and 170,000 arrested in war on drugs: police". ABS-CBN News. March 29, 2019. Archived from the original on March 29, 2019. Retrieved April 16, 2019.
- Nicolas, Fiona (November 4, 2016). "Big projects underway in 'golden age' of infrastructure". CNN Philippines. Archived from the original on November 7, 2016. Retrieved September 13, 2020.
- Vera, Ben O. de (August 6, 2020). "Build, Build, Build's 'new normal': 13 projects added, 8 removed". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on August 17, 2020. Retrieved September 13, 2020.
- Unson, John (January 27, 2019). "Plebiscite in Mindanao: Will it be the last?". The Philippine Star. Retrieved January 27, 2019.
- Arguillas, Carolyn. "Bangsamoro law ratified; how soon can transition from ARMM to BARMM begin?". MindaNews. Retrieved January 26, 2019.
- "Philippines confirms first case of new coronavirus". ABS-CBN News. January 30, 2020. Retrieved January 30, 2020.
- "DOH recommends declaration of public health emergency after COVID-19 local transmission". GMA News. March 7, 2020. Retrieved March 7, 2020.
- Venzon, Cliff (January 28, 2021). "Philippines GDP shrinks 9.5% in 2020, worst since 1947". Nikkei Asia. Retrieved January 31, 2021.
- "Know before you go: the Philippines". National Geographic. June 4, 2019. Retrieved April 4, 2021.
- "More islands, more fun in PH". CNN Philippines. February 20, 2016. Archived from the original on June 20, 2018. Retrieved July 5, 2020.
- "Land Use and Land Classification of the Philippines" (PDF). Infomapper. 1 (2): 10. December 1991. ISSN 0117-1674.
- Boquet, Yves (April 19, 2017). The Philippine Archipelago. Springer. p. 15. ISBN 9783319519265.
- Llanto, Gilberto M.; Rosellon, Maureen Ane D. "Assessment of the Effectiveness and Efficiency of the Cadastral Survey Program of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR)" (PDF). Philippine Institute for Development Studies. Retrieved January 17, 2021.
- Central Intelligence Agency. (2009). "Field Listing : Coastline". Washington, DC. Archived July 16, 2017, at the Wayback Machine
- Exclusive Economic Zones – Sea Around Us Project – Fisheries, Ecosystems & Biodiversity – Data and Visualization.
- Philippine Sea, encarta.msn.com Archived October 31, 2009, at WebCite (archived from the original Archived August 20, 2009, at the Wayback Machine on August 20, 2009).
- " ". (2008). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved February 9, 2021 from Encyclopædia Britannica Online.
- "U.S. report details rich resources in South China Sea." (archived from the original on 2013-02-133)
- C.Michael Hogan. 2011. "Celebes Sea". Encyclopedia of Earth. Eds. P. Saundry & C.J. Cleveland. National Council for Science and the Environment. Washington, DC[ dead link]
- "An Awesome Island". Borneo: Island in the Clouds. PBS. Retrieved November 11, 2012.
- Rottman, Gordon L. (2002). World War II Pacific Island Guide: A Geo-military Study. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 266–268. ISBN 9780313313950.
- "Philippines talks with Palau and Indonesia over maritime borders". www.gmanetwork.com/news/news/content/108510/rp-talks-with-palau-indonesia-over-maritime-issues/story/. Retrieved January 9, 2021.
- Division, Library of Congress Federal Research (1993). Philippines: A Country Study. Federal Research Division, Library of Congress. p. xvi. ISBN 978-0-8444-0748-7. Retrieved July 27, 2020.
- Deschamps, A.; Lallemand, S. (2003). "Geodynamic setting of Izu-Bonin-Mariana boninites" (PDF). In Larter, R.D.; Leat, P.T. (eds.). Intra-Oceanic Subduction Systems: Tectonic and Magmatic Processes. Geological Society, London, Special Publications. 219. pp. 163–185.
- Bruun, Anton Frederick (1956). The Galathea Deep Sea Expedition, 1950–1952, described by members of the expedition. Macmillan, New York. pp. 32–35.
- "Deo Onda: Reaching new depths".
- College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños. "Climate-Responsive Integrated Master Plan for Cagayan River Basin; Volume I – Executive Summary" (PDF). River Basin Control Office. Department of Environment and Natural Resources. p. 5. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 30, 2020. Retrieved July 30, 2020.
- Jacinto, G.S., Azanza, R.V.,Velasquez,I.B. and Siringan, F.P.(2006)."Manila Bay:Environmental Challenges and Opportunities" in Wolanski, E.(ed.) The Environment in Asia Pacific Harbours. Springer: Dordrecht, Netherlands. p309-328.
- "Official Website of the Laguna Lake Development Authority". www.llda.gov.ph. Archived from the original on March 23, 2018. Retrieved August 18, 2007.
- Murphy, Denis; Anana, Ted (2004). "Pasig River Rehabilitation Program". Habitat International Coalition. Archived from the original on October 12, 2007.
- "Puerto-Princesa Subterranean River National Park". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Retrieved July 18, 2020.
- Holden, William; Nadeau, Kathleen; Porio, Emma (February 16, 2017). "The Philippines: Understanding the Economic and Ecological Crisis". Ecological Liberation Theology. Springer, Cham. pp. 5–9. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-50782-8_2. ISBN 978-3-319-50780-4. Retrieved August 17, 2020.
- "Submissions, through the Secretary-General of the United Nations, to the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf, pursuant to article 76, paragraph 8, of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea of 10 December 1982". United Nations Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf. May 28, 2009. Retrieved May 29, 2009.[ failed verification]
- La Putt, Juny P. [c. 2003]. The 1990 Baguio City Earthquake. Retrieved December 20, 2009 from The City of Baguio Website. Archived September 18, 2017, at the Wayback Machine[ failed verification]
- "Volcanoes of the Philippines". Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology. Archived from the original on August 6, 2017. Retrieved July 24, 2020.
- Newhall, Chris; James W. Hendley II & Peter H. Stauffer (February 28, 2005). "The Cataclysmic 1991 Eruption of Mount Pinatubo, Philippines (U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 113-97)". U.S. Department of the Interior. U.S. Geological Survey. Archived from the original on August 25, 2013. Retrieved April 9, 2007.
- Davies, Ed & Karen Lema (June 29, 2008). "Pricey oil makes geothermal projects more attractive for Indonesia and the Philippines". The New York Times. Retrieved December 18, 2009.
- Esplanada, Jerry E. (March 1, 2012). "Philippines sits on $840B of mine—US | Inquirer Business". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on March 2, 2012. Retrieved July 24, 2020.
- Bryner, Leonid (1969). "Ore Deposits of the Philippines Their Geology". Economic Geology. 64: 645–647. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.875.7878. doi: 10.2113/gsecongeo.64.6.644.
- Santos Jr., Gabriel (1974). "Mineral Distribution and Geological Features of the Philippines". Metallogenetic and Geochemical Provinces. 1: 89. doi: 10.1007/978-3-7091-4065-9_8. ISBN 978-3-211-81249-5.
- Greenlees, Donald (May 14, 2008). "Miners shun mineral wealth of the Philippines". The New York Times. Retrieved July 18, 2020.
- Cinco, Maricar (June 3, 2016). "Firm sees metal costlier than gold in Romblon sea". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on July 24, 2020. Retrieved July 24, 2020.
- Keith Schneider. "The Philippines, a nation rich in precious metals, encounters powerful opposition to mining". Mongabay. Retrieved July 18, 2020.
- Chanco, Boo (December 7, 1998). "The Philippines Environment: A Warning". The Philippine Star. Archived from the original on July 11, 2001. Retrieved February 15, 2010 from gbgm-umc.org.
- Williams, Jann; Cassia Read; Tony Norton; Steve Dovers; Mark Burgman; Wendy Proctor & Heather Anderson (2001). Biodiversity Theme Report: The Meaning, Significance and Implications of Biodiversity (continued). CSIRO on behalf of the Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage. ISBN 978-0-643-06749-3. Archived from the original on May 14, 2007. Retrieved November 6, 2009.
- Wikramanayake, Eric D.; Dinerstein, Eric; Loucks, Colby J. (2002). Terrestrial Ecoregions of the Indo-Pacific: A Conservation Assessment. Island Press. p. 480. ISBN 978-1-55963-923-1. Retrieved July 24, 2020.
- Ilagan, Karol (May 12, 2021). "7M hectares of Philippine land are forested — and that's bad news". PCIJ. Retrieved July 18, 2021.
- Peralta, Eleno O. (2005). " 21. Forests for poverty alleviation: the response of academic institutions in the Philippines". In Sim, Appanah, and Hooda (Eds.). Proceedings of the workshop on forests for poverty reduction: changing role for research, development and training institutions (RAP Publication). Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). Retrieved July 5, 2020.
- Rowthorn, Chris & Greg Bloom (2006). Philippines (9th ed.). Lonely Planet. p. 52. ISBN 978-1-74104-289-4.
- "Biological diversity in the Philippines". Eoearth.org. Retrieved May 4, 2013.
- Carpenter, Kent E. & Victor G. Springer (April 2005). "The center of the center of marine shore fish biodiversity: the Philippine Islands". Environmental Biology of Fishes. 74 (2): 467–480. doi: 10.1007/s10641-004-3154-4. S2CID 8280012.
