PhotosLocation


SPAIN Latitude and Longitude:

40°N 4°W / 40°N 4°W / 40; -4
Page semi-protected
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Kingdom of Spain
Reino de España ( Spanish)
4 other names [a]
Motto:  Plus ultra ( Latin)
(English: "Further Beyond")
Anthem:  Marcha Real ( Spanish) [1]
(English: "Royal March")
Location of Spain (dark green)

– in Europe (green & dark grey)
– in the European Union (green)

Capital
and largest city
Madrid
40°26′N 3°42′W / 40.433°N 3.700°W / 40.433; -3.700
Official language Spanish [b]
Ethnic group ( POB)(2022) [3]
Religion
(2023) [4]
Demonym(s)
GovernmentUnitary  parliamentary constitutional monarchy
•  Monarch
Felipe VI
Pedro Sánchez
Nadia Calviño
Legislature Cortes Generales
Senate
Congress of Deputies
Formation
20 January 1479
14 March 1516
9 June 1715
19 March 1812
29 December 1978
1 January 1986
Area
• Total
505,994 [5] km2 (195,365 sq mi) ( 51st)
• Water (%)
0.89 (2015) [6]
Population
• 2023 estimate
48,345,223 [7] ( 30th)
• Density
94/km2 (243.5/sq mi) ( 120th)
GDP ( PPP)2023 estimate
• Total
Increase $2.36 trillion [8] ( 16th)
• Per capita
Increase $49,448 [8] ( 37th)
GDP (nominal)2023 estimate
• Total
Increase $1.492 trillion [8] ( 15th)
• Per capita
Increase $31,223 [8] ( 36th)
Gini (2021)Positive decrease 33.0 [9]
medium
HDI (2021)Increase 0.905 [10]
very high ·  27th
Currency Euro [d] ( ) ( EUR)
Time zone UTC⁠±0 to +1 ( WET and CET)
• Summer ( DST)
UTC+1 to +2 ( WEST and CEST)
Note: most of Spain observes CET/CEST, except the Canary Islands which observe WET/WEST.
Date format dd/ mm/ yyyy ( CE)
Driving sideright
Calling code +34
ISO 3166 code ES
Internet TLD .es [e]

Spain (Spanish: España, [esˈpaɲa] ), or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), [f] is a country located in Southwestern Europe, with parts of its territory in the Atlantic Ocean, in the Mediterranean Sea and in Africa. [11] [g] It is the largest country in Southern Europe and the fourth-most populous European Union member state. Spanning across the majority of the Iberian Peninsula, its territory also includes the Canary Islands in the Atlantic Ocean, the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea, and the autonomous cities of Ceuta and Melilla in Africa. Peninsular Spain is bordered to the north by France, Andorra, and the Bay of Biscay; to the east and south by the Mediterranean Sea and Gibraltar; and to the west by Portugal and the Atlantic Ocean. Spain's capital and largest city is Madrid; other major urban areas include Barcelona, Valencia, Zaragoza, Seville, Málaga, Murcia, Palma de Mallorca, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, and Bilbao.

In early antiquity, the Iberian Peninsula was inhabited by a mixture of Iberian and Celtic tribes, along with other local pre-Roman peoples. With the Roman conquest of the Iberian Peninsula, the province of Hispania was established. Following the Romanization and Christianization of Hispania, the fall of the Western Roman Empire ushered in the inward migration of tribes from Central Europe, including the Visigoths, who formed the Visigothic Kingdom centred on Toledo. In the early eighth century, most of the peninsula was conquered by the Umayyad Caliphate, and during early Islamic rule, Al-Andalus became a dominant peninsular power centred in Córdoba. Several Christian kingdoms emerged in Northern Iberia, chief among them Asturias, León, Castile, Aragon, Navarre and Portugal; made an intermittent southward military expansion, known as the Reconquista, repelling Islamic rule in Iberia, which culminated with the Christian seizure of the Nasrid Kingdom of Granada in 1492. The dynastic union of the Crown of Castile and the Crown of Aragon in 1479, often considered the formation of Spain as a country, was followed by the conquest of Navarre and the Iberian Union with Portugal. The Crown of Spain, through the Spanish Inquisition, forced the Jewish and Muslim minorities to choose between conversion to Catholicism or expulsion, before most of the converts were also expelled through various royal decrees.

The leading country of the Age of Discovery in conjunction with Portugal, Spain conquered territories across the world and formed one of the largest empires in history; Spanish expeditions of this period include the beginning of colonization in the Americas in 1492 and the first circumnavigation of the globe in 1522. The empire's need for financing and the transatlantic trade underpinned the rise of a global trading system fueled primarily by precious metals, and the reforms of the Bourbon in the 18th century centralized mainland Spain. [12] In the 19th century, despite the victory in the Peninsular War, the following political divisions between liberals and absolutists eventually led to the independence of most of its American colonies. Political instability reached its peak in the 20th century with the Spanish Civil War, giving rise to the Francoist dictatorship that lasted until 1975. With the restoration of democracy under the Constitution of Spain and its entry into the European Union, the country experienced an economic boom that profoundly transformed it socially and politically. Since the Siglo de Oro, Spanish art, architecture, music, poetry, painting, literature, and cuisine have been influential worldwide, particularly in Western Europe and the Americas. As a reflection of its large cultural wealth, Spain has one of the world's largest numbers of World Heritage Sites. It is the world's second-most visited country and the most popular destination for Erasmus students. [13] Its cultural influence extends to over 600 million Hispanophones, making Spanish the world's second-most spoken native language and the world's most widely spoken Romance language. [14]

Spain is a secular parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy, [15] with King Felipe VI as head of state. It is a major advanced capitalist economy, [16] with the world's sixteenth-largest economy by nominal GDP (fourth of the European Union) and the sixteenth-largest by PPP. Spain has a very high Human Development Index ( HDI) and quality of life standard, with one of the highest life expectancies in the world. Spain is a member of the United Nations, the European Union, the Eurozone, North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), a permanent guest of the G20, and is part of many other international organizations such as the Council of Europe (CoE), the Organization of Ibero-American States (OEI), the Union for the Mediterranean, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) and the World Trade Organization (WTO).

Etymology

The name of Spain (España) comes from Hispania, the name used by the Romans for the Iberian Peninsula and its provinces during the Roman Empire. The etymological origin of the term Hispania is uncertain, although the Phoenicians referred to the region as Spania (meaning "Land of rabbits"), therefore, the most accepted theory is the Phoenician one. [17] There have been a number of accounts and hypotheses about its origin:

The Lady of Elche, possibly depicting Tanit, from Carthaginian Iberia, 4th century BCE

Hispania may also derive from the poetic use of the term Hesperia, reflecting the Greek perception of Italy as a "western land" or "land of the setting sun" (Hesperia, Ἑσπερία in Greek) and Spain, being still further west, as Hesperia ultima. [18]

Jesús Luis Cunchillos [ es] argued that the root of the term span is the Phoenician word spy, meaning "to forge metals". Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean "the land where metals are forged". [19] It may be a derivation of the Phoenician I-Shpania, meaning "island of rabbits", "land of rabbits" or "edge", a reference to Spain's location at the end of the Mediterranean; Roman coins struck in the region from the reign of Hadrian show a female figure with a rabbit at her feet, [20] and Strabo called it the "land of the rabbits". [21] The word in question actually means " Hyrax", possibly due to the Phoenicians confusing the two animals. [22]

There is also the claim that "Hispania" derives from the Basque word Ezpanna, meaning "edge" or "border", another reference to the fact that the Iberian Peninsula constitutes the southwest corner of the European continent. [18]

History

Prehistory and pre-Roman peoples

Celtic castro in Galicia

Archaeological research at Atapuerca indicates the Iberian Peninsula was populated by hominids 1.2 million years ago. [23] In Atapuerca, fossils have been found of the earliest known hominins in Europe, Homo antecessor. Modern humans first arrived in Iberia from the north on foot about 35,000 years ago. [24][ failed verification] The best-known artefacts of these prehistoric human settlements are the paintings in the Altamira cave of Cantabria in northern Iberia, which were created from 35,600 to 13,500 BCE by Cro-Magnon. [25] [26] Archaeological and genetic evidence suggests that the Iberian Peninsula acted as one of several major refugia from which northern Europe was repopulated following the end of the last ice age.

The two largest groups inhabiting the Iberian Peninsula before the Roman conquest were the Iberians and the Celts. The Iberians inhabited the Mediterranean side of the peninsula. The Celts inhabited much of the interior and Atlantic sides of the peninsula. Basques occupied the western area of the Pyrenees mountain range and adjacent areas; Phoenician-influenced Tartessians flourished in the southwest; and Lusitanians and Vettones occupied areas in the central west. Several cities were founded along the coast by Phoenicians, and trading outposts and colonies were established by Greeks in the East. Eventually, Phoenician- Carthaginians expanded inland towards the meseta; however, due to the bellicose inland tribes, the Carthaginians settled on the coasts of the Iberian Peninsula.

Roman Hispania and the Visigothic Kingdom

The Roman Theatre in Mérida

During the Second Punic War, roughly between 210 and 205 BCE, the expanding Roman Republic captured Carthaginian trading colonies along the Mediterranean coast. Although it took the Romans nearly two centuries to complete the conquest of the Iberian Peninsula, they retained control of it for over six centuries. Roman rule was bound together by law, language, and the Roman road. [27]

The cultures of the pre-Roman populations were gradually Romanised (Latinised) at different rates depending on what part of the peninsula they lived in, with local leaders being admitted into the Roman aristocratic class. [h] [28]

Hispania served as a granary for the Roman market, and its harbours exported gold, wool, olive oil, and wine. Agricultural production increased with the introduction of irrigation projects, some of which remain in use. Emperors Hadrian, Trajan, Theodosius I, and the philosopher Seneca were born in Hispania. [i] Christianity was introduced into Hispania in the 1st century CE, and it became popular in the cities in the 2nd century. [28] Most of Spain's present languages and religions, as well as the basis of its laws, originate from this period. [27] Starting in 170 CE, incursions of North-African Mauri in the province of Baetica took place. [29]

Votive crown of Reccesuinth from the Treasure of Guarrazar

The Germanic Suebi and Vandals, together with the Sarmatian Alans, entered the peninsula after 409, weakening the Western Roman Empire's jurisdiction over Hispania. The Suebi established a kingdom in north-western Iberia, whereas the Vandals established themselves in the south of the peninsula by 420 before crossing over to North Africa in 429. As the western empire disintegrated, the social and economic base became greatly simplified; the successor regimes maintained many of the institutions and laws of the late empire, including Christianity and assimilation into the evolving Roman culture.

The Byzantines established an occidental province, Spania, in the south, with the intention of reviving Roman rule throughout Iberia. Eventually, however, Hispania was reunited under Visigothic rule.

Muslim era and Reconquista

From 711 to 718, as part of the expansion of the Umayyad Caliphate, which had conquered North Africa from the Byzantine Empire, nearly all of the Iberian Peninsula was conquered by Muslims from across the Strait of Gibraltar, resulting in the collapse of the Visigothic Kingdom. Only a small area in the mountainous north of the peninsula stood out of the territory seized during the initial invasion. The Kingdom of Asturias-León consolidated upon this territory. Other Christian kingdoms such as Navarre and Aragon in the mountainous north eventually surged upon the consolidation of counties of the Carolingian Marca Hispanica. [30] For several centuries, the fluctuating frontier between the Muslim and Christian controlled areas of the peninsula was along the Ebro and Douro valleys.

The Court of the Lions and its central fountain in the Alhambra complex

Conversion to Islam proceeded at an increasing pace. The muladíes (Muslims of ethnic Iberian origin) are believed to have formed the majority of the population of Al-Andalus by the end of the 10th century. [31] [32]

A series of Viking incursions raided the coasts of the Iberian Peninsula in the 9th and 10th centuries. [33] The first recorded Viking raid on Iberia took place in 844; it ended in failure with many Vikings killed by the Galicians' ballistas; and seventy of the Vikings' longships captured on the beach and burned by the troops of King Ramiro I of Asturias.

In the 11th century, the Caliphate of Córdoba collapsed, fracturing into a series of petty kingdoms ( Taifas), [34] often subject to the payment of a form of protection money ( Parias) to the Northern Christian kingdoms, which otherwise undertook a southward territorial expansion. The capture of the strategic city of Toledo in 1085 marked a significant shift in the balance of power in favour of the Christian kingdoms.[ citation needed] The arrival from North Africa of the Islamic ruling sects of the Almoravids and the Almohads achieved temporary unity upon the Muslim-ruled territory, with a stricter, less tolerant application of Islam, and partially reversed some Christian territorial gains.

20th century ceramic depiction of the conquest of Toledo by Alfonso VI, at the Plaza de España

The Kingdom of León was the strongest Christian kingdom for centuries. In 1188 the first modern parliamentary session[ clarification needed] in Europe was held in León ( Cortes of León). [35] The Kingdom of Castile, formed from Leonese territory, was its successor as strongest kingdom. The kings and the nobility fought for power and influence in this period. The example of the Roman emperors influenced the political objective of the Crown, while the nobles benefited from feudalism.

Muslim strongholds in the Guadalquivir Valley such as Córdoba (1236) and Seville (1248) fell to Castile in the 13th century. The County of Barcelona and the Kingdom of Aragon entered in a dynastic union and gained territory and power in the Mediterranean. In 1229 Majorca was conquered, so was Valencia in 1238. In the 13th and 14th centuries, the North-African Marinids established some enclaves around the Strait of Gibraltar. Upon the conclusion of the Granada War, the Nasrid Sultanate of Granada (the remaining Muslim-ruled polity in the Iberian Peninsula after 1246) capitulated in 1492 to the military strength of the Catholic Monarchs, and it was integrated from then on in the Crown of Castile. [36]

Spanish Empire

Late 16th-century Seville, the harbor enjoying the exclusive right to trade with the New World

In 1469, the crowns of the Christian kingdoms of Castile and Aragon were united by the marriage of their monarchs, Isabella I and Ferdinand II, respectively. 1478 commenced the completion of the conquest of the Canary Islands. In 1492, Jews were forced to choose between conversion to Catholicism or facing expulsion. [37] As a result, as many as 200,000 Jews were expelled from Castile and Aragon. The year 1492 also marked the arrival of Christopher Columbus in the New World, during a voyage funded by Isabella. Columbus's first voyage crossed the Atlantic and reached the Caribbean Islands, beginning the European exploration and conquest of the Americas. The Treaty of Granada guaranteed religious tolerance towards Muslims, [38] for a few years before Islam was outlawed in 1502 in Castile and 1527 in Aragon, leading the remaining Muslim population to become nominally Christian Moriscos. About four decades after the War of the Alpujarras (1568–1571), over 300,000 moriscos were expelled, settling primarily in North Africa. [39]

Diachronic map of the Spanish Empire

The unification of the crowns of Aragon and Castile by the marriage of their sovereigns laid the basis for modern Spain and the Spanish Empire, although each kingdom of Spain remained a separate country socially, politically, legally, and in currency and language. [40] [41]

Habsburg Spain was one of the leading world powers throughout the 16th century and most of the 17th century, a position reinforced by trade and wealth from colonial possessions and became the world's leading maritime power. It reached its apogee during the reigns of the first two Spanish Habsburgs— Charles V/I (1516–1556) and Philip II (1556–1598). This period saw the Italian Wars, the Schmalkaldic War, the Dutch Revolt, the War of the Portuguese Succession, clashes with the Ottomans, intervention in the French Wars of Religion and the Anglo-Spanish War. [42]

Main trade routes of the Spanish Empire

Through exploration and conquest or royal marriage alliances and inheritance, the Spanish Empire expanded across vast areas in the Americas, the Indo-Pacific, Africa as well as the European continent (including holdings in the Italian Peninsula, the Low Countries and the Franche-Comté). The so-called Age of Discovery featured explorations by sea and by land, the opening-up of new trade routes across oceans, conquests and the beginnings of European colonialism. Precious metals, spices, luxuries, and previously unknown plants brought to the metropole played a leading part in transforming the European understanding of the globe. [43] The cultural efflorescence witnessed during this period is now referred to as the Spanish Golden Age. The expansion of the empire caused immense upheaval in the Americas as the collapse of societies and empires and new diseases from Europe devastated American indigenous populations. The rise of humanism, the Counter-Reformation and new geographical discoveries and conquests raised issues that were addressed by the intellectual movement now known as the School of Salamanca, which developed the first modern theories of what are now known as international law and human rights.

