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Temporal range: Aptian or Albian–Recent
Euphorbia heterophylla (Painted Euphorbia) in Hyderabad, AP W IMG 9720.jpg
Euphorbia heterophylla
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Superrosids
Clade: Rosids
Orders [1]

The rosids are members of a large clade ( monophyletic group) of flowering plants, containing about 70,000 species, [2] more than a quarter of all angiosperms. [3]

The clade is divided into 16 to 20 orders, depending upon circumscription and classification. These orders, in turn, together comprise about 140 families. [4]

Fossil rosids are known from the Cretaceous period. Molecular clock estimates indicate that the rosids originated in the Aptian or Albian stages of the Cretaceous, between 125 and 99.6 million years ago. [5] [6]

Today's forests are highly dominated by rosid species, which in turn helped with diversification in many other living lineages. Additionally, rosid herbs and shrubs are also a significant part of arctic/alpine, temperate floras, aquatics, desert plants, and parasites. [7]


The name is based upon the name " Rosidae", which had usually been understood to be a subclass. In 1967, Armen Takhtajan showed that the correct basis for the name "Rosidae" is a description of a group of plants published in 1830 by Friedrich Gottlieb Bartling. [8] The clade was later renamed "Rosidae" and has been variously delimited by different authors. The name "rosids" is informal and not assumed to have any particular taxonomic rank like the names authorized by the ICBN. The rosids are monophyletic based upon evidence found by molecular phylogenetic analysis.

Three different definitions of the rosids were used. Some authors included the orders Saxifragales and Vitales in the rosids. [9] Others excluded both of these orders. [10] The circumscription used in this article is that of the APG IV classification, which includes Vitales, but excludes Saxifragales.


The rosids and Saxifragales form the superrosids clade. [2] [10] This is one of three groups that comprise the Pentapetalae ( core eudicots minus Gunnerales), [11] the others being Dilleniales and the superasterids ( Berberidopsidales, Caryophyllales, Santalales, and asterids). [10]


The rosids consist of two groups: the order Vitales and the eurosids (true rosids). The eurosids, in turn, are divided into two groups: fabids (Fabidae, eurosids I) and malvids (Malvidae, eurosids II). [10]


The rosids consist of 17 orders. In addition to Vitales, there are eight orders in fabids and eight orders in malvids. Some of the orders have only recently been recognized. [10] These are Vitales, [12] Zygophyllales, [13] Crossosomatales, [14] Picramniales, [15] and Huerteales. [16]


The phylogeny of rosids shown below is adapted from the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group website. [10]





COM clade 




nitrogen‑fixing clade 














The nitrogen-fixing clade contains a high number of actinorhizal plants (which have root nodules containing nitrogen fixing bacteria, helping the plant grow in poor soils). Not all plants in this clade are actinorhizal, however. [17]