- "Recovery plan for Philippine crocodiles". International Union for Conservation of Nature. August 10, 2009. Retrieved July 23, 2020.
- R. I. Y., Adan (2000).
"Crocodile farming: a multi-million dollar industry" (PDF). SEAFDEC Asian Aquaculture. Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center. XXII: ww. Retrieved July 23, 2020.
Two known crocodile species in the Philippines exists, the Crocodylus mindorensis (freshwater crocodile), also known as the Philippine crocodile, and Crocodylus porosus (saltwater crocodile).
- ""Lolong" holds world record as largest croc in the world". Protected Areas and Wildlife Bureau. November 17, 2011. Archived from the original on January 26, 2012. Retrieved June 23, 2012.
- Ortiz, Erik (February 10, 2013). "Tears for a croc: Lolong, the world's largest crocodile in captivity, dies in the Philippines". New York Daily News. Retrieved February 11, 2013.
- Ferguson-Lees, J.; Christie, D. (2001). Raptors of the World. London: Christopher Helm. pp. 717–19. ISBN 978-0-7136-8026-3.
- BirdLife International. (2004). "Pithecophaga jefferyi". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2004. Retrieved January 7, 2009.old-form url
- Statistics on Philippine Protected Areas and Wildlife Resources, Volume 1992. Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Protected Areas and Wildlife Bureau. 1992. p. 56. Retrieved July 23, 2020.
- "INTRODUCTION". Food and Agriculture Organization. Archived from the original on March 15, 2019. Retrieved July 24, 2020.
- Leman, Jennifer (February 11, 2019). "What Is the Coral Triangle?". LiveScience. Archived from the original on April 29, 2020. Retrieved July 24, 2020.
- Teves, Catherine (December 14, 2018).
"PH seeks more climate action for Coral Triangle". Philippine News Agency. Archived from
the original on December 14, 2018. Retrieved July 24, 2020.
The Coral Triangle refers to a roughly triangular area in the tropical marine waters of the Philippines, Indonesia, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands and Timor-Leste.
- Bos, A.R. & Smits, H.M. (2013). "First Record of the dottyback Manonichthys alleni (Teleostei: Perciformes: Pseudochromidae) from the Philippines". Marine Biodiversity Records. 6 (e61). doi: 10.1017/s1755267213000365. Archived from the original on October 16, 2013.
- Bos, Arthur R. & Gumanao, Girley S. (2013). "Seven new records of fishes (Teleostei: Perciformes) from coral reefs and pelagic habitats in Southern Mindanao, the Philippines". Marine Biodiversity Records. 6 (e95): 1–6. doi: 10.1017/s1755267213000614. Archived from the original on September 19, 2014.
- Bos, A.R.; Gumanao, G.S.; Salac, F.N. (2008). "A newly discovered predator of the crown-of-thorns starfish". Coral Reefs. 27 (3): 581. Bibcode: 2008CorRe..27..581B. doi: 10.1007/s00338-008-0364-9. S2CID 34920961. Archived from the original on July 3, 2015.
- Ocaña; J.C. den Hartog; A. Brito; A.R. Bos (2010). "On Pseudocorynactis species and another related genus from the Indo-Pacific (Anthozoa: Corallimorphidae)". Revista de la Academia Canaria de Ciencias. XXI (3–4): 9–34. Archived from the original on September 19, 2014.
- Bos, A.R. (2014). "Upeneus nigromarginatus, a new species of goatfish (Perciformes: Mullidae) from the Philippines". Raffles Bulletin of Zoology. 62: 745–753. Archived from the original on July 3, 2015.
- "Tubbataha Reefs Natural Park". UNESCO. Retrieved August 17, 2020.
- "National Aquaculture Sector Overview Philippines". FAO. Retrieved August 17, 2020.
- Elen, Shane (2001). "Spectral Reflectance and Fluorescence Characteristics of Natural-Color and Heat-Treated "Golden" South Sea Cultured Pearls" (PDF). Gems & Gemology. 37 (2): 114–123. doi: 10.5741/gems.37.2.114. Retrieved August 17, 2020.
- "Philippine Fast Facts, National Gem: Philippine Pearl". National Commission for Culture and the Arts. Archived from the original on August 20, 2010. Retrieved July 4, 2020.
- "Hub of Life: Species Diversity in the Philippines". Foundation for the Philippine Environment. February 18, 2014. Archived from the original on September 16, 2015. Retrieved July 5, 2020.
- Agoo, Esperanza Maribel G. (June 2007).
"Status of Orchid Taxonomy Research in the Philippines" (PDF). Philippine Journal of Systematic Biology. 1. Retrieved July 23, 2020.
There are over 137 genera and about 998 species of orchids so far recorded for the archipelago. This represents about 10% of the total flora of the Philippines. The Philippines ranks second to New Guinea in occurrence of endemic species in the Malesian region.
- Taguinod, Fioro. (November 20, 2008). "Rare flower species found only in northern Philippines". GMA News. Retrieved July 5, 2020.
- Kirby, Alex. (July 23, 2003). "SE Asia faces 'catastrophic' extinction rate". BBC News. Retrieved July 5, 2020.
"Climate of the Philippines". Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration. Archived from
the original on April 18, 2018. Retrieved July 24, 2020.
Based on the average of all weather stations in the Philippines, excluding Baguio, the mean annual temperature is 26.6o C. The coolest months fall in January with a mean temperature of 25.5oC while the warmest month occurs in May with a mean temperature of 28.3oC. Latitude is an insignificant factor in the variation of temperature while altitude shows greater contrast in temperature. Thus, the mean annual temperature of Baguio with an elevation of 1,500 meters is 18.3oC.
- Library of Congress – Federal Research Division. (March 2006). Country Profile: Philippines. Retrieved July 30, 2020. Archived February 14, 2015, at the Wayback Machine
- Chong, Kee-Chai; Ian R. Smith & Maura S. Lizarondo (1982). "III. The transformation sub-system: cultivation to market size in fishponds". Economics of the Philippine Milkfish Resource System. The United Nations University. ISBN 978-92-808-0346-4. Archived from the original on July 19, 2011. Retrieved July 4, 2020.
- Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA) (January 2009).
"Member Report to the ESCAP/WMO Typhoon Committee, 41st Session" (PDF): 4. Retrieved December 17, 2009. Cite journal requires
- Monthly Typhoon Tracking Charts. (2010). Retrieved April 24, 2010 from the National Institute of Informatics, Kitamoto Laboratory, Digital Typhoon Website.
- Henderson, Faye. "Tropical Cyclone Disasters in the Philippines A Listing of Major Typhoons by Month Through 1979" (PDF). Agency for International Development. p. 11. Retrieved July 25, 2020.
- Manual on Estimation of Probable Maximum Precipitation (PMP) (PDF). Geneva: World Meteorological Organization. 2009. p. 223. ISBN 978-92-63-11045-9.
- Overland, Indra et al. (2017) Impact of Climate Change on ASEAN International Affairs: Risk and Opportunity Multiplier, Norwegian Institute of International Affairs (NUPI) and Myanmar Institute of International and Strategic Studies (MISIS). p. V.
- Rose-Ackerman, Susan; Desierto, Diane A.; Volosin, Natalia (2011). "Hyper-Presidentialism: Separation of Powers without Checks and Balances in Argentina and Philippines". Berkeley Journal of International Law. 29: 246–333.
- Banlaoi, Rommel (October 13, 2009). Philippine Security in the Age of Terror: National, Regional, and Global Challenges in the Post-9/11 World. CRC Press. pp. 31–32. ISBN 9781439815519. Retrieved December 7, 2020.
- Teehankee, Julio C.; Thompson, Mark R. (October 2016). "The Vote in the Philippines: Electing A Strongman". Journal of Democracy. 27 (4): 124–134. doi: 10.1353/jod.2016.0068.
- Lazo, Ricardo S. (2009). Philippine Governance and the 1987 Constitution (2006 ed.). Rex Bookstore, Inc. ISBN 9789712345463.
- "Carter Center Limited Mission to the May 2010 Elections in the Philippines Final Report" (PDF). The Carter Center.
- "The Philippines' celebrity-obsessed elections". (April 26, 2007). The Economist. Retrieved July 25, 2020.
- David, Clarissa C.; San Pascual, Ma. Rosel S. (December 21, 2016). "Predicting vote choice for celebrity and political dynasty candidates in Philippine national elections". Philippine Political Science Journal. 37 (2): 82–93. doi: 10.1080/01154451.2016.1198076. S2CID 156251503.
- Pangalangan, Raul C., ed. (March 2001). "The Philippine Judicial System" (PDF). Asian Law Series. Institute of Developing Economies: 6, 39.
- "Metro Manila Official Website". Metro Manila Development Authority. Archived from the original on June 16, 2019. Retrieved December 17, 2015.
- He, Baogang; Galligan, Brian; Inoguchi, Takashi (January 2009). Federalism in Asia. Edward Elgar Publishing. p. 176. ISBN 978-1-84720-702-9. Retrieved September 4, 2020.
- Robles, Alan C. (July–August 2008). "Civil service reform: Whose service?". D+C Development and Cooperation. 49: 285–289. Archived from the original on December 2, 2008. Retrieved July 18, 2020.
- "The Philippines Corruption Report". ganintegrity.com. October 2017. Retrieved August 7, 2020.