Spain's 16th-century maritime supremacy was demonstrated by the victory over the Ottoman Empire at the Battle of Lepanto in 1571 and over Portugal at the Battle of Ponta Delgada in 1582, and then after the setback of the Spanish Armada in 1588, in a series of victories against England in the Anglo-Spanish War of 1585–1604. However, during the middle decades of the 17th century Spain's maritime power went into a long decline with mounting defeats against the Dutch Republic ( Battle of the Downs) and then England in the Anglo-Spanish War of 1654–1660; by the 1660s it was struggling to defend its overseas possessions from pirates and privateers.

The Protestant Reformation increased Spain's involvement in religiously charged wars, forcing ever-expanding military efforts across Europe and in the Mediterranean. [44] By the middle decades of a war- and plague-ridden 17th-century Europe, the Spanish Habsburgs had enmeshed the country in continent-wide religious-political conflicts. These conflicts drained it of resources and undermined the economy generally. Spain managed to hold on to most of the scattered Habsburg empire, and help the imperial forces of the Holy Roman Empire reverse a large part of the advances made by Protestant forces, but it was finally forced to recognise the separation of Portugal and the United Provinces (Dutch Republic), and eventually suffered some serious military reverses to France in the latter stages of the immensely destructive, Europe-wide Thirty Years' War. [45] In the latter half of the 17th century, Spain went into a gradual decline, during which it surrendered several small territories to France and England; however, it maintained and enlarged its vast overseas empire, which remained intact until the beginning of the 19th century.

18th century

The family of Philip V. During the Enlightenment in Spain a new royal family reigned, the House of Bourbon.

The decline culminated in a controversy over succession to the throne which consumed the first years of the 18th century. The War of the Spanish Succession was a wide-ranging international conflict combined with a civil war, and was to cost the kingdom its European possessions and its position as a leading European power. [46]

During this war, a new dynasty originating in France, the Bourbons, was installed. The Crowns of Castile and Aragon had been long united only by the Monarchy and the common institution of the Inquisition's Holy Office. [47] A number of reform policies (the so-called Bourbon Reforms) were pursued by the Monarchy with the overarching goal of centralized authority and administrative uniformity. [48] They included the abolishment of many of the old regional privileges and laws, [49] as well as the customs barrier between the Crowns of Aragon and Castile in 1717, followed by the introduction of new property taxes in the Aragonese kingdoms. [50]

The 18th century saw a gradual recovery and an increase in prosperity through much of the empire. The predominant economic policy was an interventionist one, and the State also pursued policies aiming towards infrastructure development as well as the abolition of internal customs and the reduction of export tariffs. [51] Projects of agricultural colonisation with new settlements took place in the south of mainland Spain. [52] Enlightenment ideas began to gain ground among some of the kingdom's elite and monarchy.

Liberalism and nation state

Churruca´s death in the Battle of Trafalgar.
Battle of Valencia (1808) by Joaquín Sorolla.
Ferdinand VII swears on the 1812 Constitution before the Cortes in 1820.
National Militia fought against the absolutist uprisings during the Trienio Liberal.

In 1793, Spain went to war against the revolutionary new French Republic as a member of the first Coalition. The subsequent War of the Pyrenees polarised the country in a reaction against the gallicised elites and following defeat in the field, peace was made with France in 1795 at the Peace of Basel in which Spain lost control over two-thirds of the island of Hispaniola. In 1807, a secret treaty between Napoleon and the unpopular prime minister led to a new declaration of war against Britain and Portugal. French troops entered the country to invade Portugal but instead occupied Spain's major fortresses. The Spanish king abdicated and a puppet kingdom satellite to the French Empire was installed with Joseph Bonaparte as king.

The 2 May 1808 revolt was one of many uprisings across the country against the French occupation. [53] These revolts marked the beginning of a devastating war of independence against the Napoleonic regime. [54] Further military action by Spanish armies, guerrilla warfare and an Anglo-Portuguese allied army, combined with Napoleon's failure on the Russian front, led to the retreat of French imperial armies from the Iberian Peninsula in 1814, and the return of King Ferdinand VII. [55]

During the war, in 1810, a revolutionary body, the Cortes of Cádiz, was assembled to coordinate the effort against the Bonapartist regime and to prepare a constitution. [56] It met as one body, and its members represented the entire Spanish empire. [57] In 1812, a constitution for universal representation under a constitutional monarchy was declared, but after the fall of the Bonapartist regime, the Spanish king dismissed the Cortes Generales, set on ruling as an absolute monarch.

The French occupation of Mainland Spain created an opportunity for overseas criollo elites who resented the privilege towards Peninsular elites and demanded retroversion of the sovereignty to the people. Starting in 1809 the American colonies began a series of revolutions and declared independence, leading to the Spanish American wars of independence that put an end to the metropole's grip over the Spanish Main. Attempts to re-assert control proved futile with opposition not only in the colonies but also in the Iberian peninsula and army revolts followed. By the end of 1826, the only American colonies Spain held were Cuba and Puerto Rico.

Baldomero Espartero, key political figure in the consolidation of the constitutional Spain.

The Napoleonic War left Spain economically ruined, deeply divided and politically unstable. In the 1830s and 1840s, Carlism (a reactionary legitimist movement supportive of an alternative Bourbon branch), fought against the government forces supportive of Queen Isabella II's dynastic rights in the Carlist Wars. Government forces prevailed, but the conflict between progressives and moderates ended in a weak early constitutional period. The 1868 Glorious Revolution was followed by the 1868–1874 progressive Sexenio Democrático (including the short-lived First Spanish Republic), which yielded to a stable monarchic period, the Restoration (1875–1931). [58]

Spanish Revolution of 1854 in Puerta del Sol, Madrid. Maria Christina of the Two Sicilies fled to exile and Baldomero Espartero became regent.
Puerta del Sol, Madrid, after the Spanish Revolution of 1868
Spanish territories in Africa. In 1912, Morocco was divided between the French and Spanish.

In the late 19th century nationalist movements arose in the Philippines and Cuba. In 1895 and 1896 the Cuban War of Independence and the Philippine Revolution broke out and eventually the United States became involved. The Spanish–American War was fought in the spring of 1898 and resulted in Spain losing the last of its once vast colonial empire outside of North Africa. El Desastre (the Disaster), as the war became known in Spain, gave added impetus to the Generation of '98. Although the period around the turn of the century was one of increasing prosperity, the 20th century brought little social peace. Spain played a minor part in the scramble for Africa. It remained neutral during World War I. The heavy losses suffered by the colonial troops in conflicts in northern Morocco against Riffians forces brought discredit to the government and undermined the monarchy.

Industrialisation, the development of railways and incipient capitalism developed in several areas of the country, particularly in Barcelona, as well as Labour movement and socialist and anarchist ideas. The 1888 Barcelona Universal Exposition and the 1870 Barcelona Labour Congress are good examples of this. In 1879, the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party was founded. A trade union linked to this party, Unión General de Trabajadores, was founded in 1888. In the anarcho-sindicalist trend of the labour movement in Spain, Confederación Nacional del Trabajo was founded in 1910 and Federación Anarquista Ibérica in 1927.

Catalanism and Vasquism, alongside other nationalisms and regionalisms in Spain, arose in that period: the Basque Nationalist Party formed in 1895 and Regionalist League of Catalonia in 1901.

Political corruption and repression weakened the democratic system of the constitutional monarchy of a two-parties system. [59] The July 1909 Tragic Week events and repression exemplified the social instability of the time.

Demonstration in Barcelona during the 1909 Tragic Week events

The La Canadiense strike in 1919 led to the first law limiting the working day to eight hours. [60]

After a period of Crown-supported dictatorship from 1923 to 1931, the first elections since 1923, largely understood as a plebiscite on Monarchy, took place: the 12 April 1931 municipal elections. These gave a resounding victory to the Republican-Socialist candidacies in large cities and provincial capitals, with a majority of monarchist councilors in rural areas. The king left the country and the proclamation of the Republic on 14 April ensued, with the formation of a provisional government.

Proclamation of the Spanish Second Republic in Barcelona, 1931.

A constitution for the country was passed in October 1931 following the June 1931 Constituent general election, and a series of cabinets presided by Manuel Azaña supported by republican parties and the PSOE followed. In the election held in 1933 the right triumphed and in 1936, the left. During the Second Republic there was a great political and social upheaval, marked by a sharp radicalization of the left and the right. Instances of political violence during this period included the burning of churches, the 1932 failed coup d'état led by José Sanjurjo, the Revolution of 1934 and numerous attacks against rival political leaders. On the other hand, it is also during the Second Republic when important reforms to modernize the country were initiated: a democratic constitution, agrarian reform, restructuring of the army, political decentralization and women's right to vote.

Civil War and Francoist dictatorship

The Spanish Civil War broke out in 1936: on 17 and 18 July, part of the military carried out a coup d'état that triumphed in only part of the country. The situation led to a civil war, in which the territory was divided into two zones: one under the authority of the Republican government, that counted on outside support from the Soviet Union and Mexico (and from International Brigades), and the other controlled by the putschists (the Nationalist or rebel faction), most critically supported by Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy. The Republic was not supported by the Western powers due to the British-led policy of non-intervention. General Francisco Franco was sworn in as the supreme leader of the rebels on 1 October 1936. An uneasy relationship between the Republican government and the grassroots anarchists who had initiated a partial social revolution also ensued.

Republican volunteers at Teruel, 1936

The civil war was viciously fought and there were many atrocities committed by all sides. The war claimed the lives of over 500,000 people and caused the flight of up to a half-million citizens from the country. [61] [62] On 1 April 1939, five months before the beginning of World War II, the rebel side led by Franco emerged victorious, imposing a dictatorship over the whole country. Thousands were imprisoned after the civil war in Francoist concentration camps.

The regime remained nominally "neutral" for much of the Second World War, although it was sympathetic to the Axis and provided the Nazi Wehrmacht with Spanish volunteers in the Eastern Front. The only legal party under Franco's dictatorship was the Falange Española Tradicionalista y de las JONS (FET y de las JONS), formed in 1937 upon the merging of the Fascist Falange Española de las JONS and the Carlist traditionalists and to which the rest of right-wing groups supporting the rebels also added. The name of " Movimiento Nacional", sometimes understood as a wider structure than the FET y de las JONS proper, largely imposed over the later's name in official documents along the 1950s.

Spanish leader Francisco Franco and Adolf Hitler at the Meeting at Hendaye, 1940

After the war Spain was politically and economically isolated, and was kept out of the United Nations. This changed in 1955, during the Cold War period, when it became strategically important for the US to establish a military presence on the Iberian Peninsula as a counter to any possible move by the Soviet Union into the Mediterranean basin. US Cold War strategic priorities included the dissemination of American educational ideas to foster modernization and expansion. [63] In the 1960s, Spain registered an unprecedented rate of economic growth which was propelled by industrialisation, a mass internal migration from rural areas to Madrid, Barcelona and the Basque Country and the creation of a mass tourism industry. Franco's rule was also characterised by authoritarianism, promotion of a unitary national identity, National Catholicism, and discriminatory language policies.

Restoration of democracy

Juan Carlos I before the Cortes Españolas, during his proclamation as King on 22 November 1975
Copy of the Spanish Constitution of 1978 in the Congress of Deputies

In 1962, a group of politicians involved in the opposition to Franco's regime inside the country and in exile met in the congress of the European Movement in Munich, where they made a resolution in favour of democracy. [64] [65] [66]

With Franco's death in November 1975, Juan Carlos succeeded to the position of King of Spain and head of state in accordance with the Francoist law. With the approval of the new Spanish Constitution of 1978 and the restoration of democracy, the State devolved much authority to the regions and created an internal organisation based on autonomous communities. The Spanish 1977 Amnesty Law let people of Franco's regime continue inside institutions without consequences, even perpetrators of some crimes during transition to democracy like the Massacre of 3 March 1976 in Vitoria or 1977 Massacre of Atocha.

In the Basque Country, moderate Basque nationalism coexisted with a radical nationalist movement led by the armed organisation ETA until the latter's dissolution in May 2018. [67] The group was formed in 1959 during Franco's rule but had continued to wage its violent campaign even after the restoration of democracy and the return of a large measure of regional autonomy.

On 23 February 1981, rebel elements among the security forces seized the Cortes in an attempt to impose a military-backed government. King Juan Carlos took personal command of the military and successfully ordered the coup plotters, via national television, to surrender. [68]

Felipe González signing the treaty of accession to the European Economic Community on 12 June 1985

During the 1980s the democratic restoration made possible a growing open society. New cultural movements based on freedom appeared, like La Movida Madrileña. In May 1982 Spain joined NATO, followed by a referendum after a strong social opposition. That year the Spanish Socialist Workers Party (PSOE) came to power, the first left-wing government in 43 years. In 1986 Spain joined the European Economic Community, which later became the European Union. The PSOE was replaced in government by the Partido Popular (PP) in 1996 after scandals around participation of the government of Felipe González in the Dirty war against ETA.

The 1992 Summer Olympics in Barcelona

On 1 January 2002, Spain fully adopted the euro, and Spain experienced strong economic growth, well above the EU average during the early 2000s. However, well-publicised concerns issued by many economic commentators at the height of the boom warned that extraordinary property prices and a high foreign trade deficit were likely to lead to a painful economic collapse. [69]

In 2002, the Prestige oil spill occurred with big ecological consequences along Spain's Atlantic coastline. In 2003 José María Aznar supported US president George W. Bush in the Iraq War, and a strong movement against war rose in Spanish society. In March 2004 a local Islamist terrorist group inspired by Al-Qaeda carried out the largest terrorist attack in Western European history when they killed 191 people and wounded more than 1,800 others by bombing commuter trains in Madrid. [70] Though initial suspicions focused on the Basque terrorist group ETA, evidence of Islamist involvement soon emerged. Because of the proximity of the 2004 Spanish general election, the issue of responsibility quickly became a political controversy, with the main competing parties PP and PSOE exchanging accusations over the handling of the incident. [71] The PSOE won the election, led by José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero. [72]

In the early 2000s, the proportion of Spain's foreign born population increased rapidly during its economic boom but then declined due to the financial crisis. [73] In 2005, the Spanish government legalised same sex marriage, becoming the third country worldwide to do so. [74] Decentralisation was supported with much resistance of Constitutional Court and conservative opposition, so did gender politics like quotas or the law against gender violence. Government talks with ETA happened, and the group announced its permanent cease of violence in 2010. [75]

Demonstration against the crisis and high youth unemployment in Madrid, 15 October 2011

The bursting of the Spanish property bubble in 2008 led to the 2008–16 Spanish financial crisis. High levels of unemployment, cuts in government spending and corruption in Royal family and People's Party served as a backdrop to the 2011–12 Spanish protests. [76] Catalan independentism also rose. In 2011, Mariano Rajoy's conservative People's Party won the election with 44.6% of votes. [77] As prime minister, he implemented austerity measures for EU bailout, the EU Stability and Growth Pact. [78] On 19 June 2014, the monarch, Juan Carlos, abdicated in favour of his son, who became Felipe VI. [79]

In October 2017 a Catalan independence referendum was held and the Catalan parliament voted to unilaterally declare independence from Spain to form a Catalan Republic [80] [81] on the day the Spanish Senate was discussing approving direct rule over Catalonia as called for by the Spanish Prime Minister. [82] [83] On the same day the Senate granted the power to impose direct rule and Rajoy dissolved the Catalan parliament and called a new election. [84] No country recognised Catalonia as a separate state. [85]

In June 2018, the Congress of Deputies passed a motion of no-confidence against Rajoy and replaced him with the PSOE leader Pedro Sánchez. [86]

Since 2018, Spain has faced an institutional crisis surrounding the mandate of the General Council of the Judiciary (CGPJ. [87]

In January 2020, the COVID-19 virus was confirmed to have spread to Spain, causing life expectancy to drop by more than a year. [88]

In March 2021, Spain became the sixth nation in the world to make active euthanasia legal. [89]

Geography

Topographic map of Spain (excluding Canary Islands)

At 505,992 km2 (195,365 sq mi), Spain is the world's fifty-second largest country and Europe's fourth largest country. It is some 47,000 km2 (18,000 sq mi) smaller than France. Mount Teide ( Tenerife) is the highest mountain peak in Spain and is the third largest volcano in the world from its base. Spain is a transcontinental country, having territory in both Europe and Africa.