  1. ^ Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2016). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG IV". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 181 (1): 1–20. doi: 10.1111/boj.12385.
  2. ^ a b Wang, Hengchang; Moore, Michael J.; Soltis, Pamela S.; Bell, Charles D.; Brockington, Samuel F.; Alexandre, Roolse; Davis, Charles C.; Latvis, Maribeth; Manchester, Steven R.; Soltis, Douglas E. (10 March 2009), "Rosid radiation and the rapid rise of angiosperm-dominated forests", Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106 (10): 3853–8, Bibcode: 2009PNAS..106.3853W, doi: 10.1073/pnas.0813376106, PMC  2644257, PMID  19223592
  3. ^ Scotland, Robert W.; Wortley, Alexandra H. (2003), "How many species of seed plants are there?", Taxon, 52 (1): 101–4, doi: 10.2307/3647306, JSTOR  3647306
  4. ^ Soltis, Douglas E.; Soltis, Pamela S.; Peter K. Endress; Mark W. Chase (2005), Phylogeny and Evolution of the Angiosperms, Sunderland, MA, USA: Sinauer, ISBN  978-0-87893-817-9
  5. ^ Davies, T.J.; Barraclough, T.G.; Chase, M.W.; Soltis, P.S.; Soltis, D.E.; Savolainen, V. (2004), "Darwin's abominable mystery: Insights from a supertree of the angiosperms", Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 101 (7): 1904–9, Bibcode: 2004PNAS..101.1904D, doi: 10.1073/pnas.0308127100, PMC  357025, PMID  14766971
  6. ^ Magallón, Susana; Castillo, Amanda (2009), "Angiosperm diversification through time", American Journal of Botany, 96 (1): 349–365, doi: 10.3732/ajb.0800060, PMID  21628193
  7. ^ Folk, Ryan A.; Sun, Miao; Soltis, Pamela S.; Smith, Stephen A.; Soltis, Douglas E.; Guralnick, Robert P. (March 2018). "Challenges of comprehensive taxon sampling in comparative biology: Wrestling with rosids". American Journal of Botany. 105 (3): 433–445. doi: 10.1002/ajb2.1059. ISSN  0002-9122. PMID  29665035.
  8. ^ Reveal, James L. (2008), "A Checklist of Family and Suprafamilial Names for Extant Vascular Plants", Home page of James L. Reveal and C. Rose Broome
  9. ^ Burleigh, J. Gordon; Hilu, Khidir W.; Soltis, Douglas E. (2009), File 7, "Inferring phylogenies with incomplete data sets: a 5-gene, 567-taxon analysis of angiosperms", BMC Evolutionary Biology, 9: 61, doi: 10.1186/1471-2148-9-61, PMC  2674047, PMID  19292928
  10. ^ a b c d e f Stevens, Peter F. (2001), Angiosperm Phylogeny Website
  11. ^ Cantino, Philip D.; Doyle, James A.; Graham, Sean W.; Judd, Walter S.; Olmstead, Richard G.; Soltis, Douglas E.; Soltis, Pamela S.; Donoghue, Michael J. (2007), "Towards a phylogenetic nomenclature of Tracheophyta" (PDF), Taxon, 56 (3): 822–846, doi: 10.2307/25065865, JSTOR  25065865
  12. ^ Reveal, James L. (1995), "Newly required suprageneric names in vascular plants", Phytologia, 79 (2): 68–76 See p. 72
  13. ^ Chalk, L. (1983), "Wood structure", in Metcalfe, C.R.; Chalk, L. (eds.), Wood Structure and Conclusion of the General Introduction, Anatomy of the Dicotyledons, vol. II (2nd ed.), Clarendon Press, pp. 1-51 [1-2 by C. R. Melcalfe], ISBN  978-0-19-854559-0
  14. ^ Kubitzki, Klaus, ed. (2007), "Introduction to Crossosomatales", Flowering Plants. Eudicots: Berberidopsidales, Buxales, Crossosomatales, Fabales p.p., Geraniales, Gunnerales, Myrtales p.p., Proteales, Saxifragales, Vitales, Zygophyllales, Clusiaceae Alliance, Passifloraceae Alliance, Dilleniaceae, Huaceae, Picramniaceae, Sabiaceae, The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants, vol. IX, Springer, ISBN  978-3-540-32219-1
  15. ^ Hutchinson, John (1979) [1973], The Families of Flowering Plants (3rd ed.), Oxford University Press, ISBN  9783874291606
  16. ^ Worberg, Andreas; Alford, Mac H.; Quandt, Dietmar; Borsch, Thomas (2009), "Huerteales sister to Brassicales plus Malvales, and newly circumscribed to include Dipentodon, Gerrardina, Huertea, Perrottetia, and Tapiscia", Taxon, 58 (2): 468–478, doi: 10.1002/tax.582012
  17. ^ Wall, L. (2000), "The actinorhizal symbiosis", Journal of Plant Growth and Regulation, 19 (2): 167–182, doi: 10.1007/s003440000027, PMID  11038226, S2CID  12887261

External links

  • Media related to Rosids at Wikimedia Commons