- Eric V.C. Batalla (June 10, 2020). "Grand corruption scandals in the Philippines". Public Administration and Policy. 23 (1): 73–86. doi: 10.1108/PAP-11-2019-0036. ISSN 2517-679X.
- Quah, Jon S. T. (July 21, 2011). Curbing Corruption in Asian Countries: An Impossible Dream?. Emerald Group Publishing. pp. 115–117. ISBN 978-0-85724-820-6. Retrieved September 4, 2020.
- Bühler, Konrad G. (2001). State Succession and Membership in International Organizations: Legal Theories Versus Political Pragmatism. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. pp. 37–38. ISBN 978-90-411-1553-9. Retrieved July 26, 2020.
- Permanent Mission of the Republic of the Philippines to the United Nations. [c. 2008]. The Philippines and the UN Security Council. Retrieved July 6, 2020. (archived from the original on January 23, 2008)
- United States Congress (1950). Congressional Record: Proceedings and Debates of the ... Congress. U.S. Government Printing Office. p. A-841. Retrieved July 26, 2020.
- Lim, Gerard (October 24, 2015). "FAST FACTS: The Philippines' role in the United Nations". Rappler. Retrieved January 1, 2021.
- Guillermo, Artemio R. (2012). Historical Dictionary of the Philippines. Scarecrow Press. p. 167. ISBN 9780810872462.
- "In the know: Filipino peacekeepers". Philippine Daily Inquirer. August 30, 2014. Retrieved January 1, 2021.
- "Stock Estimate of Overseas Filipinos As of December 2009" (PDF). Philippine Overseas Employment Administration. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 26, 2011. Retrieved May 28, 2011.
- "Stock Estimate of Filipinos Overseas As of December 2013" (PDF). Philippine Overseas Employment Administration. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 7, 2017. Retrieved July 6, 2020.
- "ASEAN Primer" at the Wayback Machine (archived December 17, 2007). (1999). 3rd ASEAN Informal Summit. Archived from the original on December 17, 2007. Retrieved December 13, 2009.
- "ASEAN Summit". Association of Southeast Asian Nations. Archived from the original on July 26, 2020. Retrieved July 26, 2020.
- "Significance of the Philippines' Hosting of the 31st ASEAN Summit and Related Summits". Department of Foreign Affairs. November 13, 2017. Archived from the original on July 26, 2020. Retrieved July 26, 2020.
- "East Asia Summit (EAS)". Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Australian Government. Archived from the original on July 26, 2020. Retrieved July 26, 2020.
- "General Information". March 9, 2009. Archived from the original on March 9, 2009. Retrieved September 21, 2014.. (older version – as it existed in 2009 – during the presidency of Gloria Macapagal Arroyo), The Official Government Portal of the Republic of the Philippines Archived September 30, 2007, at the Wayback Machine.[ better source needed]
- "DFA: 'Technicalities' blocking RP bid for OIC observer status". (May 26, 2009). GMA News. Retrieved July 10, 2009.
- Balana, Cynthia (May 26, 2009). "RP nears observer status in OIC – DFA". The Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on April 4, 2015. Retrieved July 10, 2009.
- "Background Note: Philippines". U.S. Department of State. Bureau of East Asian and Pacific Affairs. October 2009. Retrieved July 6, 2020.
- "PH defends purchase of arms from China, Russia". manilatimes.net. The Manila Times Online. Archived from the original on August 5, 2019. Retrieved July 6, 2020.
- United States of America Congressional Record, Proceedings and Debates of the 113th Congress Second Session Volume 160 – Part 4. Government Printing Office. p. 4711. Retrieved July 26, 2020.
- Sanders, Vivienne (2015). Access to History: The Cold War in Asia 1945–93 for OCR Second Edition. Hodder Education. ISBN 978-1-4718-3880-4. Retrieved July 26, 2020.
- Garamone, Jim (May 19, 2003). "Philippines to Become Major non-NATO Ally, Bush Says". American Forces Press Service. Retrieved August 7, 2020.
- "Philippine President Duterte announces separation from U.S." USA TODAY. October 20, 2016. Retrieved July 6, 2020.
- "Philippines free to enter into arms purchase with Russia, Roque says". Philstar.com. July 19, 2018. Retrieved July 6, 2020.
- Gita, Ruth Abbey (February 13, 2018). "Duterte eyeing to buy helicopters from China, Russia". Sunstar. Retrieved July 6, 2020.
- "Duterte says Philippines no longer to participate in any U.S.-led wars". Xinhua. March 22, 2018. Retrieved July 6, 2020.
- Moriyasu, Ken (January 29, 2021). "US vows to defend Philippines, including in South China Sea". asia.nikkei.com. Retrieved February 2, 2021.
- "Senior Chinese legislator visits Philippines to boost ties". xinhuanet.com. Xinhua | English.news.cn.
- "Warship incident shows Sino-Philippine relations have come a long way: China Daily". The Straits Times. September 5, 2018.
- "China, ASEAN agree on framework for South China Sea code of conduct". Reuters. 2017.
- "China, Philippines confirm twice-yearly bilateral consultation mechanism on South China Sea". news.xinhuanet.com. Xinhua | English.news.cn.
- "Progress made on draft of South China Sea code of conduct". philstar.com.
- "Subscribe | theaustralian". theaustralian.com.au.
- Troilo, Peter (November 6, 2011). "Top 10 foreign aid donors to the Philippines". Devex. Retrieved July 30, 2020.
- Ma Karen Brutas (November 18, 2016). "Top development aid donors to the Philippines 2015". Devex. Retrieved July 30, 2020.
- Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan (c. 2009). "Japan's ODA Data by Country – Philippines" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on February 5, 2011. Retrieved June 2, 2010.
- Dolan, Ronald E. (Ed.). (1991). "Relations with Asian Neighbors". Philippines: A Country Study. Washington: GPO for the Library of Congress. Retrieved January 5, 2010 from Country Studies US Website.
- Santos, Matikas (September 15, 2014). "PH-Spain bilateral relations in a nutshell". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved July 7, 2020.
- "Filipino Among Royal Guards of King of Spain". ABS CBN News. Archived from the original on August 8, 2011. Retrieved July 2, 2009.
- Berlinger, Joshua; Sharma, Akanksha (January 7, 2020). "The Philippines is particularly vulnerable to any Middle Eastern conflict. Here's why". CNN. Retrieved August 7, 2020.
- Sevilla, Jr., Henelito A. (June 2011). "Middle East Security Issues and Implications for the Philippines". Indian Journal of Asian Affairs. 24 (1/2): 49–61. JSTOR 41950511.
- Leonard, John (July 3, 2008). "OFW rights violation worsens under the Arroyo administration". Filipino OFWs Qatar. Archived from the original on January 7, 2009. Retrieved January 25, 2009.
- Olea, Ronalyn (October 25, 2008). "Middle East is 'Most Distressing OFW Destination' – Migrant Group". Bulatlat News. Retrieved January 25, 2009.
- Tarrazona, Noel T. (October 17, 2018). "For skilled Filipinos, Middle East remains a career destination". Al Arabiya. Retrieved August 7, 2020.
- Lucio Blanco Pitlo III (May 27, 2020). "Philippines bolsters posture in South China Sea after navy ship docks at new Spratly Islands port". South China Morning Post. Retrieved August 7, 2020.
- Duncan DeAeth (February 12, 2019). "Taiwan criticizes Philippines in dispute over South China Sea feature". Taiwan News. Retrieved August 7, 2020.
- "China to soon build air, naval bases in Scarborough Shoal, Carpio warns". CNN Philippines. June 9, 2020. Retrieved August 7, 2020.
- Carpio, Antonio T. (July 23, 2020). "Scarborough Shoal – a redline". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved August 7, 2020.
- "AFP Organization". Archived from the original on April 19, 2008. Retrieved July 6, 2020.
- Casey-Maslen, Stuart (2014). The War Report: Armed Conflict in 2013. OUP Oxford. p. 180. ISBN 978-0-19-103764-1. Retrieved July 27, 2020.
- "Department of the Interior and Local Government Act of 1990". Lawphil.net. Retrieved January 30, 2014.
- "Republic Act No. 6975". The LAWPHiL Project. Retrieved July 5, 2020.
- "Guide to the Philippines conflict". (August 10, 2007). BBC News. Retrieved July 6, 2020.
- "Government urged to help kidnapped Australian". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. January 5, 2012. Retrieved July 6, 2020.
- Hayden Cooper, 2012, Australian Broadcasting Corporation, Government urged to help kidnapped Australian, Retrieved September 3, 2014, "...Warren Richard Rodwell from Australia being held captive by this group since December 5, 2011...please do whatever to raise the 2 million US dollars they are asking for my release ..." 
- Florante S. Solmerin, December 7, 2013, Manila Standard, Abu Sayyaf keeping 17 foreigners hostage, Retrieved July 6, 2020. Archived October 6, 2014, at the Wayback Machine, Retrieved September 3, 2014, "...17 foreigners, mostly birdwatchers, were being held hostage by the Abu Sayyaf Group..."
- Roel Pareño, The Philippine Star, March 24, 2013, Sayyaf releases Aussie hostage, Retrieved July 6, 2020, "...Australian Warren Rodwell emerged early yesterday withered after being held for 15 months by Abu Sayyaf bandits in southern Mindanao..."