Spain lies between latitudes 27° and 44° N, and longitudes 19° W and 5° E.

On the west, Spain is bordered by Portugal; on the south, it is bordered by Gibraltar and Morocco, through its exclaves in North Africa ( Ceuta and Melilla, and the peninsula of de Vélez de la Gomera). On the northeast, along the Pyrenees mountain range, it is bordered by France and Andorra. Along the Pyrenees in Girona, a small exclave town called Llívia is surrounded by France.

Extending to 1,214 km (754 mi), the Portugal–Spain border is the longest uninterrupted border within the European Union. [90]

Islands

Aerial view of Mallorca island

Spain also includes the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea, the Canary Islands in the Atlantic Ocean and a number of uninhabited islands on the Mediterranean side of the Strait of Gibraltar, known as plazas de soberanía ("places of sovereignty", or territories under Spanish sovereignty), such as the Chafarinas Islands and Alhucemas. The peninsula of de Vélez de la Gomera is also regarded as a plaza de soberanía. The isle of Alborán, located in the Mediterranean between Spain and North Africa, is also administered by Spain, specifically by the municipality of Almería, Andalusia. The little Pheasant Island in the River Bidasoa is a Spanish-French condominium.

There are 11 major islands in Spain, all of them having their own governing bodies ( Cabildos insulares in the Canaries, Consells insulars in Baleares). These islands are specifically mentioned by the Spanish Constitution, when fixing its Senatorial representation (Ibiza and Formentera are grouped, as they together form the Pityusic islands, part of the Balearic archipelago). These islands include Tenerife, Gran Canaria, Lanzarote, Fuerteventura, La Palma, La Gomera and El Hierro in the Canarian archipelago and Mallorca, Ibiza, Menorca and Formentera in the Balearic archipelago.

Mountains and rivers

Teide, still an active volcano in Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Canary Islands, is the tallest peak in Spain.

Mainland Spain is a rather mountainous landmass, dominated by high plateaus and mountain chains. After the Pyrenees, the main mountain ranges are the Cordillera Cantábrica (Cantabrian Range), Sistema Ibérico (Iberian System), Sistema Central (Central System), Montes de Toledo, Sierra Morena and the Sistema Bético (Baetic System) whose highest peak, the 3,478-metre-high (11,411-foot) Mulhacén, located in Sierra Nevada, is the highest elevation in the Iberian Peninsula. The highest point in Spain is the Teide, a 3,718-metre (12,198 ft) active volcano in the Canary Islands. The Meseta Central (often translated as 'Inner Plateau') is a vast plateau in the heart of peninsular Spain split in two by the Sistema Central.

There are several major rivers in Spain such as the Tagus (Tajo), Ebro, Guadiana, Douro (Duero), Guadalquivir, Júcar, Segura, Turia and Minho (Miño). Alluvial plains are found along the coast, the largest of which is that of the Guadalquivir in Andalusia.

Climate

Köppen climate classification map of Spain.
Urriellu peak ( Naranjo de Bulnes) from Pozo de La Oracion, Picos de Europa

Three main climatic zones can be separated, according to geographical situation and orographic conditions: [91]

  • The Mediterranean climate, characterised by warm/hot and dry summers, is dominant in the peninsula. It has two varieties: Csa and Csb according to the Köppen climate classification.
    • The Csa zone is associated to areas with hot summers. It is predominant in the Mediterranean and Southern Atlantic coast and inland throughout Andalusia, Extremadura and much, if not most, of the centre of the country. The Csa zone covers climatic zones with both warm and cool winters which are considered extremely different from each other at a local level, reason for which Köppen classification is often eschewed within Spain. Local climatic maps generally divide the Mediterranean zone (which covers most of the country) between warm-winter and cool-winter zones, rather than according to summer temperatures.
    • The Csb zone has warm rather than hot summers, and extends to additional cool-winter areas not typically associated with a Mediterranean climate, such as much of central and northern-central of Spain (e.g. western Castile–León, northeastern Castilla-La Mancha and northern Madrid) and into much rainier areas (notably Galicia). Note areas with substantial summer rainfall such as Galicia are classed as oceanic.
  • The semi-arid climate (BSk, BSh), is predominant in the southeastern quarter of the country, but is also widespread in other areas of Spain. It covers most of the Region of Murcia, southern Valencia and eastern Andalusia. Further to the north, it is predominant in the upper and mid reaches of the Ebro valley, which crosses southern Navarre, central Aragon and western Catalonia. It also is found in Madrid, Extremadura, Castilla-La Mancha, and some locations of western Andalusia. The dry season extends beyond the summer and average temperature depends on altitude and latitude.
  • The oceanic climate (Cfb), located in the northern quarter of the country, especially in the Atlantic region ( Basque Country, Cantabria, Asturias, and partly Galicia and Castile–León). Additionally it is also found in northern Navarre, in most highlands areas along the Iberian System and in the Pyrenean valleys, where a humid subtropical variant (Cfa) also occurs. Winter and summer temperatures are influenced by the ocean, and have no seasonal drought.

Apart from these main types, other sub-types can be found, like the alpine climate in areas with very high altitude, the humid subtropical climate in areas of northeastern Spain and the continental climates (Dfc, Dfb / Dsc, Dsb) in the Pyrenees as well as parts of the Cantabrian Range, the Central System, Sierra Nevada and the Iberian System, and a typical desert climate (BWk, BWh) in the zone of Almería, Murcia and eastern Canary Islands. Low-lying areas of the Canary Islands average above 18.0 °C (64.4 °F) during their coolest month, thus having a tropical climate.

Climate change

Spain is one of the countries that is most affected by the climate crisis in Europe. Spain could see 2 °C (36 °F) warming compared to pre-industrial levels in the next twenty years, in the worst case scenario Spain will reach 4 °C (39 °F) warming by the end of the century. Due to declining rainfall Spain's droughts which are already one of the worst in Europe will be ten times worse compared to 2023. The WHO estimated that 4,000 people died in 2022 due to heat related stress in Spain. [92] 74% of the country is at risk of desertification [93]

Spain's per capita emissions was 4.92 tonnes in 2021, around 1.5 tonnes lower than the EU average. Spain was in 2021 responsible for 0.87% of cumulative global emissions. Spain committed to reduce 23% of emissions compared to 1990 levels in 2030 and to be net zero in 2050. [94]

Fauna and flora

The Iberian wolf in Castile and Leon. The region has 25% of the land covered by Natura 2000 protected natural spaces.

The fauna presents a wide diversity that is due in large part to the geographical position of the Iberian peninsula between the Atlantic and the Mediterranean and between Africa and Eurasia, and the great diversity of habitats and biotopes, the result of a considerable variety of climates and well differentiated regions.

The vegetation of Spain is varied due to several factors including the diversity of the terrain, the climate and latitude. Spain includes different phytogeographic regions, each with its own floral characteristics resulting largely from the interaction of climate, topography, soil type and fire, and biotic factors. The country had a 2019 Forest Landscape Integrity Index mean score of 4.23/10, ranking it 130th globally out of 172 countries. [95]

Within the European territory, Spain has the largest number of plant species (7,600 vascular plants) of all European countries. [96]

In Spain there are 17.804 billion trees and an average of 284 million more grow each year. [97]

Politics

The constitutional history of Spain dates back to the constitution of 1812. In June 1976, Spain's new King Juan Carlos dismissed Carlos Arias Navarro and appointed the reformer Adolfo Suárez as Prime Minister. [98] [99] The resulting general election in 1977 convened the Constituent Cortes (the Spanish Parliament, in its capacity as a constitutional assembly) for the purpose of drafting and approving the constitution of 1978. [100] After a national referendum on 6 December 1978, 88% of voters approved of the new constitution – a culmination of the Spanish transition to democracy. As a result, Spain is now composed of 17 autonomous communities and two autonomous cities with varying degrees of autonomy thanks to its Constitution, which nevertheless explicitly states the indivisible unity of the Spanish nation.

The Spanish administration approved the Gender Equality Act in 2007 aimed at furthering equality between genders in Spanish political and economic life. [101] According to Inter-Parliamentary Union data as of 1 September 2018, 137 of the 350 members of the Congress were women (39.1%), while in the Senate, there were 101 women out of 266 (39.9%), placing Spain 16th on their list of countries ranked by proportion of women in the lower (or single) House. [102] The Gender Empowerment Measure of Spain in the United Nations Human Development Report is 0.794, 12th in the world. [103]

Government

The Congress of Deputies
The Senate of Spain

Spain is a constitutional monarchy, with a hereditary monarch and a bicameral parliament, the Cortes Generales (English: Spanish Parliament, lit.'General Courts'). [104] The legislative branch is made up of the Congress of Deputies (Congreso de los Diputados), a lower house with 350 members, elected by popular vote on block lists by proportional representation to serve four-year terms, and the Senate (Senado), an upper house with 259 seats of which 208 are directly elected by popular vote, using a limited voting method, and the other 51 appointed by the regional legislatures to also serve four-year terms. The executive branch consists of a Council of Ministers presided over by the Prime Minister, who is nominated as candidate by the monarch after holding consultations with representatives from the different parliamentary groups, voted in by the members of the lower house during an investiture session and then formally appointed by the monarch.

Spain is organisationally structured as a so-called Estado de las Autonomías ("State of Autonomies"); it is one of the most decentralised countries in Europe, along with Switzerland, Germany and Belgium; [105] for example, all autonomous communities have their own elected parliaments, governments, public administrations, budgets, and resources. Health and education systems among others are managed by the Spanish communities, and in addition, the Basque Country and Navarre also manage their own public finances based on foral provisions. In Catalonia, the Basque Country, Navarre and the Canary Islands, a full-fledged autonomous police corps replaces some of the State police functions (see Mossos d'Esquadra, Ertzaintza, Policía Foral/Foruzaingoa and Policía Canaria).

Foreign relations

Royal Palace of Pedralbes in Barcelona, headquarters of the Union for the Mediterranean

After the return of democracy following the death of Franco in 1975, Spain's foreign policy priorities were to break out of the diplomatic isolation of the Franco years and expand diplomatic relations, enter the European Community, and define security relations with the West.

As a member of NATO since 1982, Spain has established itself as a participant in multilateral international security activities. Spain's EU membership represents an important part of its foreign policy. Even on many international issues beyond western Europe, Spain prefers to coordinate its efforts with its EU partners through the European political co-operation mechanisms.[ vague]

Spain has maintained its special relations with Hispanic America and the Philippines. Its policy emphasises the concept of an Ibero-American community, essentially the renewal of the concept of " Hispanidad" or " Hispanismo", as it is often referred to in English, which has sought to link the Iberian Peninsula with Hispanic America through language, commerce, history and culture. It is fundamentally "based on shared values and the recovery of democracy." [106]

Aerial view showing the Rock of Gibraltar, the isthmus of Gibraltar and the Bay of Gibraltar

The country is involved in a number of territorial disputes. Spain claims Gibraltar, a Overseas Territory of the United Kingdom in the southernmost part of the Iberian Peninsula. [107] [108] [109] Another dispute surrounds the Savage Islands; Spain claims that they are rocks rather than islands, and therefore does not accept the Portuguese Exclusive Economic Zone (200 nautical miles) generated by the islands. [110] [111] Spain claims sovereignty over the Perejil Island, a small, uninhabited rocky islet located in the South shore of the Strait of Gibraltar; it was the subject of an armed incident between Spain and Morocco in 2002. Morocco claims the Spanish cities of Ceuta and Melilla and the plazas de soberanía islets off the northern coast of Africa. Portugal does not recognise Spain's sovereignty over the territory of Olivenza. [112]

Military

Amphibious assault ship- aircraft carrier Juan Carlos I

The Spanish Armed Forces are divided into three branches: Army (Ejército de Tierra); Navy (Armada); and Air and Space Force (Ejército del Aire y del Espacio). [113]

The armed forces of Spain are known as the Spanish Armed Forces (Fuerzas Armadas Españolas). Their commander-in-chief is the King of Spain, Felipe VI. [114] The next military authorities in line are the Prime Minister and the Minister of Defence. The fourth military authority of the State is the Chief of the Defence Staff (JEMAD). [115] The Defence Staff (Estado Mayor de la Defensa) assists the JEMAD as auxiliary body.

The Spanish armed forces are a professional force with a strength in 2017 of 121,900 active personnel and 4,770 reserve personnel. The country also has the 77,000 strong Civil Guard which comes under the control of the Ministry of defense in times of a national emergency. The Spanish defense budget is 5.71 billion euros (US$7.2 billion) a 1% increase for 2015. The increase comes because of security concerns in the country. [116] Military conscription was suppressed in 2001. [117]

Human rights

Puerta de Alcalá, Madrid, illuminated with the rainbow colours during the celebrations of WorldPride 2017

The Spanish Constitution of 1978 "protect all Spaniards and all the peoples of Spain in the exercise of human rights, their cultures and traditions, languages and institutions". [118]

According to Amnesty International (AI), government investigations of alleged police abuses are often lengthy and punishments were light. [119] Violence against women was a problem, which the Government took steps to address. [120] [121]

Spain provides one of the highest degrees of liberty in the world for its LGBT community. Among the countries studied by Pew Research Center in 2013, Spain is rated first in acceptance of homosexuality, with 88% of those surveyed saying that homosexuality should be accepted. [122]

Administrative divisions

Autonomous communities

Spain's autonomous communities are the first level administrative divisions of the country. They were created after the current constitution came into effect (in 1978) in recognition of the right to self-government of the " nationalities and regions of Spain". [123] The autonomous communities were to comprise adjacent provinces with common historical, cultural, and economic traits. This territorial organisation, based on devolution, is known in Spain as the "State of Autonomies". The basic institutional law of each autonomous community is the Statute of Autonomy. The Statutes of Autonomy establish the name of the community according to its historical and contemporary identity, the limits of its territories, the name and organisation of the institutions of government and the rights they enjoy according to the constitution. [124]

Catalonia, Galicia and the Basque Country, which identified themselves as nationalities, were granted self-government through a rapid process. Andalusia also identified itself as a nationality in its first Statute of Autonomy, even though it followed the longer process stipulated in the constitution for the rest of the country. Progressively, other communities in revisions to their Statutes of Autonomy have also taken that denomination in accordance with their historical and modern identities, such as the Valencian Community, [125] the Canary Islands, [126] the Balearic Islands, [127] and Aragon. [128]

The autonomous communities have wide legislative and executive autonomy, with their own parliaments and governments. The distribution of powers may be different for every community, as laid out in their Statutes of Autonomy, since devolution was intended to be asymmetrical. Only two communities—the Basque Country and Navarre—have full fiscal autonomy. Beyond fiscal autonomy, the nationalities—Andalusia, the Basque Country, Catalonia, and Galicia—were devolved more powers than the rest of the communities, among them the ability of the regional president to dissolve the parliament and call for elections at any time. In addition, the Basque Country, Catalonia and Navarre have police corps of their own: Ertzaintza, Mossos d'Esquadra and the Policía Foral respectively. Other communities have more limited forces or none at all, like the Policía Autónoma Andaluza [129] in Andalusia or the BESCAM in Madrid.

Provinces and municipalities

Autonomous communities are divided into provinces, which served as their territorial building blocks. In turn, provinces are divided into municipalities. The existence of both the provinces and the municipalities is guaranteed and protected by the constitution, not necessarily by the Statutes of Autonomy themselves. Municipalities are granted autonomy to manage their internal affairs, and provinces are the territorial divisions designed to carry out the activities of the State. [130]

The current provincial division structure is based—with minor changes—on the 1833 territorial division by Javier de Burgos, and in all, the Spanish territory is divided into 50 provinces. The communities of Asturias, Cantabria, La Rioja, the Balearic Islands, Madrid, Murcia and Navarre are the only communities that comprise a single province, which is coextensive with the community itself. In these cases, the administrative institutions of the province are replaced by the governmental institutions of the community.

