A script doctor is a writer or playwright hired by a
theatreproduction company to rewrite an existing script or improve specific aspects of it, including structure, characterization, dialogue, pacing, themes, and other elements.
Script doctors generally do their work
uncredited for a variety of commercial and artistic reasons.[examples needed] They are usually brought in for scripts that have been almost "
green-lit" during the development and pre-production phases of a film to address specific issues with the script, as identified by the financiers, production team, and cast.
Carrie Fisher: Hook (1991),Sister Act (1992),Lethal Weapon 3 (1992),Last Action Hero (1993),The River Wild (1994), and The Wedding Singer (1998). An Entertainment Weekly article from May 1992 described Fisher as "one of the most sought after doctors in town." When asked if she was still working as a script doctor in December 2008, she said: "I haven't done it for a few years. I did it for many years, and then younger people came to do it and I started to do new things. It was a long, very lucrative episode of my life. But it's complicated to do that. Now it's all changed, actually. Now in order to get a rewrite job, you have to submit your notes for your ideas on how to fix the script. So they can get all the notes from all the different writers, keep the notes and not hire you. That's free work and that's what I always call life-wasting events."
John Sayles: Apollo 13 (1995) and Mimic (1997). Sayles has stated that the script doctor's main role is to help others tell their stories. He decides which jobs to accept based on whether there is a germ of an idea for a movie he would actually like to see. He has also stated that he works harder when writing for others than he does on his own work.
Aaron Sorkin: Schindler's List (1993), The Rock (1996), Excess Baggage (1997), and Enemy of the State (1998). In an October 2010 interview, Sorkin told a journalist: "With the script doctoring, I did it for
Jerry Bruckheimer for a while, because I was just going through a period where I was having a very difficult time coming up with my own ideas and I was climbing the walls. So I did what is called 'the production polish', where you are brought into the last two weeks on something that you are not emotionally invested in, where it is not your job to break the story, to come up with the moving parts and plot points. Basically, they just wanted some snappy dialogue for
Sean Connery and
Nicolas Cage. The first time I did it, actually, was for Schindler's List where no-one is looking for snappy dialogue, but the writer of that movie had gone on to direct a picture and there was a little more work that [director Steven Spielberg] wanted done before it went to Poland to begin shooting. He asked me to come in and do that, but you are obviously more interested in your own thing."
Sir Tom Stoppard: Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade (1989),Sleepy Hollow (1999), and The Bourne Ultimatum (2007). On The Bourne Ultimatum, Stoppard said in October 2007, "I wrote a script for [director]
Paul Greengrass. Some of the themes are still mine—but I don't think there's a single word of mine in the film." According to an April 2010 interview with The Guardian, Stoppard "does uncredited script-doctoring on Hollywood movies, 'about once a year': most recently he worked on Paul Greengrass's The Bourne Ultimatum. 'The second reason for doing it is that you get to work with people you admire. The first reason, of course, is that it's overpaid.' Once, hearing the phone ring at home while in the shower, he took a call from [director]
Steven Spielberg on the set of Schindler's List, agonising over a scene in
Steven Zaillian's script. Standing naked, Stoppard improvised a solution that was used in the movie. He remains bemused by this American habit of invisible script revision. 'I actually got quite angry with Spielberg, who was and is a good friend, and told him just to film Zaillian's script. But Steven, like a lot of other people in movies, tends to think one more opinion can't hurt.'" He also said, "I used to worry about it enormously, but it's a different culture. It's a moral issue, almost. A few years ago, I was invited to a film festival, as a freebie, because I'd done so much work on a movie that they said I should be there. And I said: 'I can't do that, because I'm not supposed to be on this film, and it's unfair to the chap whose name is on it.' But it just goes with the territory: these are the conditions one works under out there."
Joss Whedon: Speed (1994), The Quick and the Dead (1995),Waterworld (1995), Twister (1996), and X-Men (2000). In a September 2001 interview, Whedon said: "Most of the dialogue in Speed is mine, and a bunch of the characters," adding that he was
arbitrated out of credit. He also spoke about Waterworld and X-Men: "I refer to myself as the world's highest-paid
stenographer. This is a situation I've been in a bunch of times. [...] Waterworld was a good idea, and the script was the classic, 'They have a good idea, then they write a generic script and don't really care about the idea.' When I was brought in, there was no water in the last 40 pages of the script. It all took place on land, or on a ship, or whatever. I'm like, 'Isn't the cool thing about this guy that he has gills?' And no one was listening. I was there basically taking notes from [
Kevin Costner], who was very nice, fine to work with, but he was not a writer. And he had written a bunch of stuff that they wouldn't let their staff touch. So I was supposed to be there for a week, and I was there for seven weeks, and I accomplished nothing. I wrote a few puns, and a few scenes that I can't even sit through because they came out so bad. It was the same situation with X-Men. They said, 'Come in and punch up the big
third act, and if you can, make it
cheaper.' That was the mandate on both movies, and my response to both movies was, 'The problem with the third act is the first two acts.' But, again, no one was paying attention. [...] And then, in X-Men, not only did they throw out my script and never tell me about it; they actually invited me to the
read-through, having thrown out my entire draft without telling me."
Steven E. de Souza: 48 Hrs. (1982) and Judge Dredd (1995). In a 2013 interview published by Den of Geek, de Souza acknowledged his role as a script doctor. "I still get brought on to fix screenplays that I had nothing to do with. When a movie is about to be shot and they hire me to come in and fix the script and punch it up at the last minute. In addition, I’m like a patient resuscitator who they can hire secretly after a movie has had a horrible
test to rewrite some scenes and re-cut the movie so they can make it good enough to get to home video. That’s my secret identity."
^Appleton, Dina; Yankelevits, Daniel (2010). Hollywood Dealmaking: Negotiating Talent Agreements for Film, TV and New Media (2 ed.). New York: Allworth Press. p. 303.
ISBN978-1581156713. A writer hired to 'spruce up' or 'fix' a script, usually by inserting jokes or otherwise adding some 'juice'. These highly paid writers are often hired by studios for brief periods of employment, most often to work on scripts that are very close to being 'green-lit'.
abAbramowitz, Rachel (October 27, 2002).
"To the rescue?". The Los Angeles Times. Retrieved August 17, 2012.
^Spicer, Andrew (2010). Historical Dictionary of Film Noir. Lanham: Scarecrow Press. pp.
ISBN978-0810859609. He became a Hollywood screenwriter from 1926, valued highly for his contemporary, idiomatic, and vivid prose, and as a ruthless and effective 'script doctor', having a hand in many films noir for which he was uncredited...
^Koski, Genevieve (May 15, 2008).
"Raiders Of The Lost Ark". The A.V. Club. Retrieved August 17, 2012. Spielberg said, in an 2005 interview with Empire magazine, 'Tom is pretty much responsible for every line of dialogue [in Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade].'
^Nashawty, Chris (November 19, 1999).
"Sleepy Hollow: A Head of its Time". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved August 17, 2012. On the other hand, it doesn't hurt that Sleepy Hollow's script—credited to Andrew Kevin Walker (Seven)—received a stealthy stem-to-stern overhaul from Shakespeare in Love's Oscar-winning screenwriter Tom Stoppard.