- Sun Star, April 25, 2014, Abducted tourist, hotel staff now in Sulu, Retrieved September 3, 2014, "...Abu Sayyaf bandits have brought a Chinese tourist and a Filipino hotel receptionist to their jungle stronghold in southern Philippines after kidnapping the women from a dive resort in eastern Malaysia ..."
- World Bank. Conflict Prevention & Reconstruction Unit. (February 2005). The Mindanao Conflict in the Philippines: Roots, Costs, and Potential Peace Dividend by Salvatore Schiavo-Campo and Mary Judd. Washington, DC: World Bank. (Social Development Paper No. 24). Retrieved December 16, 2009.
- Nepomuceno, Priam (October 10, 2020). "PH Army keen to end terror threat with arrest of 3 terrorists". Philippine News Agency. Archived from the original on October 30, 2020. Retrieved December 4, 2020.
- Croissant, Aurel; Lorenz, Philip (2017). Comparative Politics of Southeast Asia: An Introduction to Governments and Political Regimes. Springer. p. 243. ISBN 978-3-319-68182-5. Retrieved July 27, 2020.
- White, Jonathan R. (2011). Terrorism and Homeland Security. Cengage Learning. p. 363. ISBN 978-0-495-91336-8. Retrieved July 27, 2020.
- "SIPRI Military Expenditure Database". Stockholm International Peace Research Institute 2016, Signalistgatan 9, SE-16972 Solna, Sweden. Retrieved July 7, 2020.
- "Military expenditure (% of GDP)". The World Bank. Retrieved July 7, 2020.
- de Villiers, Bertus (2015). "Special regional autonomy in a unitary system – preliminary observations on the case of the Bangsomoro homeland in the Philippines". Law and Politics in Africa, Asia and Latin America. 48 (2): 205–226. JSTOR 26160114.
- Buendia, Rizal G. (April 1989). "The Prospects of Federalism in the Philippines: A Challenge to Political Decentralization of the Unitary State". Philippine Journal of Public Administration. 33 (2): 121–141. Retrieved August 8, 2020.
- Tigno, Jorge V. (2017). "Beg Your Pardon? The Philippines is Already Federalized in All but Name" (PDF). Philippine Journal of Public Policy: Interdisciplinary Development Perspectives. 16 and 17: 1–14. Retrieved August 8, 2020.
- Atienza, Maria Ela L.; Arugay, Aries A.; Dee, Francis Joseph A.; Encinas-Franco, Jean; Go, Jan Robert R.; Panao, Rogelio Alicor L.; Jimenez, Alinia Jesam D. (2020). Atienza, Maria Ela L.; Cats-Baril, Amanda (eds.). Constitutional Performance Assessment of the 1987 Philippine Constitution (PDF). p. 37. ISBN 978-91-7671-299-3. Retrieved December 1, 2020.
- "Provincial Summary: Number of Provinces, Cities, Municipalities and Barangays, by Region as of September 30, 2016" (PDF). Philippine Statistics Authority. Archived from the original (PDF) on January 10, 2017. Retrieved January 5, 2017.
- Tusalem, Rollin F (April 9, 2019). "Imperial Manila: How institutions and political geography disadvantage Philippine provinces". Asian Journal of Comparative Politics. 5 (3): 8–9, 11–12. doi: 10.1177/2057891119841441. S2CID 159099808. Retrieved December 4, 2020.
- "Philippine Population Density (Based on the 2015 Census of Population)". September 1, 2016.
- "2015 Population Counts Summary" (XLSX). Philippine Statistics Authority. May 19, 2016. Retrieved June 10, 2017.
- N/A, N/A. "107 MILLION FILIPINOS BY END-2018". POPCOM. 107 MILLION FILIPINOS BY END-2018. Archived from the original on August 9, 2018. Retrieved January 4, 2018.
- CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion Population 1971–2008 ( pdf Archived January 6, 2012, at the Wayback Machine page 86); page 86 of the pdf, IEA (OECD/ World Bank) (original population ref OECD/ World Bank e.g. in IEA Key World Energy Statistics 2010 page 57) (archived from the original on October 12, 2009)
- Republic of the Philippines. National Statistical Coordination Board. Population of the Philippines Census Years 1799 to 2007 Archived July 4, 2012, at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved December 11, 2009.
- Philippine Statistics Authority (2008). "Official population count reveals". Archived from the original on September 10, 2012. Retrieved July 16, 2020.
- "2015 Census of Population" (PDF). Census Facts and Figures. Quezon City: Philippine Statistics Authority: 11. June 2018. ISSN 0117-1453. Retrieved July 25, 2020.
- "Bishops threaten civil disobedience over RH bill". GMA News. September 29, 2010. Archived from the original on February 21, 2011. Retrieved October 16, 2010.
- "Field Listing :: Life expectancy at birth". Washington, DC: Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved April 19, 2018.
- Republic of the Philippines. National Statistics Office. Poverty Incidence. Retrieved July 30, 2020. Archived October 28, 2016, at the Wayback Machine
- "Chapter 3: Overlay of Economic Growth, Demographic Trends, and Physical Characteristics" (PDF). Philippine Development Plan 2017–2022. National Economic and Development Authority: 35, 37–38. 2017. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 25, 2020. Retrieved August 1, 2020.
- Demographia. (June 2020). Demographia World Urban Areas (World Agglomerations) Population & Projections (Edition 16). Retrieved July 15, 2020. p. 23.
- "Urban Population in the Philippines (Results of the 2015 Census of Population)". Philippine Statistics Authority. March 21, 2019. Retrieved March 31, 2019.
- Republic of the Philippines. National Statistical Coordination Board. (July 2009). 2008 Gross Regional Domestic Product – Levels of GRDP Archived November 14, 2011, at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved April 4, 2010.
- Hawksworth, John; Thomas Hoehn & Anmol Tiwari. "Global City GDP Rankings 2008–2025". UK Economic Outlook November 2009. PricewaterhouseCoopers. p. 20. Archived from the original on May 31, 2013. Retrieved November 20, 2009.
- "2018 Philippine Statistical Yearbook" (PDF). Philippine Statistical Yearbook : Psy. Philippines Statistics Authority: 1–25. 2018. ISSN 0118-1564.
- " Philippines". (2009). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved December 18, 2009 from Encyclopædia Britannica Online.
- Lewis, M. Paul, Gary F. Simons, and Charles D. Fennig (eds.). (2015) Ethnologue: Languages of the World (18th ed.). Dallas, Tex.: SIL International. Retrieved April 13, 2015.
- Dolan, Ronald E. (Ed.). (1991). "Ethnicity, Regionalism, and Language". Philippines: A Country Study. Washington: GPO for the Library of Congress. Retrieved April 8, 2010 from Country Studies US Website.
- Flannery, Tim (2002). The Future Eaters: An Ecological History of the Australasian Lands and People. Grove Press. p. 147. ISBN 978-0-8021-3943-6. Retrieved July 26, 2020.
- Extinct humanoid species may have lived in PHL, gmanetwork.com, Published August 31, 2012 3:48pm
- David Reich, Nick Patterson, Martin Kircher, Frederick Delfin, Madhusudan R. Nandineni, Irina Pugach, Albert Min-Shan Ko, Ying-Chin Ko, Timothy A. Jinam, Maude E. Phipps, Naruya Saitou, Andreas Wollstein, Manfred Kayser, Svante Pääbo, Mark Stoneking (2011). "Denisova Admixture and the First Modern Human Dispersals into Southeast Asia and Oceania". The American Journal of Human Genetics. 89 (4): 516–528. doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2011.09.005. PMC 3188841. PMID 21944045.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter ( link)
- Capelli; Christian; James F. Wilson; Martin Richards; Michael P.H. Stumpf; Fiona Gratrix; Stephen Oppenheimer; Peter Underhill; Ko, Tsang-Ming (2001). "A Predominantly Indigenous Paternal Heritage for the Austronesian-Speaking Peoples of Insular South Asia and Oceania" (PDF). American Journal of Human Genetics. 68 (2): 432–443. doi: 10.1086/318205. PMC 1235276. PMID 11170891. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 11, 2011. Retrieved December 18, 2009.
- Soares, PA; Trejaut, JA; Rito, T; Cavadas, B; Hill, C; Eng, KK; Mormina, M; Brandão, A; Fraser, RM; Wang, TY; Loo, JH; Snell, C; Ko, TM; Amorim, A; Pala, M; Macaulay, V; Bulbeck, D; Wilson, JF; Gusmão, L; Pereira, L; Oppenheimer, S; Lin, M; Richards, MB (2016). "Resolving the ancestry of Austronesian-speaking populations". Hum Genet. 135 (3): 309–26. doi: 10.1007/s00439-015-1620-z. PMC 4757630. PMID 26781090. The final component (dark blue in Fig. 3b) has a high frequency in South China (Fig. 2b) and is also seen in Taiwan at ~25–30 %, in the Philippines at ~20–30 % (except in one location which is almost zero) and across Indonesia/Malaysia at 1–10 %, declining overall from Taiwan within Austronesian-speaking populations.
- "Self-identified East Asian nationalities correlated with genetic clustering, consistent with extensive endogamy. Individuals of mixed East Asian-European genetic ancestry were easily identified; we also observed a modest amount of European genetic ancestry in individuals self-identified as Filipinos". Genetics Online. Institute for Human Genetics, University of California San Francisco: 1. 2015.
- Go, Matthew C. (January 15, 2018).