Economy

Cuatro Torres Business Area in Madrid.
Torre Glòries and the 22@ business district in Barcelona

Spain's capitalist mixed economy is the 14th largest worldwide and the 4th largest in the European Union, as well as the Eurozone's 4th largest.The centre-right government of former prime minister José María Aznar worked successfully to gain admission to the group of countries launching the euro in 1999. Unemployment stood at 17.1% in June 2017, [131] below Spain's early 1990s unemployment rate of at over 20%. The youth unemployment rate (35% in March 2018) is extremely high compared to EU standards. [132] Perennial weak points of Spain's economy include a large informal economy, [133] [134] [135] and an education system which OECD reports place among the poorest for developed countries, along with the United States. [136]

Since the 1990s some Spanish companies have gained multinational status, often expanding their activities in culturally close Latin America. Spain is the second biggest foreign investor there, after the United States. Spanish companies have also expanded into Asia, especially China and India. [137] Spanish companies invested in fields like renewable energy commercialisation ( Iberdrola was the world's largest renewable energy operator [138]), technology companies like Telefónica, Abengoa, Mondragon Corporation (which is the world's largest worker-owned cooperative), Movistar, Hisdesat, Indra, train manufacturers like CAF, Talgo, global corporations such as the textile company Inditex, petroleum companies like Repsol or Cepsa and infrastructure, with six of the ten biggest international construction firms specialising in transport being Spanish, like Ferrovial, Acciona, ACS, OHL and FCC. [139]

Banco Santander headquarters in Santander, the largest Spanish company

The automotive industry in Spain is one of the largest employers in the country. In 2015 Spain was the 8th largest automobile producer country in the world [140] and still in 2022 the 2nd largest car manufacturer in Europe after Germany. [141] By 2016, the automotive industry was generating 8.7 percent of Spain's gross domestic product, employing about nine percent of the manufacturing industry. [140] By 2008 the automobile industry was the 2nd most exported industry [142] while in 2015 about 80% of the total production was for export. [140] German companies poured €4.8 billion into Spain in 2015, making the country the second-largest destination for German foreign direct investment behind only the U.S. The lion's share of that investment—€4 billion—went to the country's auto industry. [140]

Tourism

Benidorm, one of Europe's largest coastal tourist destinations

In 2017, Spain was the second most visited country in the world, recording 82 million tourists which marked the fifth consecutive year of record-beating numbers. [143] The headquarters of the World Tourism Organization are located in Madrid.

Spain's geographic location, popular coastlines, diverse landscapes, historical legacy, vibrant culture, and excellent infrastructure has made the country's international tourist industry among the largest in the world. In the last five decades, international tourism in Spain has grown to become the second largest in the world in terms of spending, worth approximately 40 billion Euros or about 5% of GDP in 2006. [144] [145]

Castile and Leon is the Spanish leader in rural tourism linked to its environmental and architectural heritage.

Energy

The Solucar Complex, with the PS10 Solar Power Plant in the foreground and the PS20 in the background

In 2010 Spain became the solar power world leader when it overtook the United States with a massive power station plant called La Florida, near Alvarado, Badajoz. [146] [147] Spain is also Europe's main producer of wind energy. [148] [149] In 2010 its wind turbines generated 16.4% of all electrical energy produced in Spain. [150] [151] [152] On 9 November 2010, wind energy reached a historic peak covering 53% of mainland electricity demand [153] and generating an amount of energy that is equivalent to that of 14 nuclear reactors. [154] Other renewable energies used in Spain are hydroelectric, biomass and marine. [155]

Non-renewable energy sources used in Spain are nuclear (8 operative reactors), gas, coal, and oil. Fossil fuels together generated 58% of Spain's electricity in 2009, just below the OECD mean of 61%. Nuclear power generated another 19%, and wind and hydro about 12% each. [156]

Science and technology

The Gran Telescopio Canarias at sunset.

The Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) is the leading public agency dedicated to scientific research in the country. It ranked as the 5th top governmental scientific institution worldwide (and 32nd overall) in the 2018 SCImago Institutions Rankings. [157] Spain was ranked 29th in the Global Innovation Index in 2022. [158]

Higher education institutions perform about a 60% of the basic research in the country. [159] Likewise, the contribution of the private sector to R&D expenditures is much lower than in other EU and OECD countries. [160]

Transport

High-speed AVE Class 103 train near Vinaixa, Madrid-Barcelona line. Spain has the longest high-speed rail network in Europe [161]
The Port of Valencia, one of the busiest in the Golden Banana

The Spanish road system is mainly centralised, with six highways connecting Madrid to the Basque Country, Catalonia, Valencia, West Andalusia, Extremadura and Galicia. Additionally, there are highways along the Atlantic ( Ferrol to Vigo), Cantabrian ( Oviedo to San Sebastián) and Mediterranean ( Girona to Cádiz) coasts. Spain aims to put one million electric cars on the road by 2014 as part of the government's plan to save energy and boost energy efficiency. [162] The former Minister of Industry Miguel Sebastián said that "the electric vehicle is the future and the engine of an industrial revolution." [163]

Spain has the most extensive high-speed rail network in Europe, and the second-most extensive in the world after China. [164] [165] As of 2019, Spain has a total of over 3,400 km (2,112.66 mi) of high-speed tracks [166] linking Málaga, Seville, Madrid, Barcelona, Valencia and Valladolid, with the trains operated at commercial speeds up to 310 km/h (190 mph). [167] On average, the Spanish high-speed train is the fastest one in the world, followed by the Japanese bullet train and the French TGV. [168] Regarding punctuality, it is second in the world (98.5% on-time arrival) after the Japanese Shinkansen (99%). [169] Should the aims of the ambitious AVE programme (Spanish high speed trains) be met, by 2020 Spain will have 7,000 km (4,300 mi) of high-speed trains linking almost all provincial cities to Madrid in less than three hours and Barcelona within four hours.

There are 47 public airports in Spain. The busiest one is the airport of Madrid (Barajas), with 50 million passengers in 2011, being the world's 15th busiest airport, as well as the European Union's fourth busiest. The airport of Barcelona (El Prat) is also important, with 35 million passengers in 2011, being the world's 31st-busiest airport. Other main airports are located in Majorca, Málaga, Las Palmas (Gran Canaria), and Alicante.

Demographics

Population density by municipality in Spain, 2018

In 2019, the population of Spain officially reached 47 million people, as recorded by the Padrón municipal (Spain's Municipal Register). [170] Spain's population density, at 91/km2 (235/sq mi), is lower than that of most Western European countries and its distribution across the country is very unequal. With the exception of the region surrounding the capital, Madrid, the most populated areas lie around the coast. The population of Spain has risen 2 1/2 times since 1900, when it stood at 18.6 million, principally due to the spectacular demographic boom in the 1960s and early 1970s. [171]

In 2017, the average total fertility rate (TFR) across Spain was 1.33 children born per woman, [172] one of the lowest in the world, below the replacement rate of 2.1, it remains considerably below the high of 5.11 children born per woman in 1865. [173] Spain subsequently has one of the oldest populations in the world, with the average age of 43.1 years. [174]

Native Spaniards make up 88% of the total population of Spain. After the birth rate plunged in the 1980s and Spain's population growth rate dropped, the population again trended upward initially upon the return of many Spaniards who had emigrated to other European countries during the 1970s, and more recently, fuelled by large numbers of immigrants who make up 12% of the population. The immigrants originate mainly in Latin America (39%), North Africa (16%), Eastern Europe (15%), and Sub-Saharan Africa (4%). [175]

In 2008, Spain granted citizenship to 84,170 persons, mostly to people from Ecuador, Colombia and Morocco. [176] Spain has a number of descendants of populations from former colonies, especially Latin America and North Africa. Smaller numbers of immigrants from several Sub-Saharan countries have recently been settling in Spain. There are also sizeable numbers of Asian immigrants, most of whom are of Middle Eastern, South Asian and Chinese origin. The single largest group of immigrants are European; represented by large numbers of Romanians, Britons, Germans, French and others. [177]

Urbanisation

 
 
Largest cities or towns in Spain
Rank Name Autonomous community Pop. Rank Name Autonomous community Pop.
Madrid
Madrid
Barcelona
Barcelona
1 Madrid Community of Madrid 3,266,126 11 Alicante Valencian Community 334,887 Valencia
Valencia
Seville
Seville
2 Barcelona Catalonia 1,608,746 12 Córdoba Andalusia 325,701
3 Valencia Valencian Community 794,288 13 Valladolid Castile and León 298,412
4 Seville Andalusia 688,592 14 Vigo Galicia 295,364
5 Zaragoza Aragon 674,997 15 Gijón Principality of Asturias 271,780
6 Málaga Andalusia 574,654 16 L'Hospitalet Catalonia 254,804
7 Murcia Region of Murcia 453,258 17 Vitoria-Gasteiz Basque Country 251,774
8 Palma Balearic Islands 416,065 18 A Coruña Galicia 245,711
9 Las Palmas Canary Islands 379,925 19 Elche Valencian Community 232,517
10 Bilbao Basque Country 346,843 20 Granada Andalusia 232,462

Immigration

Distribution of the foreign population in Spain in 2005 by percentage

According to the official Spanish statistics ( INE) there were 5.4 million foreign residents in Spain in 2020 (11.4%) [178] while all citizens born outside of Spain were 7.2 million in 2020, 15.23% of the total population. [3]

According to residence permit data for 2011, more than 860,000 were Romanian, about 770,000 were Moroccan, approximately 390,000 were British, and 360,000 were Ecuadorian. [179] Other sizeable foreign communities are Colombian, Bolivian, German, Italian, Bulgarian, and Chinese. There are more than 200,000 migrants from Sub-Saharan Africa living in Spain, principally Senegaleses and Nigerians. [180] Since 2000, Spain has experienced high population growth as a result of immigration flows, despite a birth rate that is only half the replacement level. This sudden and ongoing inflow of immigrants, particularly those arriving illegally by sea, has caused noticeable social tension. [181]

Within the EU, Spain had the 2nd highest immigration rate in percentage terms after Cyprus, but by a great margin, the highest in absolute numbers, up to 2008. [182] The number of immigrants in Spain had grown up from 500,000 people in 1996 to 5.2 million in 2008 out of a total population of 46 million. [183] In 2005 alone, a regularisation programme increased the legal immigrant population by 700,000 people. [184] There are a number of reasons for the high level of immigration, including Spain's cultural ties with Latin America, its geographical position, the porosity of its borders, the large size of its underground economy and the strength of the agricultural and construction sectors, which demand more low cost labour than can be offered by the national workforce.

Another statistically significant factor is the large number of residents of EU origin typically retiring to Spain's Mediterranean coast. In fact, Spain was Europe's largest absorber of migrants from 2002 to 2007, with its immigrant population more than doubling as 2.5 million people arrived. [185] In 2008, prior to the onset of the economic crisis, the Financial Times reported that Spain was the most favoured destination for Western Europeans considering a move from their own country and seeking jobs elsewhere in the EU. [186]

In 2008, the government instituted a "Plan of Voluntary Return" which encouraged unemployed immigrants from outside the EU to return to their home countries and receive several incentives, including the right to keep their unemployment benefits and transfer whatever they contributed to the Spanish Social Security. [187] The programme had little effect. [188] What the programme failed to do, the sharp and prolonged economic crisis has done from 2010 to 2011 in that tens of thousands of immigrants have left the country due to lack of jobs. In 2011 alone, more than half a million people left Spain. [189] For the first time in decades the net migration rate was expected to be negative, and nine out of 10 emigrants were foreigners. [189]

Languages

Languages of Spain

Spain is a multilingual state. [190] Spanish—featured in the 1978 Spanish Constitution as castellano ( 'Castilian')—has effectively been the official language of the entire country since 1931. [191] As allowed in the third article of the Constitution, the other 'Spanish languages' can also become official in their respective autonomous communities. The territoriality created by the form of co-officiality codified in the 1978 Constitution creates an asymmetry, in which Spanish speakers' rights apply to the entire territory whereas vis-à-vis the rest of co-official languages, their speakers' rights only apply in their territories. [192]

Besides Spanish, other territorialized languages include Aragonese, Aranese, Astur-Leonese, Basque, Ceutan Arabic ( Darija), Catalan, Galician, Portuguese and Tamazight, to which the Romani Caló and the sign languages may add up. [193] The number of speakers varies widely and their legal recognition is uneven, with some of the most vulnerable languages lacking any sort of effective protection. [194] Those enjoying recognition as official language in some autonomous communities include Catalan (in Catalonia, the Balearic Islands and the Valencian Community, where it is referred to as ' Valencian'); Galician (in Galicia); Basque (in the Basque Country and part of Navarre); and Aranese in Catalonia.

Spanish is natively spoken by 74%, Catalan by 17%, Galician by 7% and Basque by 2% of the Spanish population. [195]

Some of the most spoken foreign languages used by the immigrant communities include Moroccan Arabic, Romanian and English. [196]

Education

University of Salamanca one of the first european universities

State education in Spain is free and compulsory from the age of six to sixteen. The current education system is regulated by the 2006 educational law, LOE (Ley Orgánica de Educación), or Fundamental Law for the Education. [197] In 2014, the LOE was partially modified by the newer and controversial LOMCE law (Ley Orgánica para la Mejora de la Calidad Educativa), or Fundamental Law for the Improvement of the Education System, commonly called Ley Wert (Wert Law). [198] Since 1970 to 2014, Spain has had seven different educational laws (LGE, LOECE, LODE, LOGSE, LOPEG, LOE and LOMCE). [199]

The levels of education are preschool education, primary education, [200] secondary education [201] and post-16 education. [202] In regards to the professional development education or the vocational education, there are three levels besides the university degrees: the Formación Profesional Básica (basic vocational education); the Ciclo Formativo de Grado Medio or CFGM (medium level vocation education) which can be studied after studying the secondary education, and the Ciclo Formativo de Grado Superior or CFGS (higher level vocational education), which can be studied after studying the post-16 education level. [203]

The Programme for International Student Assessment coordinated by the OECD currently ranks the overall knowledge and skills of Spanish 15-year-olds as significantly below the OECD average of 493 in reading literacy, mathematics, and science. [204] [205]

Health

The health care system of Spain ( Spanish National Health System) is considered one of the best in the world, in 7th position in the ranking elaborated by the World Health Organization. [206] The health care is public, universal and free for any legal citizen of Spain. [207] The total health spending is 9.4% of the GDP, slightly above the average of 9.3% of the OECD.

Religion

Religious self-definition in Spain ( CIS survey; sample size: 3,935; February 2023) [208]

  Practicing Catholic (18.5%)
  Non-Practicing Catholic (37.5%)
  Believer in another religion (2.7%)
   Agnostic (12.6%)
  Indifferent/Non-believer (12.3%)
   Atheist (14.9%)
  Did not answer (1.5%)

Roman Catholicism, which has a long history in Spain, remains the dominant religion. Although it no longer has official status by law, in all public schools in Spain students have to choose either a religion or ethics class. Catholicism is the religion most commonly taught, although the teaching of Islam, [209] Judaism, [210] and evangelical Christianity [211] is also recognised in law. According to a 2020 study by the Spanish Centre for Sociological Research, about 61% of Spaniards self-identify as Catholics, 3% other faiths, and about 35% identify with no religion. [212] Most Spaniards do not participate regularly in religious services. [213] Recent polls and surveys suggest that around 30% of the Spanish population is irreligious. [213] [214] [215]

The Spanish constitution enshrines secularism in governance, as well as freedom of religion or belief for all, saying that no religion should have a "state character", while allowing for the state to "cooperate" with religious groups.

Protestant churches have about 1,200,000 members. [216] There are about 105,000 Jehovah's Witnesses. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints has approximately 46,000 adherents in 133 congregations. [217]

A study made by the Union of Islamic Communities of Spain demonstrated that there were more than 2,100,000 inhabitants of Muslim background living in Spain as of 2019, accounting for 4–5% of the total population of Spain. The vast majority was composed of immigrants and descendants originating from the Maghreb (especially Morocco) and other African countries. More than 879,000 (42%) of them had Spanish nationality. [218]

Judaism was practically non-existent in Spain from the 1492 expulsion until the 19th century, when Jews were again permitted to enter the country. Currently there are around 62,000 Jews in Spain, or 0.14% of the total population.

Culture

Spain is a Western country and one of the major Latin countries of Europe, and a cultural superpower. [219] [220] Spanish culture is marked by strong historic ties to the Catholic Church, which played a pivotal role in the country's formation and subsequent identity. [221] Spanish art, architecture, cuisine, and music have been shaped by successive waves of foreign invaders, as well as by the country's Mediterranean climate and geography. The centuries-long colonial era globalised Spanish language and culture, with Spain also absorbing the cultural and commercial products of its diverse empire.

World Heritage Sites

Spain has 49 World Heritage Sites. These include the landscape of Monte Perdido in the Pyrenees, which is shared with France, the Prehistoric Rock Art Sites of the Côa Valley and Siega Verde, which is shared with Portugal, the Heritage of Mercury, shared with Slovenia and the Ancient and Primeval Beech Forests, shared with other countries of Europe. [222] In addition, Spain has also 14 Intangible cultural heritage, or "Human treasures". [223]

Literature

Some early examples of vernacular Romance-based literature include short snippets of Mozarabic Romance (such as refrains) sprinkled in Arabic and Hebrew texts. [224] Other examples of early Iberian Romance include the Glosas Emilianenses written in Latin, Basque and Romance. [225]

Bronze statues of Don Quixote and Sancho Panza, at the Plaza de España in Madrid

Early Medieval literature in Christian Iberia was written in Latin, which remained as the standard literary language up until the mid-13th century, whereas Ibero-Romance vernaculars and Basque were spoken. [226] A decisive development ensued in the 13th century in Toledo, where Arabic scholarship was translated to the local vernacular, Castilian. In the scope of lyric poetry Castilian co-existed alongside Galician-Portuguese across the Crown of Castile up until the 16th century. [227] The Romance variety preferred in Eastern Iberia for lyrical poetry, Occitan, became increasingly Catalanised in the 14th and 15th centuries. [228] Major literary works from the Middle Ages include the Cantar de Mio Cid, Tirant lo Blanch, The Book of Good Love and Coplas por la muerte de su padre. Genres such as Mester de Juglaría and Mester de Clerecía were cultivated.

Promoted by the monarchs in the late Middle Ages and even codified in the late 15th century, Castilian (thought to be widespread known as 'Spanish' from the 16th century on) progressively became the language of the elites in the Iberian Peninsula, which ushered in a Golden era of Castilian literature in the 16th and 17th centuries, also in the science domain, eclipsing Galician and Catalan. [229] Famous Early Modern works include La Celestina and Lazarillo de Tormes. The famous Don Quijote de La Mancha by Miguel de Cervantes was written in this time. Other writers from the period are: Francisco de Quevedo, Lope de Vega, Calderón de la Barca or Tirso de Molina.During the Enlightenment authors included Leandro Fernández de Moratín, Benito Jerónimo Feijóo, Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos or Leandro Fernández de Moratín.

Steps of Spanish Romantic literature (initially a rebellion against French classicism) have been traced back to the last quarter of the 18th century, even if the movement had its heyday between 1835 and 1850, waning thereafter. [230] In a broader definition encompassing the period from 1868 or 1874 to 1936, the so-called Silver Age of Spanish Culture ensued. [231] [232]

The waning of Romantic literature was followed by the development of Spanish Realism, which offered depictions of contemporary life and society 'as they were', rather than romanticised or stylised presentations.[ citation needed] The major realist writer was Benito Pérez Galdós. [233] The second half of the 19th century also saw the resurgence of the literary use of local languages other than Spanish under cultural movements inspired by Romanticism such as the Catalan Renaixença or the Galician Rexurdimento. [234] Rarely used before in a written medium, the true fostering of the literary use of the Basque language had to wait until the 1960s, even if some interest towards the language had developed in the late 19th century. [235] 20th-century authors were classified in loose literary generations such as the Generation of '98, the Generation of '27, Generation of '36 and the Generation of '50. Premio Planeta de Novela and Miguel de Cervantes Prize are the two main awards in Spanish literature.

Philosophy

The construct pertaining a distinctive Spanish philosophical thought has been variously approached by academia, either by diachronically tracing its development throughout the centuries from the Roman conquest of Hispania on (with early representatives such as Seneca, Trajan, Lucan, or Martial); by pinpointing its origins to the late 19th century (associated to the Generation of 98); or simply by outright denying its existence. [236] The crux around the existence of a Spanish philosophy pitted the likes of Marcelino Menéndez y Pelayo (chief architect of the myth around it) [237] against Antonio Pérez. [238] Foreign imports such as Krausism proved to be extremely influential in Spain in the 19th and early 20th centuries. [239]

Art

Las Meninas by Diego Velázquez

Artists from Spain have been highly influential in the development of various European and American artistic movements. Due to historical, geographical and generational diversity, Spanish art has known a great number of influences. The Mediterranean heritage with Greco-Roman and some Moorish influences in Spain, especially in Andalusia, is still evident today. European influences include Italy, Germany and France, especially during the Renaissance, Spanish Baroque and Neoclassical periods. There are many other autochthonous styles such as the Pre-Romanesque art and architecture, Herrerian architecture or the Isabelline Gothic.[ citation needed]

During the Golden Age painters working in Spain included El Greco, José de Ribera, Bartolomé Esteban Murillo and Francisco Zurbarán. Also in the Baroque period, Diego Velázquez created some of the most famous Spanish portraits, such as Las Meninas and Las Hilanderas. [240]

Francisco Goya painted during a historical period that includes the Spanish Independence War, the fights between liberals and absolutists, and the rise of contemporary nations-states.[ citation needed]

Joaquín Sorolla is a well-known modern impressionist painter and there are many important Spanish painters belonging to the modernism art movement, including Pablo Picasso, Salvador Dalí, Juan Gris and Joan Miró.[ citation needed]

Sculpture

The Comb of the Wind of Eduardo Chillida in San Sebastián

The Plateresque style extended from beginnings of the 16th century until the last third of the century and its stylistic influence pervaded the works of all great Spanish artists of the time. Alonso Berruguete ( Valladolid School) is called the "Prince of Spanish sculpture". His main works were the upper stalls of the choir of the Cathedral of Toledo, the tomb of Cardinal Tavera in the same Cathedral, and the altarpiece of the Visitation in the church of Santa Úrsula in the same locality. Other notable sculptors were Bartolomé Ordóñez, Diego de Siloé, Juan de Juni and Damián Forment.[ citation needed]

There were two Schools: the Seville School, to which Juan Martínez Montañés belonged, whose most celebrated works are the Crucifix in the Cathedral of Seville, another in Vergara, and a Saint John; and the Granada School, to which Alonso Cano belonged, to whom an Immaculate Conception and a Virgin of Rosary, are attributed.[ citation needed]

Other notable Andalusian Baroque sculptors were Pedro de Mena, Pedro Roldán and his daughter Luisa Roldán, Juan de Mesa and Pedro Duque Cornejo. In the 20th century the most important Spanish sculptors were Julio González, Pablo Gargallo, Eduardo Chillida, and Pablo Serrano.

Cinema

Pedro Almodóvar and Penélope Cruz in Oviedo

After the first projection of a cinematographer in Spain by 1896, cinema developed in the following years, with Barcelona becoming the largest production hub in the country (as well as a major European hub) on the eve of the World War I. [241] The conflict offered the Spanish industry of silent films an opportunity for further growth. [242] Local studios for sound films were created in 1932. [243] The government imposition of dubbing of foreign films in 1941 accustomed Spanish audiences to watching dubbed films. [244]

Spanish cinema has achieved major international success including Oscars for recent films such as Pan's Labyrinth and Volver. [245]

Distinct exploitation genres that flourished in the second half of the 20th century include the Fantaterror [ es], the cine quinqui and the so-called destape [ es] films. [246]

As of 2021, the festivals of San Sebastián and Málaga are ranked among the top cultural initiatives in the country. [247]

Architecture

Basilica Sagrada Família in Barcelona

Earth and gypsum are very common materials of the traditional vernacular architecture in Spain (particularly in the East of the country, where most of the deposits of gypsum are located). [248] Due to its historical and geographical diversity, Spanish architecture has drawn from a host of influences. Fine examples of Islamicate architecture, belonging to the Western Islamic tradition, were built in the Middle Ages in places such as Córdoba, Seville, or Granada. Similarly to the Maghreb, stucco decoration in Al-Andalus became an architectural stylemark in the high Middle Ages. [249]

Simultaneously, the Christian kingdoms also developed their own styles; developing a pre-Romanesque style when for a while isolated from contemporary mainstream European architectural influences during the earlier Middle Ages, they later integrated the Romanesque and Gothic streams. There was then an extraordinary flourishing of the Gothic style that resulted in numerous instances being built throughout the entire territory. The so-called Mudéjar style came to designate works by Muslims, Christians and Jews in lands conquered from Muslims. [250]

The arrival of Modernism produced much of the architecture of the 20th century. An influential style centred in Barcelona, known as modernisme, produced a number of important architects, of which Gaudí is one. The International style was led by groups like GATEPAC. Spain is currently experiencing a revolution in contemporary architecture and Spanish architects like Rafael Moneo, Santiago Calatrava, Ricardo Bofill as well as many others have gained worldwide renown.[ citation needed]

Music and dance

Flamenco is an Andalusian artistic form that evolved from Seguidilla.

Spanish music is often considered abroad to be synonymous with flamenco, a West Andalusian musical genre, which, contrary to popular belief, is not widespread outside that region. Various regional styles of folk music abound. Pop, rock, hip hop and heavy metal are also popular.

In the field of classical music, Spain has produced a number of noted composers such as Isaac Albéniz, Manuel de Falla and Enrique Granados and singers and performers such as Plácido Domingo, José Carreras, Montserrat Caballé, Alicia de Larrocha, Alfredo Kraus, Pablo Casals, Ricardo Viñes, José Iturbi, Pablo de Sarasate, Jordi Savall and Teresa Berganza. In Spain there are over forty professional orchestras, including the Orquestra Simfònica de Barcelona, Orquesta Nacional de España and the Orquesta Sinfónica de Madrid. Major opera houses include the Teatro Real, the Gran Teatre del Liceu, Teatro Arriaga and the El Palau de les Arts Reina Sofía.

Thousands of music fans also travel to Spain each year for internationally recognised summer music festivals Sónar which features pop and techno acts, and Benicàssim which tends to feature alternative rock and dance acts. [251] The Vitoria-Gasteiz jazz festival is one of the main ones in its genre.

The most popular traditional musical instrument, the guitar, originated in Spain. [252] Typical of the north are the traditional bag pipers or gaiteros, mainly in Asturias and Galicia.

Cuisine

Paella, a traditional Valencian dish [253]
Jamón ibérico is one of the most expensive hams. [254] [255]

Spanish cuisine consists of a great variety of dishes which stem from differences in geography, culture and climate. It is heavily influenced by seafood available from the waters that surround the country, and reflects the country's deep Mediterranean roots. Spain's extensive history with many cultural influences has led to a unique cuisine. In particular, three main divisions are easily identified:

Mediterranean Spain – coastal regions, from Catalonia to Andalusia – heavy use of seafood, such as pescaíto frito (fried fish); cold soups like gazpacho; and many rice-based dishes like paella from Valencia [253] and arròs negre (black rice) from Catalonia. [256]

Inner Spain – Castile – hot, thick soups such as the bread and garlic-based Castilian soup, along with substantial stews such as cocido madrileño. Food is traditionally preserved by salting, such as Spanish ham, or immersed in olive oil, such as Manchego cheese.

Atlantic Spain – the Northern coast, including Asturian, Basque, Cantabrian and Galician cuisine – vegetable and fish-based stews like caldo gallego and marmitako. Also, the lightly cured lacón ham. The best known cuisine of the northern countries often rely on ocean seafood, as in the Basque-style cod, albacore or anchovy or the Galician octopus-based polbo á feira and shellfish dishes.

Sport

Spain or La Roja lineup in 2015. Football is the most popular and profitable [257] sport in the country.

While varieties of football have been played in Spain as far back as Roman times, sport in Spain has been dominated by football since the early 20th century. Real Madrid CF and FC Barcelona are two of the most successful football clubs in the world. The country's national men's football team won the UEFA European Championship in 1964, 2008 and 2012 and the FIFA World Cup in 2010, and is the first team ever to win three back-to-back major international tournaments.[ citation needed]

Basketball, tennis, cycling, handball, futsal, motorcycling and, lately, Formula One also can boast of Spanish champions. Today, Spain is a major world sports powerhouse, especially since the 1992 Summer Olympics and Paralympics that were hosted in Barcelona, which stimulated a great deal of interest in sports in the country. The tourism industry has led to an improvement in sports infrastructure, especially for water sports, golf and skiing. In their respective regions, the traditional games of Basque pelota and Valencian pilota both are popular.[ citation needed]

Public holidays and festivals

Canarian carnival

Public holidays celebrated in Spain include a mix of religious ( Roman Catholic), national and local observances. Each municipality is allowed to declare a maximum of 14 public holidays per year; up to nine of these are chosen by the national government and at least two are chosen locally. [258] Spain's National Day (Fiesta Nacional de España) is celebrated on 12 October. [259] [260]

There are many festivals and festivities in Spain. One of the most famous is San Fermín, in Pamplona. While its most famous event is the encierro, or the running of the bulls. It has become one of the most internationally renowned fiestas in Spain, with over 1,000,000 people attending every year.

Other festivals include: La Tomatina tomato festival in Buñol, Valencia, the carnivals in the Canary Islands, the Falles in Valencia or the Holy Week in Andalusia and Castile and León.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ In Spain, some other languages enjoy co-official status in certain regions in accordance with the latter's Statutes of Autonomy. In each of these, Spain's conventional long name for international affairs in Spanish laws and the most used (Spanish: Reino de España, pronounced: [ˈrejno ð(e) esˈpaɲa]) is as follows:
  2. ^ The official language of the State is established in the Section 3 of the Constitution of Spain to be Castilian. [2] In some autonomous communities, Catalan/Valencian, Galician, Basque and Occitan (locally known as Aranese) are co-official languages. Aragonese and Asturian have some degree of government recognition at the regional level.
  3. ^ European Union (EU) since 1993
  4. ^ The Peseta before 2002
  5. ^ The .eu domain is also used, as it is shared with other European Union member states. Also, the .cat domain is used in Catalonia, .gal in Galicia and .eus in the Basque-Country autonomous regions.
  6. ^ The Spanish Constitution does not contain any one official name for Spain. Instead, the terms España (Spain), Estado español (Spanish State) and Nación española (Spanish Nation) are used throughout the document, sometimes interchangeably. In 1984, the Spanish Ministry of Foreign Affairs established that the denominations España (Spain) and Reino de España (Kingdom of Spain) are equally valid to designate Spain in international treaties. The latter term is widely used by the government in national and international affairs of all kinds, including foreign treaties as well as national official documents, and is therefore recognised as the conventional name by many international organisations. [261]
  7. ^ See list of transcontinental countries.
  8. ^ The latifundia (sing., latifundium), large estates controlled by the aristocracy, were superimposed on the existing Iberian landholding system.
  9. ^ The poets Martial, Quintilian and Lucan were also born in Hispania.