"An Admixture Approach to Trihybrid Ancestry Variation in the Philippines with Implications for Forensic Anthropology". Human Biology. 232 (3): 178.
33947174. Retrieved September 11, 2020.
Filipinos appear considerably admixed with respect to the other Asian population samples, carrying on average less Asian ancestry (71%) than our Korean (99%), Japanese (96%), Thai (93%), and Vietnamese (84%) reference samples. We also revealed substructure in our Filipino sample, showing that the patterns of ancestry vary within the Philippines—that is, between the four differently sourced Filipino samples. Mean estimates of Asian (76%) and European (7%) ancestry are greatest for the cemetery sample of forensic signifĳicance from Manila.
- Mawson, Stephanie J. (June 15, 2016). "Convicts or Conquistadores? Spanish Soldiers in the Seventeenth-Century Pacific". Past & Present. Oxford Academic. 232: 87–125. doi: 10.1093/pastj/gtw008. Retrieved July 28, 2020.
- Wong, Kwok-Chu (1999). The Chinese in the Philippine Economy, 1898–1941. Ateneo University Press. pp. 15–16. ISBN 978-971-550-323-5. Retrieved July 25, 2020.
- " Chinese lunar new year might become national holiday in Philippines too". Xinhua News (August 23, 2009). (archived from the original on August 26, 2009)
- "The ethnic Chinese variable in domestic and foreign policies in Malaysia and Indonesia" (PDF). Retrieved July 16, 2020.
- Cooper, Matthew (November 15, 2013).
"Why the Philippines Is America's Forgotten Colony". National Journal. Retrieved January 28, 2015.
c. At the same time, person-to-person contacts are widespread: Some 600,000 Americans live in the Philippines and there are 3 million Filipino-Americans, many of whom are devoting themselves to typhoon relief.
"200,000–250,000 or More Military Filipino Amerasians Alive Today in Republic of the Philippines according to USA-RP Joint Research Paper Finding" (PDF). Amerasian Research Network, Ltd. (Press release). November 5, 2012. Retrieved July 11, 2016.
Kutschera, P.C.; Caputi, Marie A. (October 2012). "The Case for Categorization of Military Filipino Amerasians as Diaspora" (PDF). 9th International Conference On the Philippines, Michigan State University, E. Lansing, MI. Retrieved July 11, 2016.
- Delfin, Fredercik (June 12, 2013).
"Complete mtDNA genomes of Filipino ethnolinguistic groups: a melting pot of recent and ancient lineages in the Asia-Pacific regio". European Journal of Human Genetics. 22 (2): 228–237.
Indian influence and possibly haplogroups M52'58 and M52a were brought to the Philippines as early as the fifth century AD. However, Indian influence through these trade empires were indirect and mainly commercial; moreover, other Southeast Asian groups served as filters that diluted or enriched any Indian influence that reached the Philippines
- Rawashdeh, Saeb (October 11, 2016).
"Arab world's ancient links to Philippines forged through trade, migration and Islam — ambassador". The Jordan Times. Retrieved September 11, 2020.
In the case of the Philippines, the ancient Hadrami migration found its way from Islamised areas in the south towards Sulu, the southwestern archipelagic region of the Philippines,” she said, adding that the Hadramis settled in Cotabato, Maguindao, Zamboanga, Davao and Bukidnon. An estimated 2 per cent of Filipinos can claim Arab ancestry, the ambassador noted..
- Terpstra, Nicholas (2019). Global Reformations: Transforming Early Modern Religions, Societies, and Cultures. Routledge. p. 64. ISBN 978-0-429-67825-7. Retrieved July 25, 2020.
- McFerson, Hazel M. (2002). Mixed Blessing: The Impact of the American Colonial Experience on Politics and Society in the Philippines. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 23. ISBN 978-0-313-30791-1. Retrieved July 25, 2020.
- Philippine Statistics Authority 2014, pp. 29–34.
- Dyen, Isidore (1965). "A Lexicostatistical Classification of the Austronesian Languages". International Journal of American Linguistics, Memoir. 19: 38–46.
- Spanish creole: Quilis, Antonio (1996), La lengua española en Filipinas (PDF), Cervantes virtual, pp. 54, 55
- Reid, Lawrence A. 1994. " Possible Non-Austronesian Lexical Elements in Philippine Negrito Languages." In Oceanic Linguistics, Vol. 33, No. 1 (Jun. 1994), pp. 37–72.
- Joselito Guianan Chan; Managing Partner. "1987 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines, Article XIV, Section 7". Chan Robles & Associates Law Firm. Retrieved May 4, 2013.
- Takacs, Sarolta (2015). The Modern World: Civilizations of Africa, Civilizations of Europe, Civilizations of the Americas, Civilizations of the Middle East and Southwest Asia, Civilizations of Asia and the Pacific. Routledge. p. 659. ISBN 978-1-317-45572-1.
- Brown, Michael Edward; Ganguly, Sumit (2003). Fighting Words: Language Policy and Ethnic Relations in Asia. MIT Press. pp. 323–325. ISBN 978-0-262-52333-2. Retrieved August 4, 2020.
- Stewart, Miranda (2012). The Spanish Language Today. Routledge. p. 9. ISBN 978-1-134-76548-5. Retrieved July 26, 2020.
- "Spanish language in Philippines". Archived from the original on January 28, 2008. Retrieved July 16, 2020.
- Rodríguez-Ponga, Rafael. "New Prospects for the Spanish Language in the Philippines". Retrieved March 1, 2015.
- Fernandez, Edwin (August 3, 2019). "BME eyes to boost Islamic studies in BARMM". Philippine News Agency. Archived from the original on July 26, 2020. Retrieved July 26, 2020.
- "Philippines". Ethnologue.com. Retrieved May 4, 2013.
- "The Filipino Sign Language Act". Article 3, Republic act No. 11106 of October 30, 2018 (PDF). Official Gazette. Government of the Philippines.
- Kabiling, Genalyn (November 12, 2018). "Filipino Sign Language declared as nat'l sign language of Filipino deaf". Manila Bulletin. Retrieved November 12, 2018.
- "2013 International Religious Freedom Report". United States Department of State, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor. July 28, 2014. Retrieved July 15, 2020.
- "International Religious Freedom Report for 2014". United States Department of State, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor. 2014. Retrieved July 15, 2020.
- Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project: Philippines. Pew Research Center. 2010.
- "The Global Catholic Population". Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project. February 13, 2013.
- Philippine Statistics Authority (June 2017). "TABLE 8 Total Population by Religious Affiliation and Sex: 2015". 2015 Census of Population, Report No. 2 – Demographic and Socioeconomic Characteristics Philippines (PDF). Census Facts and Figures. p. 63. ISSN 0117-1453. Retrieved August 6, 2020.
- Uy, Jocelyn R. (August 11, 2013). "Filipino Catholic population expanding, say Church officials". Inquirer.net. Retrieved July 14, 2020.
- "Table: Christian Population as Percentages of Total Population by Country". Pew Research. December 19, 2011.
- "Philippine Church National Summary". philchal.org. Archived from the original on October 10, 2017. Retrieved October 10, 2017.
- RP closer to becoming observer-state in Organization of Islamic Conference Archived June 3, 2016, at the Wayback Machine. (May 29, 2009). The Philippine Star. Retrieved 2009-07-10, "Eight million Muslim Filipinos, representing 10 percent of the total Philippine population, ...".
- Selim, Ali Shehata Abdou (February 27, 2015). The Concept of Coexistence in Islamic Primary Sources: An Analytical Examination. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. p. 155. ISBN 978-1-4438-7587-5. Retrieved September 4, 2020.
- Na'im, 'Abd Allah Ahmad; An-Na'im, Abdullahi A.; Naʾīm, ʿAbdallāh Aḥmad an- (October 11, 2002). Islamic Family Law in A Changing World: A Global Resource Book. Zed Books. p. 5. ISBN 978-1-84277-093-1. Retrieved September 4, 2020.
- Bullivant, Stephen; Ruse, Michael (November 21, 2013). The Oxford Handbook of Atheism. OUP Oxford. p. 563. ISBN 978-0-19-166739-8. Retrieved September 2, 2020.
- "End of Year Survey 2014: Regional & Country Results : Philippines" (PDF). Table 10. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 9, 2017. Retrieved July 16, 2020.
- Rodell, Paul A. (2002). Culture and Customs of the Philippines. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 29–30. ISBN 978-0-313-30415-6. Retrieved July 25, 2020.
- Min, Pyong Gap; Kim, Jung Ha (2001). Religions in Asian America: Building Faith Communities. AltaMira Press. p. 144. ISBN 978-1-4616-4762-1. Retrieved July 25, 2020.
- Yu, Jose Vidamor B. (2000). Inculturation of Filipino-Chinese Culture Mentality. Gregorian Biblical BookShop. pp. 87–88. ISBN 978-88-7652-848-4. Retrieved July 25, 2020.
- Department of Health 2018, Chapter 2 (pages 25-27).
- Department of Health 2018, Chapter 2 (page 23).
- Gascon, Melvin (September 23, 2019). "Funds for health cut by P10 billion". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on September 23, 2019. Retrieved September 13, 2020.
- "DOH budget increase for 2014 'biggest ever' due to sin tax law". Action for Economic Reforms. January 15, 2014. Retrieved September 21, 2014.