References

  1. ^ Presidency of the Government (11 October 1997). "Real Decreto 1560/1997, de 10 de octubre, por el que se regula el Himno Nacional" (PDF). Boletín Oficial del Estado núm. 244 (in Spanish). Archived (PDF) from the original on 24 September 2015.
  2. ^ "The Spanish Constitution". Lamoncloa.gob.es. Archived from the original on 25 March 2013. Retrieved 26 April 2013.
  3. ^ a b "Cifras de Población (CP) a 1 de julio de 2022 Estadística de Migraciones (EM). Primer semestre de 2022. Datos provisionales" (PDF). ine.es (in Spanish). Instituto Nacional de Estadística. Archived (PDF) from the original on 20 March 2023. Retrieved 22 March 2023.
  4. ^ "Global Religion - Religious Beliefs Across the World" (PDF). Ipsos. May 2023. Archived (PDF) from the original on 8 September 2023. Retrieved 23 August 2023.
  5. ^ "Anuario estadístico de España 2008. 1ª parte: entorno físico y medio ambiente" (PDF). Instituto Nacional de Estadística (Spain). Archived (PDF) from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 14 April 2015.
  6. ^ "Surface water and surface water change". Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Archived from the original on 24 March 2021. Retrieved 11 October 2020.
  7. ^ "Cifras de población. Últimos datos". ine.es (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 10 August 2023. Retrieved 8 August 2023.
  8. ^ a b c d "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2022". IMF.org. International Monetary Fund. Archived from the original on 12 September 2023. Retrieved 22 October 2020.
  9. ^ "Gini coefficient of equivalised disposable income – EU-SILC survey". ec.europa.eu. Eurostat. Archived from the original on 20 March 2019. Retrieved 7 August 2022.
  10. ^ "Human Development Report 2021/2022" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 8 September 2022. Archived (PDF) from the original on 8 September 2022. Retrieved 8 September 2022.
  11. ^ "Spain | Facts, Culture, History, & Points of Interest". Encyclopedia Britannica. 26 July 2023. Archived from the original on 12 June 2015. Retrieved 17 March 2019.
  12. ^ Flynn, Dennis O.; Giráldez Source, Arturo (1995). "Born with a 'Silver Spoon': The Origin of World Trade in 1571". Journal of World History. 6 (2): 202. JSTOR  20078638.
  13. ^ Spain is crowned the champion of foreign students. This is thanks to universities such as those in Barcelona, Valencia, Madrid, Granada and Salamanca. Although nowhere near as popular as Spain, we find Germany in second place. It is a country that also has a large number of prestigious universities spread out across many cities. The fact that Germany is an economic powerhouse makes it an attractive destination for those searching for employment after studying. France, the United Kingdom and Italy appear in third, fourth and fifth position. The rest of countries rank behind at a considerable distance. What are the most popular Erasmus destinations? Archived 30 June 2023 at the Wayback Machine
  14. ^ "572 millones de personas hablan español, cinco millones más que hace un año, y aumentarán a 754 millones a mediados de siglo". www.cervantes.es. Archived from the original on 13 May 2021.
  15. ^ Spanish Constitution 1978, Article 1.
  16. ^ Whitehouse, Mark (6 November 2010). "Number of the Week: $10.2 Trillion in Global Borrowing". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 20 September 2017.
  17. ^ ABC (28 August 2014). ""I-span-ya", el misterioso origen de la palabra España". Archived from the original on 13 November 2016.
  18. ^ a b Anthon, Charles (1850). A system of ancient and mediæval geography for the use of schools and colleges. New York: Harper & Brothers. p.  14.
  19. ^ #Linch, John (director), Fernández Castro, María Cruz (del segundo tomo), Historia de España, El País, volumen II, La península Ibérica en época prerromana, p. 40. Dossier. La etimología de España; ¿tierra de conejos?, ISBN  978-84-9815-764-2
  20. ^ Burke, Ulick Ralph (1895). A History of Spain from the Earliest Times to the Death of Ferdinand the Catholic, Volume 1. London: Longmans, Green & Co. p. 12. hdl: 2027/hvd.fl29jg.
  21. ^ Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Spain" . Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
  22. ^ "Rabbits, fish and mice, but no rock hyrax". Understanding Animal Research. Archived from the original on 31 October 2018. Retrieved 31 October 2018.
  23. ^ "'First west Europe tooth' found". BBC. 30 June 2007. Archived from the original on 21 October 2009. Retrieved 9 August 2008.
  24. ^ Typical Aurignacian items were found in Cantabria (Morín, El Pendo, El Castillo), the Basque Country (Santimamiñe) and Catalonia. The radiocarbon datations give the following dates: 32,425 and 29,515 BP.[ failed verification]
  25. ^ Pike, A. W. G.; Hoffmann, D. L.; Garcia-Diez, M.; Pettitt, P. B.; Alcolea, J.; De Balbin, R.; Gonzalez-Sainz, C.; de las Heras, C.; Lasheras, J. A.; Montes, R.; Zilhao, J. (2012). "U-Series Dating of Paleolithic Art in 11 Caves in Spain". Science. 336 (6087): 1409–1413. Bibcode: 2012Sci...336.1409P. doi: 10.1126/science.1219957. ISSN  0036-8075. PMID  22700921. S2CID  7807664.
  26. ^ Bernaldo de Quirós Guidolti, Federico; Cabrera Valdés, Victoria (1994). "Cronología del arte paleolítico" (PDF). Complutum. 5: 265–276. ISSN  1131-6993. Archived from the original on 12 September 2023. Retrieved 17 November 2012.
  27. ^ a b Payne, Stanley G. (1973). "A History of Spain and Portugal; Ch. 1 Ancient Hispania". The Library of Iberian Resources Online. Archived from the original on 8 October 2018. Retrieved 9 August 2008.
  28. ^ a b Rinehart, Robert; Seeley, Jo Ann Browning (1998). "A Country Study: Spain. Chapter 1 – Hispania". Library of Congress Country Series. Archived from the original on 22 September 2008. Retrieved 9 August 2008.
  29. ^ Alonso Villalobos, Carlos (1984). "Contribución al estudio de las invasiones mauritanas de la Bética en el siglo II" (PDF). Actas del II Congreso Andaluz deEstudios Clásicos. Vol. II. Sociedad Española de Estudios Clásicos. Archived (PDF) from the original on 5 July 2022. Retrieved 5 July 2022.
  30. ^ Rinehart, Robert; Seeley, Jo Ann Browning (1998). "A Country Study: Spain – Castile and Aragon". Library of Congress Country Series. Archived from the original on 22 September 2008. Retrieved 9 August 2008.
  31. ^ Islamic and Christian Spain in the Early Middle Ages. Chapter 5: Ethnic Relations Archived 3 April 2017 at the Wayback Machine, Thomas F. Glick
  32. ^ Payne, Stanley G. (1973). "A History of Spain and Portugal; Ch. 2 Al-Andalus". The Library of Iberian Resources Online. Archived from the original on 8 October 2018. Retrieved 9 August 2008.
  33. ^ Scheen, Rolf (1996). "Viking raids on the spanish peninsula". Militaria. Revista de Cultura Militar (8): 67–73. Archived from the original on 13 April 2022. Retrieved 13 April 2022.
  34. ^ Classen, Albrecht (31 August 2015). Handbook of Medieval Culture. Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG. ISBN  9783110267303. Archived from the original on 12 September 2023. Retrieved 10 December 2018 – via Google Books.
  35. ^ VAN ZANDEN, JAN LUITEN; BURINGH, ELTJO; BOSKER, MAARTEN (29 July 2011). "The rise and decline of European parliaments, 1188-17891". The Economic History Review. 65 (3): 835–861. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-0289.2011.00612.x. ISSN  0013-0117. S2CID  154956049. Archived from the original on 12 September 2023. Retrieved 24 November 2022.
  36. ^ Salicrú i Lluch, Roser (2020). "Chapter 4 Granada and Its International Contacts". The Nasrid Kingdom of Granada between East and West. Brill. pp. 124–125. doi: 10.1163/9789004443594_006. ISBN  9789004443594. S2CID  243153050. Archived from the original on 13 April 2022. Retrieved 13 April 2022.
  37. ^ "Spanish Inquisition left genetic legacy in Iberia". New Scientist. 4 December 2008. Archived from the original on 28 March 2014. Retrieved 18 January 2014.
  38. ^ "The Treaty of Granada, 1492". Islamic Civilisation. Archived from the original on 24 September 2008. Retrieved 13 August 2008.
  39. ^ Rinehart, Robert; Seeley, Jo Ann Browning (1998). "A Country Study: Spain – The Golden Age". Library of Congress Country Series. Archived from the original on 9 August 2008. Retrieved 9 August 2008.
  40. ^ "Imperial Spain". University of Calgary. Archived from the original on 29 June 2008. Retrieved 13 August 2008.
  41. ^ Handbook of European History. Penguin Random House Grupo Editorial España. 1994. ISBN  90-04-09760-0. Archived from the original on 12 September 2023. Retrieved 4 January 2022.
  42. ^ Payne, Stanley G. (1973). "A History of Spain and Portugal; Ch. 13 The Spanish Empire". The Library of Iberian Resources Online. Archived from the original on 8 October 2018. Retrieved 9 August 2008.
  43. ^ Thomas, Hugh (2003). Rivers of gold: the rise of the Spanish Empire. London: George Weidenfeld & Nicolson. pp. passim. ISBN  978-0-297-64563-4.
  44. ^ "The Seventeenth-Century Decline". The Library of Iberian resources online. Archived from the original on 21 September 2013. Retrieved 13 August 2008.
  45. ^ Payne, Stanley G. (1973). "A History of Spain and Portugal; Ch. 14 Spanish Society and Economics in the Imperial Age". The Library of Iberian Resources Online. Archived from the original on 8 October 2018. Retrieved 9 August 2008.
  46. ^ Rinehart, Robert; Seeley, Jo Ann Browning (1998). "A Country Study: Spain – Spain in Decline". Library of Congress Country Series. Archived from the original on 9 August 2008. Retrieved 9 August 2008.
  47. ^ Serrano Daura, Josep (2019). "Una aproximación a la Corona de Aragón de Fernando el Católico". Revista de Dret Històric Català. Societat Catalana d'Estudis Jurídics. 18 (18): 75. doi: 10.2436/20.3004.01.119. ISSN  1578-5300.
  48. ^ Phillips, William D.; Phillips, Carla Rahn (2010). A Concise History of Spain. Cambridge University Press. p. 175. ISBN  9780521845137.
  49. ^ Rinehart, Robert; Seeley, Jo Ann Browning (1998). "A Country Study: Spain – Bourbon Spain". Library of Congress Country Series. Archived from the original on 9 August 2008. Retrieved 9 August 2008.
  50. ^ Casey, James (1999). Early Modern Spain: A Social History. Routledge. p. 83. ISBN  9780415138130.
  51. ^ Martínez Shaw, Carlos (2016). "El Despotismo Ilustrado en España: entre la continuidad y el cambio" (PDF). El Siglo de las Luces: III Centenario del Nacimiento de José de Hermosilla (1715-1776). Sociedad Extremeña de Historia. p. 14. ISBN  978-84-608-8037-0. Archived (PDF) from the original on 19 April 2022. Retrieved 13 April 2022.
  52. ^ Martínez Shaw 2016, pp. 14, 23.
  53. ^ David A. Bell. " Napoleon's Total War". TheHistoryNet.com
  54. ^ (Gates 2001, p. 20.)
  55. ^ (Gates 2001, p. 467.)
  56. ^ Alvar Ezquerra, Jaime (2001). Diccionario de historia de España. Ediciones Akal. p. 209. ISBN  978-84-7090-366-3. Cortes of Cádiz (1812) was the first parliament of Spain with sovereign power
  57. ^ Rodríguez. Independence of Spanish America. Cambridge University Press. Archived from the original on 10 March 2020. Retrieved 20 June 2013. It met as one body, and its members represented the entire Spanish world
  58. ^ Cruz Artacho, Salvador (2003). "Caciquismo y mundo rural durante la Restauración". In Gutiérrez, Rosa Ana; Zurita, Rafael; Camurri, Renato (eds.). Elecciones y cultura política en España e Italia (1890–1923). Valencia: Universitat de València. p. 33. ISBN  84-370-5672-1. Archived from the original on 12 September 2023. Retrieved 13 September 2020.
  59. ^ Costa, Joaquín. Oligarquía y caciquismo, Colectivismo agrario y otros escritos: (Antología).
  60. ^ Meaker, Gerald H. (1974). The Revolutionary Left in Spain, 1914–1923. Stanford University Press. p.  159 ff. ISBN  0-8047-0845-2.
  61. ^ Spanish Civil War fighters look back[ permanent dead link], BBC News, 23 February 2003
  62. ^ "Relatives of Spaniards who fled Franco granted citizenship". The Daily Telegraph. London. 28 December 2008. Archived from the original on 23 July 2013. Retrieved 18 January 2014.
  63. ^ Óscar, Martín García (May 2023). "Soft Power, Modernization, and Security: US Educational Foreign Policy Toward Authoritarian Spain in the Cold War". History of Education Quarterly. 63 (2): 198–220. doi: 10.1017/heq.2023.5. S2CID  258190145.
  64. ^ Villena, Miguel Ángel (9 June 2012). "El contubernio que preparó la democracia". EL PAÍS. Archived from the original on 5 April 2013.
  65. ^ "Contubernio de Múnich: 50 años". Archived from the original on 21 October 2014.
  66. ^ "El contubernio de Munich". La Vanguardia. 4 June 2012. Archived from the original on 26 October 2014. Retrieved 17 September 2014.
  67. ^ "Speech by Mrs Nicole FONTAINE, President of the European Parliament on the occasion of the presentation of the Sakharov Prize 2000 to Basta ya!". Archived from the original on 2 October 2016.
  68. ^ "King Orders army to crush coup". The Guardian. 23 February 1981. Archived from the original on 5 October 2017. Retrieved 19 March 2020.
  69. ^ Pfanner, Eric (11 July 2002). "Economy reaps benefits of entry to the 'club': Spain's euro bonanza". International Herald Tribune. Archived from the original on 1 May 2011. Retrieved 9 August 2008. See also: "Spain's economy / Plain sailing no longer". The Economist. 3 May 2007. Archived from the original on 13 June 2008. Retrieved 9 August 2008.
  70. ^ "Al-Qaeda 'claims Madrid bombings'". BBC. 14 March 2004. Archived from the original on 24 June 2006. Retrieved 13 August 2008. See also: "Madrid bombers get long sentences". BBC. 31 October 2007. Archived from the original on 14 January 2021. Retrieved 13 August 2008.
  71. ^ Bailey, Dominic (14 March 2004). "Spain votes under a shadow". BBC. Archived from the original on 25 August 2004. Retrieved 13 August 2008.
  72. ^ "An election bombshell". The Economist. 18 March 2004. Archived from the original on 19 March 2020. Retrieved 19 March 2020.
  73. ^ Ortiz, Fiona (22 April 2013). "Spain's population falls as immigrants flee crisis". Reuters. Archived from the original on 2 September 2017. Retrieved 2 September 2017.
  74. ^ "Spain legalises gay marriage". The Guardian. 30 June 2005. Archived from the original on 21 February 2020. Retrieved 19 March 2020.
  75. ^ Tremlett, Giles (5 September 2010). "Basque separatists Eta announce ceasefire". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 19 March 2020. Retrieved 19 March 2020.
  76. ^ "Spain's Indignados protest here to stay". BBC News. 15 May 2012. Archived from the original on 19 March 2020. Retrieved 19 March 2020.
  77. ^ "Rajoy ahoy". The Economist. 21 November 2011. Archived from the original on 19 March 2020. Retrieved 19 March 2020.
  78. ^ Tremlett, Giles (11 July 2012). "Mariano Rajoy announces €65bn in austerity measures for Spain". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 19 March 2020. Retrieved 19 March 2020.
  79. ^ "Spain king: Juan Carlos signs his abdication". BBC News. 18 June 2014. Archived from the original on 19 March 2020. Retrieved 19 March 2020.
  80. ^ Alandete, David (27 October 2017). "Análisis. Is Catalonia independent?". El País. Archived from the original on 28 October 2017.
  81. ^ Piñol, Pere Ríos, Àngels (27 October 2017). "El Parlament de Cataluña aprueba la resolución para declarar la independencia". El País (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 29 October 2017.{{ cite news}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list ( link)
  82. ^ "Catalan crisis: Regional MPs debate Spain takeover bid". BBC. 26 October 2017. Archived from the original on 26 October 2017. Retrieved 27 October 2017.
  83. ^ "Catalan crisis: Spain PM Rajoy demands direct rule". BBC. 27 October 2017. Archived from the original on 29 October 2017. Retrieved 27 October 2017.
  84. ^ "Catalonia independence: Rajoy dissolves Catalan parliament". BBC News. Barcelona, Madrid. 27 October 2017. Archived from the original on 28 October 2017. Retrieved 27 October 2017.
  85. ^ Sandford, Alasdair (27 October 2017). "Catalonia: what direct rule from Madrid could mean". euronews. Archived from the original on 27 October 2017. Retrieved 27 October 2017.
  86. ^ Minder, Raphael (June 2018). "Spain's Prime Minister, Mariano Rajoy, Is Ousted in No-Confidence Vote". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 19 June 2018. Retrieved 18 June 2018.
  87. ^ "Spanish institutional crisis triggered by legal block of judicial reform". The Irish Times. Archived from the original on 4 August 2023. Retrieved 4 August 2023.
  88. ^ Woolf, Steven H.; Masters, Ryan K.; Aron, Laudan Y. (24 June 2021). "Effect of the covid-19 pandemic in 2020 on life expectancy across populations in the USA and other high income countries: simulations of provisional mortality data". BMJ. 373: n1343. doi: 10.1136/bmj.n1343. ISSN  1756-1833. PMC  8220857. PMID  34162598.
  89. ^ Borraz, Marta (18 March 2021). "Luz verde definitiva: la ley de eutanasia ya es una realidad en España tras superar su último trámite en el Congreso". ElDiario.es (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 18 March 2021. Retrieved 19 March 2021.
  90. ^ Medina García, Eusebio (2006). «Orígenes históricos y ambigüedad de la frontera hispano-lusa (La Raya)» Archived 25 May 2017 at the Wayback Machine. Revista de Estudios Extremeños. Tomo LXII (II Mayo-Agosto). ISSN  0210-2854, pp. 713–723.
  91. ^ "World Map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification updated – (see p.3)" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 12 April 2019. Retrieved 30 April 2011.
  92. ^ Frost, Rosie (6 July 2023). "Spain is getting 'hotter, drier and more flammable' due to climate change, Greenpeace warns". Euronews. Archived from the original on 7 July 2023. Retrieved 9 July 2023.
  93. ^ "Faced with an early heat wave and a major drought, Spain questions its water management". Le Monde.fr. 29 April 2023. Archived from the original on 8 July 2023. Retrieved 10 July 2023.
  94. ^ "Spain approves 'milestone' clean energy climate bill". www.aljazeera.com. Archived from the original on 10 July 2023. Retrieved 10 July 2023.
  95. ^ Grantham, H. S.; et al. (2020). "Anthropogenic modification of forests means only 40% of remaining forests have high ecosystem integrity – Supplementary Material". Nature Communications. 11 (1): 5978. Bibcode: 2020NatCo..11.5978G. doi: 10.1038/s41467-020-19493-3. ISSN  2041-1723. PMC  7723057. PMID  33293507.
  96. ^ "Biodiversity in Spain". Climatechangepost.com. Archived from the original on 24 September 2022. Retrieved 24 September 2022.
  97. ^ Biodiversidad, Fundación (18 February 2014). "The Foundation". Fundación Biodiversidad. Archived from the original on 24 September 2022. Retrieved 24 September 2022.
  98. ^ John Hooper, The New Spaniards, 2001, From Dictatorship to Democracy
  99. ^ Spain's fast-living king turns 70 Archived 6 January 2010 at the Wayback Machine BBC News Friday, 4 January 2008 Extracted 18 June 2009
  100. ^ Spanish Constitution 1978.
  101. ^ "SPAIN: No Turning Back from Path to Gender Equality". Ipsnews.net. 15 March 2007. Archived from the original on 19 April 2014. Retrieved 5 May 2014.
  102. ^ "Women in National Parliaments". Ipu.org. 28 February 2010. Archived from the original on 28 March 2014. Retrieved 1 May 2010.
  103. ^ "Human Development Report 2007/2008" (PDF). Hdr.undp.org. p. 330. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 April 2011. Retrieved 18 January 2014.
  104. ^ Shelley, Fred M. (2015). Governments around the World: From Democracies to Theocracies: From Democracies to Theocracies. ABC-CLIO. p. 197. ISBN  978-1-4408-3813-2. Archived from the original on 12 September 2023. Retrieved 2 October 2018.
  105. ^ "Catalonians vote for more autonomy". CNN. 18 June 2006. Archived from the original on 4 June 2008. Retrieved 13 August 2008. See also: "Economic Survey: Spain 2005". Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Archived from the original on 17 April 2008. Retrieved 13 August 2008. and "Country Briefings: Spain". The Economist. Archived from the original on 14 October 2012. Retrieved 9 August 2008. and "Swiss Experience With Decentralized Government" (PDF). The World Bank. Archived (PDF) from the original on 19 August 2008. Retrieved 13 August 2008.
  106. ^ Garcia Cantalapiedra, David, and Ramon Pacheco Pardo, Contemporary Spanish Foreign Policy (Routledge, 2014). Pg. 126
  107. ^ "Resolution 2070: Question of Gibraltar" (PDF). United Nations. 16 December 1965. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 May 2011. Retrieved 19 February 2010.
  108. ^ "Resolution 2231: Question of Gibraltar" (PDF). United Nations. 20 December 1966. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 May 2011. Retrieved 19 February 2010.
  109. ^ "La cuestión de Gibraltar" (in Spanish). Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation of Spain. January 2008. Archived from the original on 29 May 2009. Retrieved 3 January 2010.
  110. ^ Spain's letter to the UN (PDF) (in Spanish), UN, September 2013, archived (PDF) from the original on 25 May 2017
  111. ^ "Spain disputes Portugal islands" Archived 8 September 2013 at the Wayback Machine The Portugal News. Retrieved 9 September 2013.
  112. ^ Fernández Liesa, Carlos R. (2004). "La cuestión de Olivenza, a la luz del Derecho internacional público" (PDF). Encuentros: Revista luso-española de investigadores en Ciencias humanas y sociales. Separatas. Ayuntamiento de Olivenza (4): 234–235. ISSN  1138-6622. Archived (PDF) from the original on 29 August 2014.
  113. ^ Spanish Constitution 1978, Article 8.
  114. ^ Spanish Constitution 1978, Article 62.
  115. ^ "El jefe del Estado Mayor del Ejército de Tierra y 11 tenientes generales aspiran a JEMAD". La Vanguardia. 6 November 2016. Archived from the original on 1 February 2020. Retrieved 1 February 2020.
  116. ^ "Update: Spain to increase defence spending". janes.com. Archived from the original on 18 May 2015. Retrieved 8 May 2015.
  117. ^ Julve, Rafa (9 March 2016). "Señores, se acabó la mili". El Periódico. Archived from the original on 1 February 2020. Retrieved 1 February 2020.
  118. ^ Spanish Constitution 1978, preamble.
  119. ^ Spain 2015/2016 Archived 8 August 2016 at the Wayback Machine Amnesty International. Retrieved 22 June 2016.
  120. ^ "Analysis of 8 years of Gender Violence Law in Spain | Gender violence and justice". justiciadegenero.com. 4 March 2015. Archived from the original on 25 May 2017. Retrieved 9 May 2017.
  121. ^ Rincón, Reyes (25 November 2015). "The successes and failures of Spain's fight against domestic abuse". EL PAÍS. Archived from the original on 25 May 2017. Retrieved 9 May 2017.
  122. ^ "Global Acceptance of Homosexuality". Pew Research Center. 4 June 2013. Archived from the original on 10 November 2014.
  123. ^ Spanish Constitution 1978, Article 143.
  124. ^ Spanish Constitution 1978, Article 147.
  125. ^ "Estatut" (PDF) (in Spanish). Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 March 2009. Retrieved 20 July 2009.
  126. ^ "Nuevo Estatuto de Autonomía de Canarias". .gobiernodecanarias.org. Archived from the original on 20 January 2011. Retrieved 30 April 2011.
  127. ^ "BOCAe32.QXD" (PDF) (in Catalan). Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 July 2009. Retrieved 20 July 2009.
  128. ^ "Estatuto de Autonomía de Aragón". Narros.congreso.es. Archived from the original on 11 December 2009. Retrieved 20 July 2009.
  129. ^ "Unidad de Policía de la Comunidad Autónoma de Andalucía" (in Spanish). Cartujo.org. Archived from the original on 7 November 2007. Retrieved 23 October 2007.
  130. ^ Articles 140 and 141. Spanish Constitution of 1978
  131. ^ "Euro area unemployment rate at 11%". Eurostat. Archived (PDF) from the original on 31 July 2017.
  132. ^ "Youth unemployment rate in EU member states as of March 2018". Statista. Archived from the original on 14 June 2018. Retrieved 14 June 2018.
  133. ^ Benton, Lauren A. (1990). Invisible Factories: The Informal Economy and Industrial Development in Spain. SUNY Press.
  134. ^ Roberto A. Ferdman, Spain's Black Market Economy Is Worth 20% of Its GDP: One million Spanish people have jobs in the underground economy Archived 11 September 2017 at the Wayback Machine, The Atlantic (16 July 2013)
  135. ^ Angel Alañón & M. Gómez-Antonio, [Estimating the size of the shadow economy in Spain: a structural model with latent variables], Applies Economics, Vol 37, Issue 9, pp. 1011–1025 (2005).
  136. ^ "OECD report for 2006" (PDF). OECD. Archived (PDF) from the original on 19 August 2008. Retrieved 9 August 2008.
  137. ^ "A good bet?". The Economist. Business. Madrid. 30 April 2009. Archived from the original on 4 May 2009. Retrieved 14 May 2009.
  138. ^ "Spain's Iberdrola signs investment accord with Gulf group Taqa". Forbes. 25 May 2008. Archived from the original on 7 June 2010.
  139. ^ "Big in America?". The Economist. Business. Madrid. 8 April 2009. Archived from the original on 12 April 2009. Retrieved 14 May 2009.
  140. ^ a b c d Méndez-Barreira, Victor (7 August 2016). "Car Makers Pour Money into Spain". Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 2 April 2019. Retrieved 25 January 2019.
  141. ^ "China's Envision to build EV battery plant in Spain". Automotive News Europe. 20 July 2022. Archived from the original on 31 March 2023. Retrieved 5 April 2023.
  142. ^ ">> Spain in numbers". Invest in Spain. Archived from the original on 26 March 2013. Retrieved 13 March 2013.
  143. ^ "Spain posts record number of 82 million inbound tourists in 2017". 10 January 2018. Archived from the original on 24 October 2019. Retrieved 10 February 2018.
  144. ^ "Global Guru | analysis". The Global Guru. Archived from the original on 6 January 2011. Retrieved 13 August 2008.
  145. ^ "Economic report" (PDF). Bank of Spain. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 July 2008. Retrieved 13 August 2008.
  146. ^ "Spain Is World's Leader in Solar Energy". NPR.org. NPR. 15 July 2010. Archived from the original on 19 September 2010. Retrieved 4 September 2010.
  147. ^ "Spain becomes solar power world leader". Europeanfutureenergyforum.com. 14 July 2010. Archived from the original on 24 November 2010. Retrieved 4 September 2010.
  148. ^ Villalobos, Alvaro (6 May 2018). "Spain's Bilbao fights to lead European wind power sector". Phys.org (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 24 December 2022. Retrieved 6 July 2018.
  149. ^ AFP (6 May 2018). "Spain's Bilbao fights to lead European wind power sector". The Local (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 6 July 2018. Retrieved 6 July 2018.
  150. ^ "Spain becomes the first European wind energy producer after overcoming Germany for the first time". Eolic Energy News. 31 December 2010. Archived from the original on 27 April 2011. Retrieved 30 April 2011.
  151. ^ "Asociación Empresarial Eólica – Spanish Wind Energy Association – Energía Eólica". Aeeolica. Archived from the original on 20 October 2021. Retrieved 28 September 2018.
  152. ^ Méndez, Rafael (9 November 2009). "La eólica supera por primera vez la mitad de la producción eléctrica". El País (in Spanish). Ediciones El País. Archived from the original on 13 May 2011. Retrieved 8 August 2010.
  153. ^ "Wind power in Spain breaks new instantaneous power record". renovablesmadeinspain.es. 9 November 2010. Archived from the original on 14 December 2011. Retrieved 5 June 2011.
  154. ^ "14 reactores nucleares movidos por el viento". El País. 9 November 2010. Archived from the original on 12 September 2023. Retrieved 5 June 2011.
  155. ^ "La Fuerza del Mar". revista.consumer.es. Archived from the original on 26 August 2011. Retrieved 5 June 2011.
  156. ^ Energy in Sweden, Facts and figures, The Swedish Energy Agency, (in Swedish: Energiläget i siffror), Table for figure 49. Source: IEA/OECD [1]. Archived 16 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  157. ^ "Scimago Institution Rankings". Archived from the original on 8 March 2020. Retrieved 5 January 2018.
  158. ^ Dutta, Soumitra; Lanvin, Bruno; Wunsch-Vincent, Sacha; León, Lorena Rivera; World Intellectual Property Organization (2022). Global Innovation Index 2022, 15th Edition. doi: 10.34667/tind.46596. ISBN  9789280534320. Archived from the original on 3 December 2022. Retrieved 16 November 2022. {{ cite book}}: |website= ignored ( help)
  159. ^ Añón Higón, Dolores; Díez-Minguela, Alfonso (2021). "Do universities matter for the location of foreign R&D?". Business Research Quarterly: 1; 5. doi: 10.1177/23409444211042382. S2CID  239695136. Archived from the original on 11 May 2022. Retrieved 11 May 2022.
  160. ^ Giachi, Sandro; Fernández-Esquinas, Manuel (2020). "Mapping heterogeneity in a research system: The emergence of a 'hybrid' organizational field between science and industry". Research Evaluation. 29 (4): 392–405. doi: 10.1093/reseval/rvaa014. Archived from the original on 11 May 2022. Retrieved 11 May 2022.
  161. ^ "Red de Alta Velocidad". ADIF. Archived from the original on 20 December 2021. Retrieved 7 May 2023.
  162. ^ "Algae Based Biofuels in Plain English: Why it Matters, How it Works. (algae algaebiofuels carbonsequestration valcent vertigro algaebasedbiofuels ethanol)". Triplepundit.com. 30 July 2008. Archived from the original on 18 May 2013. Retrieved 19 November 2008.
  163. ^ "Spain to Put 1 million Electric Cars on the Road". Triplepundit.com. 30 July 2008. Archived from the original on 23 November 2008. Retrieved 19 November 2008.
  164. ^ "The Need for Speed–High Speed Rail in Europe: Do You Speak Spanish? Europe on Track". Blog.raileurope.com. Archived from the original on 2 February 2011. Retrieved 1 November 2011.
  165. ^ "Spain has developed Europe's largest high-speed rail network | Olive Press Newspaper". Theolivepress.es. 17 November 2010. Archived from the original on 10 December 2011. Retrieved 1 November 2011.
  166. ^ "La Moncloa. 19/11/2019. Transporte y Vivienda [España/España Hoy 2018-2019/Otras políticas]". www.lamoncloa.gob.es (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 1 February 2020. Retrieved 1 February 2020.
  167. ^ Lara Galera, Antonio L. (2015). "El AVE Madrid-Barcelona, una obra de mérito" (PDF). Revista de Obras Públicas (3569): 57. ISSN  0034-8619. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 February 2020. Retrieved 1 February 2020.
  168. ^ "El AVE español, el más veloz del mundo y el segundo en puntualidad". El Mundo. Spain. 10 November 2010. Archived from the original on 9 November 2011. Retrieved 5 June 2011.
  169. ^ "Spain powers ahead with high-speed rail". railpro.co.uk. January 2010. Archived from the original on 21 July 2011. Retrieved 5 June 2011.
  170. ^ "Population Figures". Instituto Nacional de Estadística (National Statistics Institute). Archived from the original on 24 May 2008. Retrieved 13 August 2008.
  171. ^ Joseph Harrison, David Corkill (2004). "Spain: a modern European economy". Ashgate Publishing. p. 23. ISBN  0-7546-0145-5
  172. ^ "Indice coyuntural de fecundidad". Instituto Nacional de Estadística. Archived from the original on 8 May 2019. Retrieved 8 May 2019.
  173. ^ Roser, Max (2014), "Total Fertility Rate around the world over the last centuries", Our World in Data, Gapminder Foundation, archived from the original on 7 August 2018, retrieved 8 May 2019