- Department of Health 2018, Chapter 3 (page 60).
- World Health Statistics 2009 (PDF). Geneva: World Health Organization. 2009. pp. 100–101, 112–113. ISBN 978-92-4-156381-9. Retrieved July 13, 2020.
- Fely Marilyn E; Lorenzo, Jaime; Galvez-Tan, Kriselle Icamina; Javie, Lara (2007). "Nurse Migration from a Source Country Perspective: Philippine Country Case Study". Health Services Research. 42 (3 (pt 2)): 1406–1418. doi: 10.1111/j.1475-6773.2007.00716.x. PMC 1955369. PMID 17489922.
- World Health Organization. (April 2006). Philippines. Country Cooperation Strategy at a Glance. Retrieved December 23, 2009. Archived October 16, 2016, at the Wayback Machine
- "List of Licensed Government and Private Hospitals" (PDF). Department of Health. Manila: Health Facilities and Services Regulatory Bureau. December 31, 2018. pp. 80–83. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 1, 2020. Retrieved August 1, 2020.
- Department of Health 2018, Chapter 3 (page 58).
- "Philippines" (PDF). World Health Organization – Noncommunicable Diseases (NCD) Country Profiles. 2018. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 26, 2020. Retrieved July 26, 2020.
- "Registered Deaths in the Philippines, 2017". Philippine Statistics Authority. June 10, 2019. Archived from the original on July 22, 2020. Retrieved July 26, 2020.
- Department of Health 2018, Table 3.2 (page 47).
- Mydans, Seth (April 20, 2003). "Low Rate Of AIDS Virus In Philippines Is a Puzzle". The New York Times. Retrieved September 21, 2014.
- United States Agency for International Development. (May 2008). USAID Country Health Statistical Report – Philippines. Retrieved July 13, 2020.
- Department of Health 2018, Table 3 (page 58).
- "UHC Act in the Philippines: a new dawn for health care". World Health Organization. March 14, 2019. Archived from the original on March 29, 2019. Retrieved July 25, 2020.
- Cai Ordinario (October 26, 2018). "Out-of-pocket health expense of Pinoys rose in 2017–PSA". Business Mirror. Retrieved April 4, 2020.
- Ben O. de Vera (April 3, 2020). "Health maintenance firms assure COVID-19 coverage for 7M PH clients". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved July 13, 2020.
- "National QuickStat – June 2020 (Phase 2)". Philippine Statistics Authority. Archived from the original (XLSX) on August 13, 2020. Retrieved August 13, 2020.
- Ismael, Javier Joe (December 26, 2019). "Education has biggest slice of 2020 budget pie". The Manila Times. Retrieved July 11, 2020.
- Republic of the Philippines. Commission on Higher Education. (August 2010). "Information on Higher Education System". Archived from the original on July 4, 2011. Retrieved October 3, 2011.CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown ( link). Official Website of the Commission on Higher Education. Retrieved April 17, 2011.
- "Academic Calendar and Philippine Higher Education" (PDF). Official Website of the Commission on Higher Education. Retrieved February 9, 2021.
- Republic of the Philippines. (Approved: August 11, 2001). Republic Act No. 9155 – Governance of Basic Education Act of 2001. Retrieved December 11, 2009 from the Chan Robles Virtual Law Library.
- San Pedro, Dexter (May 15, 2013). "Aquino signs K–12 enhanced basic education law". InterAksyon.com. Archived from the original on June 14, 2013. Retrieved September 23, 2014.
- "K to 12 Basic Education Program Frequently Asked Questions" (PDF). Department of Education. November 25, 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 11, 2012. Retrieved April 28, 2012.
- "Department of Education" (PDF). Department of Budget and Management. Archived from the original on July 26, 2020. Retrieved July 26, 2020.
- "Technical Education and Skills Development Act of 1994". Chan Robles Virtual Law Library. August 23, 1994. Archived from the original on January 5, 2020. Retrieved July 25, 2020.
"Develop your skills with TESDA". Manila Standard. Retrieved July 25, 2020.
TESDA is not only limited to offering trainings that will develop vocational and technical skills of the enrollees. It is also mandated to promote middle-level manpower.
- "Republic Act No. 7722 : Higher Education Act of 1994" (PDF). officialgazette.gov.ph. 1994. Retrieved July 13, 2020.
- Jerry E. Esplanada (July 20, 2009). "Mainstreaming Madrasa". The Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on July 24, 2014. Retrieved September 23, 2014.
- Republic of the Philippines. (Approved: April 29, 2008). Republic Act 9500 – An Act to Strengthen the University of the Philippines as the National University. Chan Robles Law Library.
- Krishna, V. V. (2017). Universities in the National Innovation Systems: Experiences from the Asia-Pacific. Taylor & Francis. p. 328. ISBN 978-1-351-61900-4.
- "QS Asia University Rankings 2020". QS World University Rankings. 2020.
- "World University Rankings 2020". Times Higher Education World University Rankings. 2020.
- Lim-Pe, Josefina (1973). The University of Santo Tomas in the Twentieth Century. Manila: University of Santo Tomas Press. pp. 1–19.
- "History of UST". UST.edu.ph. Retrieved December 21, 2008.
- "Philippines country factsheet" (PDF). www.dfat.gov.au.
- "Executive orders and proclamations issued by the governor-general. ". UM Library Digital Collections. University of Michigan. 1903. p. 89. Archived from the original on August 17, 2020. Retrieved August 17, 2020.
- "List one: Currency, fund and precious metal codes". ISO 4217 Maintenance Agency. August 29, 2018. Archived from the original (XLS) on May 11, 2020. Retrieved August 17, 2020.
- Department, International Monetary Fund Monetary and Capital Markets (September 17, 1999). Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions 1999. International Monetary Fund. p. 683. ISBN 978-1-4552-7783-4. Retrieved September 1, 2020.
- "The N-11: More Than an Acronym" (PDF). The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc. March 28, 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 10, 2011.[ failed verification]
"Federal Register". 78 (51). Office of the Federal Register, National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration. March 2013: 16468. Cite journal requires
- "Population and Labor Force" (PDF). Agricultural Indicators System (AIS). Philippine Statistics Authority: 7, 9–10. November 2019. ISSN 2012-0435. Retrieved July 27, 2020.
- "Gross Domestic Product of the Philippines Highlights for 2018". Philippine Statistics Authority. April 25, 2019. Archived from the original on June 22, 2020. Retrieved July 27, 2020.
- "Employment by Sector". Industry.gov.ph. Department of Trade and Industry and Board of Investments. Archived from the original on July 27, 2020. Retrieved July 27, 2020.
- "Employment Rate in October 2019". Philippine Statistics Authority. December 5, 2019. Archived from the original on December 5, 2019. Retrieved September 4, 2020.
- "Summary Inflation Report Consumer Price Index (2012=100): August 2019". Philippine Statistics Authority. September 5, 2019. Archived from the original on September 10, 2019. Retrieved September 4, 2020.
- Denis Somoso. (September 30, 2013). "$83.201 Billion – Philippines GIR now Rank 26th World's highest International Reserves" Archived October 13, 2013, at the Wayback Machine. Philippines, ASIA and the Global Economy Site. Retrieved September 30, 2013.
- Padin, Mary Grace (December 28, 2019). "Debt-to-GDP ratio declines to 37.6%". The Philippine Star. Archived from the original on January 5, 2020. Retrieved September 4, 2020.
- "General Government Debt decreased to 37.6 percent of GDP as of June 2019". Department of Finance. December 27, 2019. Archived from the original on September 4, 2020. Retrieved September 4, 2020.
- Mendoza, Ronald U. (June 25, 2012). "Debt free?". Rappler. Retrieved December 14, 2014.
- Philippine Statistics Authority (October 2009). "Quickstat" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on July 11, 2012. Retrieved December 11, 2009.
- "From butt of jokes in 1986, Philippines has risen to creditor nation, says ex-finance chief". Newsinfo.inquirer.net. February 28, 2012. Retrieved March 3, 2014.
- "Departments and Offices". Asian Development Bank. Retrieved November 26, 2015.
- "Employment in agriculture (% of total employment)". World Bank Open Data. The World Bank Group. Retrieved January 2, 2021.
- "Philippines". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved April 20, 2012.
- Felix, Rocel. (January 25, 2008). 2007 GDP seen growing at fastest rate in 30 years. The Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved May 29, 2010. (archived from the original on February 22, 2015)
- Table G: Human development and index trends, Table I: Human and income poverty. United Nations Development Programme. 2009. ISBN 978-0-230-23904-3.
- Reddel, Paul (May 27, 2009). Infrastructure & Public-Private Partnerships in East Asia and the Philippines [PowerPoint slides]. Presentation in Manila to the American Foreign Chambers of Commerce of the Philippines. Retrieved February 13, 2010 from the Public-Private Infrastructure Advisory Facility (PPIAF) Website.
- "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". Imf.org. September 14, 2006. Retrieved October 23, 2011.
- "OFW remittances to increase by 8.5% in 2014—Standard Chartered". Philippine Daily Inquirer. January 13, 2014. Retrieved July 19, 2020.
- Sherani, Sakib. "Pakistan's remittances". dawn.com. Retrieved July 19, 2020.
- "Why PH improves in competitiveness ranking". Rappler. August 22, 2013. Retrieved July 19, 2020.