  174. ^ "World Factbook EUROPE : SPAIN", The World Factbook, 12 July 2018, archived from the original on 27 September 2021, retrieved 23 January 2021
  175. ^ "Población extranjera por sexo, país de nacionalidad y edad". Instituto Nacional de Estadística. Archived from the original on 25 March 2008. Retrieved 13 August 2008.
  176. ^ " EU27 Member States granted citizenship to 696 000 persons in 2008 Archived 6 September 2014 at the Wayback Machine" (PDF). Eurostat. 6 July 2010.
  177. ^ "Immigration statistics". BBC. 11 December 2006. Archived from the original on 8 April 2013. Retrieved 13 August 2008.
  178. ^ "Instituto Nacional de Estadística. Estadística del Padrón Continuo". ine.es. Instituto Nacional de Estadística. Archived from the original on 24 February 2021. Retrieved 11 February 2021.
  179. ^ INE Archived 23 July 2013 at the Wayback Machine, 2011.
  180. ^ " Financial crisis reveals vulnerability of Spain's immigrants – Feature". The Earth Times. 18 November 2009.
  181. ^ "Avance del Padrón Municipal a 1 de enero de 2006. Datos provisionales" (PDF). Instituto Nacional de Estadística. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 July 2008. Retrieved 13 August 2008. and "Spain: Immigrants Welcome". Business Week. Archived from the original on 6 October 2008. Retrieved 13 August 2008. and "Immigrants Fuel Europe's Civilization Clash". MSNBC. Archived from the original on 13 May 2008. Retrieved 13 August 2008. and "Spanish youth clash with immigrant gangs". International Herald Tribune. Archived from the original on 3 June 2008. Retrieved 13 August 2008.
  182. ^ "Population in Europe in 2005" (PDF). Eurostat. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 August 2008. Retrieved 13 August 2008.
  183. ^ Spain to increase immigration budget Archived 30 August 2008 at the Wayback Machine, 10 October 2007
  184. ^ Tremlett, Giles (9 May 2005). "Spain grants amnesty to 700,000 migrants". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on 29 August 2013. Retrieved 20 July 2009.
  185. ^ "Population series from 1998". INE Spanish Statistical Institute. Archived from the original on 2 November 2007. Retrieved 14 August 2008.
  186. ^ "Europeans Favour Spain for Expat Jobs". News.bg. Archived from the original on 10 October 2008. Retrieved 13 August 2008.
  187. ^ Plan de Retorno Voluntario Archived 18 October 2011 at the Wayback Machine Gobierno de España
  188. ^ Spain's Jobs Crisis Leaves Immigrants Out of Work Archived 10 July 2017 at the Wayback Machine, The Wall Street Journal, 24 January 2009
  189. ^ a b 580.000 personas se van de España Archived 15 November 2011 at the Wayback Machine. El País. Edición Impresa. 8 October 2011
  190. ^ Conversi, Daniele (2002). "The Smooth Transition: Spain's 1978 Constitution and the Nationalities Question" (PDF). National Identities, Vol 4, No. 3. Carfax Publishing, Inc. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 May 2008. Retrieved 28 January 2008.
  191. ^ Casado Velarde, Manuel (2011). "Spain, a plurilingual state: Spanish and other official languages". In Stickel, Gerhard (ed.). National, regional and minority languages in Europe. Frankfurt: Peter Lang. p. 129. ISBN  978-3-631-60365-9. Archived from the original on 12 September 2023. Retrieved 24 July 2021.
  192. ^ Ramallo 2018, p. 465.
  193. ^ Ramallo, Fernando (2018). "Linguistic diversity in Spain". In Ayres-Bennett, Wendy; Carruthers, Janice (eds.). Manual of Romance Sociolinguistics. De Gruyter. p. 462. doi: 10.1515/9783110365955-018. ISBN  9783110365955. S2CID  158999790.
  194. ^ Ramallo 2018, p. 463.
  195. ^ "CIA – The World Factbook – 5pain". Cia.gov. Archived from the original on 27 September 2021. Retrieved 30 April 2011.
  196. ^ Recalde Fernández, Montserrat (2016). "A contribución da inmigración ao multilingüismo do Estado español" (PDF). In Recalde Fernández, Montserrat; Silva Domínguez, Carme (eds.). Ser inmigrante en tempos de crise. Unha ollada multidisciplinar. Servizo de Publicacións e Intercambio Científico da Universidade de Compostela. p. 175. doi: 10.15304/9788416533015. ISBN  9788416533015. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 July 2021. Retrieved 12 July 2021.
  197. ^ La Ley Orgánica 2/2006 Archived 25 May 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 23 September 2009
  198. ^ Ley Orgánica 8/2013 Archived 12 February 2015 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 9 December 2013
  199. ^ De la LGE a la LOMCE: Así son las siete leyes educativas españolas de la democracia Archived 12 February 2015 at the Wayback Machine. teinteresa.es
  200. ^ "Educación Primaria │Ministerio de Educación y Formación Profesional" (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 5 November 2020. Retrieved 26 November 2020.
  201. ^ "Educación Secundaria Obligatoria (ESO)│Ministerio de Educación y Formación Profesional" (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 16 November 2020. Retrieved 26 November 2020.
  202. ^ "Bachillerato│Ministerio de Educación y Formación Profesional". Archived from the original on 26 November 2020. Retrieved 26 November 2020.
  203. ^ "La Formación Profesional actual en el sistema educativo – TodoFP│Ministerio de Educación y Formación Profesional" (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 31 October 2020. Retrieved 26 November 2020.
  204. ^ "Compare your country - PISA 2018". www2.compareyourcountry.org. Archived from the original on 27 September 2021. Retrieved 29 September 2021.
  205. ^ "The Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA): Spain" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 29 September 2021. Retrieved 29 September 2021.
  206. ^ World Health Organisation, World Health Staff, (2000), Haden, Angela; Campanini, Barbara, eds., The world health report 2000 – Health systems: improving performance (PDF), Geneva: World Health Organisation, ISBN  92-4-156198-X
  207. ^ "Health care in Spain: Beneficiairies". seg-social.es. Archived from the original on 25 May 2017. Retrieved 24 September 2017.
  208. ^ CIS. "Barómetro de Enero de 2023", 3,961 respondents. The question was "¿Cómo se define Ud. en materia religiosa: católico/a practicante, católico/a no practicante, creyente de otra religión, agnóstico/a, indiferente o no creyente, o ateo/a?". Page 19.
  209. ^ Ley 26/1992 Archived 26 November 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Documento BOE-A-1992-24855, Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado
  210. ^ Ley 25/1992 Archived 27 December 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Documento BOE-A-1992-24854, Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado
  211. ^ Ley 24/1992 Archived 26 November 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Documento BOE-A-1992-24853, Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado
  212. ^ Centro de Investigaciones Sociológicas: Barómetro de Julio 2020, página 21. Archived 20 July 2020 at the Wayback Machine¿Cómo se define Ud. en materia religiosa: católico/a practicante, católico/a no practicante, creyente de otra religión, agnóstico/a, indiferente o no creyente, o ateo/a?
  213. ^ a b Centro de Investigaciones Sociológicas (Centre for Sociological Research) (October 2019). "Macrobarómetro de octubre 2019, Banco de datos" (in Spanish). p. 160. Archived from the original on 14 June 2020. Retrieved 17 December 2019. The question was "¿Cómo se define Ud. en materia religiosa: católico/a practicante, católico/a no practicante, creyente de otra religion, agnóstico/a, indiferente o no creyente, o ateo/a?", the weight used was "PESOCCAA" which reflects the population sizes of the Autonomous communities of Spain.
  214. ^ "WVS Database". World Values Survey. Institute for Comparative Survey Research. March 2015. Archived from the original on 5 January 2016.
  215. ^ "Gallup International Religiosity Index" (PDF). The Washington Post. WIN-Gallup International. April 2015. Archived (PDF) from the original on 1 February 2016.
  216. ^ "Federación de Entidades Religiosas Evangélicas de España – FEREDE". Ferede.org. Archived from the original on 30 September 2011. Retrieved 4 September 2010.
  217. ^ "Spain – Newsroom". churchofjesuschrist.org. Archived from the original on 14 June 2020. Retrieved 4 September 2010.
  218. ^ "Los musulmanes en España superan por primera vez los 2 millones de personas". El Heraldo. September 2020. Archived from the original on 4 October 2020. Retrieved 30 September 2020.
  219. ^ "Beyond Bullfights and Sangria: Five Centuries of Spanish History through Its Music, Art, and Literature - UC San Diego Extension". Archived from the original on 25 November 2016. Retrieved 27 November 2016.
  220. ^ "Spain, main reference for world's Hispanic heritage". ABC.es. Madrid. 3 July 2014. Archived from the original on 11 September 2016. Retrieved 8 June 2016.
  221. ^ Townson, N. (2007). Spain Transformed: The Franco Dictatorship, 1959-1975. Routledge. p. 7. ISBN  9780230592643.
  222. ^ "Spain". UNESCO Culture Sector. Archived from the original on 26 September 2014. Retrieved 14 September 2014.
  223. ^ "Spain – Intangible Cultural Heritage". UNESCO Culture Sector. Archived from the original on 14 September 2014. Retrieved 14 September 2014.
  224. ^ Gies, David T. (2004). The Cambridge History of Spanish Literature. Cambridge University Press. pp. 73–74. ISBN  0-521-80618-6.
  225. ^ Dapueto Reyes, María de los Ángeles (2015). "Literatura hispanorromance primigenia : la glosa conoajutorio del Codex Aemilianensis 60". Letras. Pontificia Universidad Católica Argentina Santa María de los Buenos Aires. 2 (72): 90. ISSN  0326-3363. Archived from the original on 6 August 2020. Retrieved 23 May 2020.
  226. ^ Labanyi, Jo (2010). Spanish Literature. A Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press. pp. 18–19. ISBN  978-0-19-920805-0.
  227. ^ Labanyi 2010, p. 24.
  228. ^ Labanyi 2010, p. 21.
  229. ^ Amorós Negre, Carla (2016), "The spread of Castilian/Spanish in Spain and the Americas: A relatively successful language standardisation experience", Sociolinguistica, 1 (30): 26–28, doi: 10.1515/soci-2016-0003, ISSN  0933-1883, S2CID  132493573, archived from the original on 31 May 2022, retrieved 5 April 2022
  230. ^ González Subías, José Luis (2007). "La extensión del Romanticismo en España". Cuadernos de Ilustración y Romanticismo: Revista del Grupo de Estudios del siglo XVIII. Editorial UCA (15): 226; 228–229. ISSN  2173-0687. Archived from the original on 12 April 2022. Retrieved 5 April 2022.
  231. ^ Abad, Francisco (2007). "La 'Edad de Plata' (1868-1936) y las generaciones de la Edad de Plata : cultura y filología" (PDF). Epos. Revista de Filología (23): 244–245. Archived (PDF) from the original on 12 April 2022. Retrieved 5 April 2022.
  232. ^ Orringer, Nelson R. (1998). "Redifining the Spanish Silver Age and '98 Within It". Anales de la literatura Española Contemporánea. Society of Spanish & Spanish-American Studies. 23 (1/2): 317. JSTOR  25642011.
  233. ^ Labanyi 2010, p. 61.
  234. ^ Coluzzi, Paolo (2007). Minority Language Planning and Micronationalism in Italy: An Analysis of the Situation of Friulian, Cimbrian and Western Lombard with Reference to Spanish Minority Languages. Peter Lang. p. 103. ISBN  9783039110414. Archived from the original on 12 September 2023. Retrieved 15 April 2022.
  235. ^ Coluzzi 2007, pp. 103–104.
  236. ^ Antonova, N.V.; Myagkov, G.P; Nikolaeva, O.A (2019). "Genesis problem of philosophical thought in spanish historiography" (PDF). Utopía y Praxis Latinoamericana. Universidad del Zulia. 24 (5): 66–67. Archived (PDF) from the original on 1 April 2022. Retrieved 1 April 2022.
  237. ^ Caponigri, A. Robert (1967). Contemporary Spanish Philosophy (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 April 2022. Retrieved 1 April 2022.
  238. ^ Antonova, Myagkov & Nikolaeva 2019, p. 67.
  239. ^ Caponigri 1967, p. 169–170.
  240. ^ Anirudh. "10 Most Famous Paintings by Diego Velazquez | Learnodo Newtonic". Archived from the original on 24 November 2020. Retrieved 21 November 2020.
  241. ^ Montes Fernández 2011, pp. 602–603.
  242. ^ Montes Fernández 2011, p. 603.
  243. ^ Montes Fernández, Francisco José (2011). "Recordando la historia del cine español" (PDF). Anuario Jurídico y Económico Escurialense. XLIV. ISSN  1133-3677. Archived (PDF) from the original on 17 April 2022. Retrieved 1 April 2022.
  244. ^ Montes Fernández 2011, pp. 609–610.
  245. ^ Jordan, Barry; Morgan-Tamosunas, Rikki (1998). Contemporary spanish cinema. Manchester University Press.
  246. ^ Yuste, Javier (13 December 2019). "Viaje por la cara B del cine español". El Cultural. Archived from the original on 1 April 2022. Retrieved 1 April 2022 – via El Español.
  247. ^ "El Festival de San Sebastián y el de Málaga, entre las diez iniciativas culturales más importantes de España en 2021". Audiovisual451. 9 February 2022. Archived from the original on 9 February 2022. Retrieved 1 April 2022.
  248. ^ La Spina, V (2018). "Earth and gypsum: From theory to practice in Spanish vernacular architecture". In Mileto, C.; Vegas López-Manzanares, F.; García-Soriano, L.; Cristini, V. (eds.). Vernacular and Earthen Architecture: Conservation and Sustainability. London: Taylor & Francis. pp. 153–154. ISBN  978-1-138-03546-1.
  249. ^ Bloom, Jonathan M. (2020). Architecture of the Islamic West. North Africa and the Iberian Peninsula. New Haven and London: Yale University Press. p. 88. ISBN  978-0-300-21870-1.
  250. ^ Bloom 2020, p. 171.
  251. ^ "Music Festivals, UK Festivals and London Festivals". Spoonfed.co.uk. Archived from the original on 28 October 2011. Retrieved 1 November 2011.
  252. ^ "The History of the Guitar in Spain". Linguatics.com. Archived from the original on 29 April 2011. Retrieved 30 April 2011.
  253. ^ a b Richardson, Paul (19 August 2007). "Spain's perfect paella". The Times. London. Archived from the original on 4 June 2010. Retrieved 6 August 2010.
  254. ^ Smillie, Susan (18 January 2010). "World's most expensive ham?". The Guardian. ISSN  0261-3077. Archived from the original on 31 October 2019. Retrieved 31 October 2019.
  255. ^ Limón, Raúl (7 March 2016). "The world's most expensive ham is from Huelva and costs €4,100 a leg". El País. ISSN  1134-6582. Archived from the original on 27 November 2019. Retrieved 31 October 2019.
  256. ^ DiGregorio, Sarah (1 December 2009). "Spain Gain at Mercat Negre". The Village Voice. New York. Archived from the original on 8 December 2009. Retrieved 6 August 2010.
  257. ^ "Primera División 2015/2016". worldfootball.net. Archived from the original on 13 July 2016. Retrieved 14 July 2016.
  258. ^ "Bank holidays in Spain". bank-holidays.com. Archived from the original on 18 September 2008. Retrieved 13 August 2008.
  259. ^ Nogués y Secall (1862), 68.
  260. ^ Paloma Aguilar, Carsten Humlebæk, "Collective Memory and National Identity in the Spanish Democracy: The Legacies of Francoism and the Civil War", History & Memory, 1 April 2002, pag. 121–164
  261. ^ "Acuerdo entre el Reino de España y Nueva Zelanda sobre participación en determinadas elecciones de los nacionales de cada país residentes en el territorio del otro, hecho en Wellington el 23 de junio de 2009". Noticias Jurídicas. Archived from the original on 31 August 2016. Retrieved 14 November 2010.

Works cited

Further reading

  • Carr, Raymond, ed. Spain: a history. Oxford University Press, USA, 2000.
  • Callaghan O.F Joseph. A History of Medieval Spain Cornell University Press 1983

External links

Government
Maps
Tourism

40°N 4°W / 40°N 4°W / 40; -4