- "Poverty and regional development imbalance". Philippine Daily Inquirer. March 5, 2014. Retrieved July 19, 2020.
- OECD Tourism Trends and Policies 2018. Paris: OECD Publishing. 2018. pp. 355–357. ISBN 978-92-64-28739-6. Retrieved September 1, 2020.
- Llorito, David (May 10, 2006). "Help wanted for Philippines outsourcing". Asia Times. Archived from the original on December 12, 2009. Retrieved December 11, 2009.CS1 maint: unfit URL ( link)
- Cabuay, Chris; Serrano, Denise (2012).
"IT-BPO INDUSTRY PROFILE, PROSPECTS, CHALLENGES AND ISSUES FOR GROWTH AND EMPLOYMENT".
43261587. Retrieved July 19, 2020. Cite journal requires
- "Phl overtakes India as world's BPO leader". The Philippine Star. December 2, 2010. Archived from the original on September 1, 2020. Retrieved September 1, 2020.
- "Results of the 2010 Survey of Information Technology-Business Process Outsourcing (IT-BPO) Services" (PDF). Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 27, 2014. Retrieved September 1, 2020.
- Stevens, Andrew J. R. (March 26, 2014). Call Centers and the Global Division of Labor: A Political Economy of Post-Industrial Employment and Union Organizing. Routledge. p. 1. ISBN 978-1-135-11868-6. Retrieved September 1, 2020.
- "About DOST; The DOST in Brief". Department of Science and Technology. Archived from the original on May 22, 2013. Retrieved July 6, 2020.
- "About IRRI". IRRI. Retrieved July 6, 2020.
- Chandler, Robert Flint (1992). "An adventure in applied science: A history of the International Rice Research Institute". ISBN 9789711040635. Retrieved October 5, 2014.
- "Mabuhay acquires Indon satellite;sets new orbit". Manila Standard. July 25, 1996. Retrieved July 6, 2020.
- Ronda, Rainier (March 24, 2016). "US aircraft with Philippines's first microsatellite launched into space". Philstar. Retrieved March 24, 2016.
- "Asia's Fab 50 Companies: PLDT-Philippine Long Distance Telephone". Forbes. September 3, 2008. Retrieved 2009-13-14.
- Francisco, Rosemarie. (March 4, 2008). Filipinos sent 1 billion text messages daily in 2007. The Philippine Daily Inquirer. Reuters. Retrieved July 6, 2020.
- Teves, Oliver. (October 29, 2007). Cell phones double as electronic wallets in Philippines. USA Today. Associated Press. Retrieved July 6, 2020.
- Special Report: The Global 2000. (April 2, 2008). Forbes. p.10. Retrieved July 6, 2020.
- "National Telecommunications Commission" (PDF). Department of Budget and Management. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 27, 2020. Retrieved July 27, 2020.
- "2016 Annual Report" (PDF). National Telecommunications Commission. p. 20. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 27, 2020. Retrieved July 27, 2020.
- Guerrero, Alora Uy (March 20, 2014). "#20PHnet: A timeline of Philippine Internet". Yahoo. Retrieved July 6, 2020.
- "Internet Service provider – Internet Service". Republic of the Philippines. National Telecommunications Commission. c. 2010. Archived from the original on January 25, 2009. Retrieved January 16, 2010.
- Internet World Stats. (2009). Philippines: Internet Usage Stats and Marketing Report Archived July 27, 2011, at the Wayback Machine. Miniwatts Marketing Group. Retrieved January 22, 2009.
- Liao, Jerry (May 9, 2008). "The Philippines – Social Networking Capital of the World". Cnet Asia. Archived from the original on May 16, 2008. Retrieved November 8, 2009.
- Kate Lamb, "Philippines tops world internet usage index with an average 10 hours a day"," The Guardian", February 1, 2019
- "Tourism: Next engine of growth". Manila Bulletin. Archived from the original on August 31, 2016. Retrieved July 30, 2020.
- "Travel and tourism to contribute P490B or 3.8% to 2014 PHL output, says council". GMA News and Current Affairs. March 19, 2014. Retrieved July 6, 2020.
- "Visitor Arrivals; January – December 2019" (PDF). Department of Tourism. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 2, 2020. Retrieved August 13, 2020.
- "Boracay 2012 World's Best Island". Manila Bulletin. July 11, 2012. Archived from the original on July 15, 2012. Retrieved July 6, 2020.
- Frost, Charles (May 31, 2015). "Best Place to Retire". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved July 6, 2020.
- "Department of Public Works and Highways; Strategic Infrastructure Programs and Policies" (PDF). Investor Relations Office. Department of Public Works and Highways. February 22, 2019. p. 2. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 27, 2020. Retrieved September 2, 2020.
- Strong Republic Nautical Highway Archived October 10, 2017, at the Wayback Machine. (n.d.). Official Website of President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo. Retrieved January 22, 2009.
- The Report: Philippines 2015. Oxford Business Group. 2015. p. 152. ISBN 978-1-910068-26-7. Retrieved September 2, 2020.
- Philippines: Transport Sector Assessment, Strategy, and Road Map (PDF). Mandaluyong, Philippines: Asian Development Bank. 2012. pp. 1–2. ISBN 978-92-9092-855-3. Retrieved August 9, 2020.
- Gatpolintan, Leslie (October 20, 2019).
"Cebu-Cordova bridge project to employ 3K more workers". Philippine News Agency. Archived from
the original on July 8, 2020. Retrieved August 1, 2020.
At 8.25 kilometers, the infrastructure will be the longest bridge connecting two islands in the country. The main bridge will have a span of 390 meters and a navigational clearance of 51 meters to allow large vessels to pass underneath.
- "The Study of Master Plan on High Standard Highway Network Development in the Republic of the Philippines Final Report Executive Summary" (PDF). JICA. July 2010. p. 13. Retrieved August 9, 2020.
Department of Transportation;
Department of the Interior and Local Government;
Land Transportation Franchising and Regulatory Board (October 2017).
Local Public Transport Route Plan Manual; Volume 1 (PDF). pp. 7, 16. Archived from
the original (PDF) on August 1, 2020. Retrieved August 1, 2020.
Public Utility Vehicles (PUVs) – Vehicles that carry passengers and/or cargo for a fee, offering services to the public, which may include, but are not limited to, UV Express service, PUBs, PUJs, TNVS, Filcab and Taxis.
- Hansen, Arve; Nielsen, Kenneth Bo (2016). Cars, Automobility and Development in Asia: Wheels of change. Taylor & Francis. p. 125. ISBN 978-1-317-39672-7. Retrieved August 1, 2020.
- Lema, Karen (November 20, 2007). "Manila's jeepney pioneer fears the end of the road". Reuters. Retrieved July 18, 2020.
- Dela Cruz, Raymond Carl (November 21, 2019). "Modernization to continue despite changes to PUV phase out". Philippine News Agency. Archived from the original on August 1, 2020. Retrieved August 1, 2020.
- Mercurio, Richmond (October 1, 2019). "No stopping jeepney phaseout — DOTr chief". The Philippine Star. Archived from the original on October 1, 2019. Retrieved August 1, 2020.
- Boquet, Yves (April 21, 2017). "Transportation in the Philippines". The Philippine Archipelago. Springer Geography. Springer, Cham. p. 491. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-51926-5_15. ISBN 978-3-319-51926-5.
- Yee, Jovic (March 12, 2018). "PNR to offer freight service soon". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved August 7, 2020.
- Amojelar, Darwin G. (October 4, 2018). "DOTr to revive Manila-Laguna cargo rail project". Manila Standard. Retrieved August 7, 2020.
- Galang, Vincent Mariel P. (June 20, 2019). "JICA still has 900B yen to fund rail expansion in Philippines". BusinessWorld. Retrieved June 21, 2019.
- De Vera, Ben O. (June 21, 2019). "Japan commits 1.3 trillion yen to help build railways in PH". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved June 21, 2019.
- "The Line 1 System – The Green Line". Light Rail Transit Authority. Archived from the original on July 14, 2014. Retrieved January 15, 2016.
- United Nations Centre for Human Settlements. (1993). Provision of Travelway Space for Urban Public Transport in Developing Countries. UN–HABITAT. pp. 15, 26–70, 160–179. ISBN 92-1-131220-5.
- "About Us; Line 3 Stations". Metro Rail Transit. Archived from the original on January 22, 2013. Retrieved January 15, 2016.
- Cinco, Maricar (September 20, 2019). "PNR extends train trips to Los Baños". The Inquirer. Retrieved August 1, 2020.
- Subingsubing, Krixia (April 17, 2019). "LRT 2 extension project enters last phase". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on April 17, 2019. Retrieved August 1, 2020.
- Angeles-Giongco, Maria Laura (February 16, 2016). "MRT7 concessionaire ready to start project – The Manila Times". The Manila Times. Archived from the original on August 1, 2020. Retrieved August 1, 2020.
- Tuquero, Loreben (September 10, 2019). "6 new railways to look out for". Rappler. Retrieved July 18, 2020.
- Villanueva, Joann (January 21, 2019). "PH, JICA sign loan deal for metro-grade train system". Philippine News Agency. Retrieved July 18, 2020.
- "Manual of Standards for Aerodromes". Civil Aviation Authority of the Philippines. Archived from the original on August 9, 2014. Retrieved July 18, 2020.
- "About PAL". Philippine Airlines. Archived from the original on February 7, 2009. Retrieved May 4, 2013.
- Inside Flyer: IF. FlightPlan, Incorporated. 2008. p. 76. Retrieved August 1, 2020.
- The Report: Philippines 2009. Oxford Business Group. 2009. p. 97. ISBN 978-1-902339-12-2.
- PH firm takes on challenge to improve sea travel. Published by Philippine Daily Inquirer (Written By: Ira P. Pedrasa)
- Isorena, Efren B. (2013). "The Early Evolution of Boats in Austronesia: Profound Implication on Philippines Prehistory". Malay. 25 (2): 36–53.
- Roxas-Lim, Aurora. Traditional Boatbuilding and Philippine Maritime Culture (PDF). Intangible Cultural Heritage in the Asia-Pacific Region, United Nations Organization.
- Aguilar, Glenn D. (2004). "Philippine Fishing Boats". In Silvestre, Geronimo; Green, Stuart J.; White, Alan T.; Armada, Nygiel; Luna, Cesar; Cruz-Trinidad, Annabelle; Carreon, Marciano F., III (eds.). In Turbulent Seas: The Status of Philippine Marine Fisheries. Department of Agriculture-Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources, Republic of the Philippines. pp. 118–121. ISBN 9719275340.
- Funtecha, Henry F. (2000). "The history and culture of boats and boat-building in the Western Visayas". Philippine Quarterly of Culture and Society. 28 (2): 111–132. JSTOR 29792457.
- Regional and subregional program links : mapping the links between ASEAN and the GMS, BIMP-EAGA, and IMT-GT (PDF). Mandaluyong, Philippines: Asian Development Bank. September 2013. p. 27. ISBN 978-92-9254-203-0. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 1, 2020. Retrieved August 1, 2020.
- PDP Australia Pty Ltd/Meyrick and Associates (March 1, 2005). "Promoting Efficient and Competitive Intra-ASEAN Shipping Services – The Philippines Country Report" (PDF). Association of Southeast Asian Nations. p. 11. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 1, 2020. Retrieved August 1, 2020.
- Gov't revives Pasig River ferry service. (February 14, 2007). GMA News. Retrieved December 18, 2009.
- "MMDA to reopen Pasig River ferry system on April 28; offers free ride". Philippine Information Agency. April 25, 2014. Archived from the original on October 6, 2014. Retrieved October 3, 2014.
- World Health Organization (October 2, 2015). Progress on Sanitation and Drinking Water: 2015 Update and MDG Assessment. World Health Organization. p. 68. ISBN 978-92-4-150914-5.
- Department of Health 2018, Chapter 3 (page 46).
- Bankoff, Greg; Weekley, Kathleen (November 22, 2017). Post-Colonial National Identity in the Philippines: Celebrating the Centennial of Independence. Routledge. ISBN 9781351742092.
- Wernstedt, Frederick L.; Spencer, Joseph Earle (January 1967). The Philippine Island World: A Physical, Cultural, and Regional Geography. University of California Press. p. 503. ISBN 9780520035133.
- Dumont, Jean-Paul (1992). Visayan Vignettes: Ethnographic Traces of a Philippine Island. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. pp. 160–162. ISBN 978-0-226-16954-5.
- Meliton B. Juanico. "The Role of Place Names in the Preservation of Philippine Cultural Heritage" (PDF). UNGEGN. Retrieved July 22, 2020.
- Nadal, Kevin L. (March 23, 2011). Filipino American Psychology: A Handbook of Theory, Research, and Clinical Practice. John Wiley & Sons. p. 12. ISBN 978-1-118-01977-1. Retrieved October 21, 2020.
- Edelstein, Sari (2011). Food, Cuisine, and Cultural Competency for Culinary, Hospitality, and Nutrition Professionals. Jones & Bartlett Learning. p. 515. ISBN 978-0-7637-5965-0. Retrieved October 21, 2020.
- Aspiras, Reggie (March 6, 2014). "The Goldilocks story–from childhood bakery to baking institution". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved July 22, 2020.
- Conde, Carlos H. (May 31, 2005). "Jollibee stings McDonald's in Philippines". The New York Times. Retrieved January 5, 2010.
- Aguirre, Jun (March 4, 2018).
"Legend of the Ati-atihan Fest in Aklan". BusinessMirror. Archived from
the original on September 3, 2020. Retrieved September 3, 2020.
The Kalibo Santo Niño Ati-atihan Festival was named one of the 300 best festivals in the world for 2017 by two global digital festival discovery communities, the F300 and EverFest.
- Cinco, Maricar (March 26, 2018).
"Moriones: solemn tradition, not festive occasion". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from
the original on March 26, 2018. Retrieved September 3, 2020.
The sleepy island province of Marinduque comes to life during Holy Week, with thousands of local visitors and foreign tourists coming down to see one of the Philippines’ oldest religious traditions.
- "Sinulog named as Asia's most popular festival". SunStar. February 27, 2018. Archived from the original on September 3, 2020. Retrieved September 3, 2020.
- Social Values and Organization, Philippines, Country Studies US. Online version of print book Ronald E. Dolan, ed. Philippines: A Country Study. Washington: GPO for the Library of Congress, 1991.
- Gripaldo, Rolando M. (2005). Filipino Cultural Traits: Claro R. Ceniza Lectures. CRVP. pp. 35–39. ISBN 978-1-56518-225-7. Retrieved September 3, 2020.
- Chris Rowthorn; Greg Bloom (2006). Philippines. Lonely Planet. ISBN 978-1-74104-289-4.
- Hallig, Jason V. Communicating Holiness to the Filipinos: Challenges and Needs Archived July 20, 2011, at the Wayback Machine, The Path to a Filipino Theology of Holiness, pp. 2, 10.
- Dy, Manuel B. (1994). Values in Philippine Culture and Education. CRVP. p. 155. ISBN 978-1-56518-041-3. Retrieved September 3, 2020.
- Talisayon, Serafin (1994). "Filipino Values, Chapter XIII, Teaching Values in the Natural and Physical Sciences in the Philippines". crvp.org. The Council for Research in Values and Philosophy (RVP), The Catholic University of America. Archived from the original on April 17, 2016. File dated April 8, 2000. In Manuel B. Dy Jr., ed. (March 10, 1994). Values in Philippine Culture and Education (Philippine Philosophical Studies, Series III, Volume 7). Cultural heritage and contemporary change. Council for Research in Values and Philosophy. ISBN 978-1-56518-040-6.
- "Baroque Churches of the Philippines". UNESCO. 2010. Retrieved July 22, 2020.
- Rowthorn, Chris & Greg Bloom (2006). Philippines (9th ed.). Lonely Planet. p. 145. ISBN 978-1-74104-289-4.
- "History of Philippine Architecture". National Commission for Culture and the Arts. Archived from the original on April 21, 2017. Retrieved September 8, 2016.
- "Tourist Attractions". The Official Iloilo Province Webpage. Retrieved July 22, 2020.[ better source needed]
- Datar, Francisco A. (April 19, 2015). "The Batanes Islands". National Commission for Culture and the Arts. Archived from the original on April 19, 2015. Retrieved July 22, 2020.
- "PASSOC: Philippine Arts & Social Studies in the Ontario Curriculum, Page 1" (PDF).
- Horowitz, Gayle L. (2009). International Games: Building Skills Through Multicultural Play. Human Kinetics. p. 74. ISBN 9780736073943.
- Villaruz, Basilio Esteban S. (2006). Treading Through: 45 Years of Philippine Dance. University of the Philippines Press. ISBN 9789715425094.
- Villacruz, Basilio Esteban S. (July 24, 2014). "Philippine Dance in the American Period". National Commission for Culture and the Arts. Archived from the original on July 24, 2014.
- Humanities and the Digital Art (2006 ed.). 2006. pp. 31-32. ISBN 978-971-23-4628-6.
- Liu, Siyuan (February 5, 2016). Routledge Handbook of Asian Theatre. Routledge. pp. 372–373. ISBN 9781317278863.
- Filipino Arts & Music Ensemble Archived November 7, 2010, at the Wayback Machine, Filipino Heritage, The Making of a Nation, Volume 9, 1978, famenyc.org
- Ellingham, Mark (1999). The Rough Guide to World Music. Rough Guides. p. 214. ISBN 978-1-85828-636-5. Retrieved January 1, 2021.
- Rodell, Paul A. (2002). Culture and Customs of the Philippines. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 184. ISBN 978-0-313-30415-6. Retrieved January 1, 2021.
- Murray, Jeremy A.; Nadeau, Kathleen M. (August 15, 2016). Pop Culture in Asia and Oceania. ABC-CLIO. pp. 39–41. ISBN 978-1-4408-3991-7. Retrieved December 5, 2020.
- Dalton, David (September 6, 2007). The Rough Guide to the Philippines. Rough Guides UK. ISBN 978-1-4053-8046-1. Retrieved December 4, 2020.
- Woods, Damon L. (2006). The Philippines: A Global Studies Handbook. ABC-CLIO. p. 171. ISBN 978-1-85109-675-6. Retrieved December 4, 2020.
- Goldsmith, Melissa Ursula Dawn; Fonseca, Anthony J. (December 2018). Hip Hop around the World: An Encyclopedia [2 volumes]. ABC-CLIO. pp. 552–553. ISBN 978-0-313-35759-6. Retrieved December 5, 2020.