# Ramanujan prime Information

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ramanujan_prime

In mathematics, a Ramanujan prime is a prime number that satisfies a result proven by Srinivasa Ramanujan relating to the prime-counting function.

## Origins and definition

In 1919, Ramanujan published a new proof of Bertrand's postulate which, as he notes, was first proved by Chebyshev. [1] At the end of the two-page published paper, Ramanujan derived a generalized result, and that is:

${\displaystyle \pi (x)-\pi \left({\frac {x}{2}}\right)\geq 1,2,3,4,5,\ldots {\text{ for all }}x\geq 2,11,17,29,41,\ldots {\text{ respectively}}}$

where ${\displaystyle \pi (x)}$ is the prime-counting function, equal to the number of primes less than or equal to x.

The converse of this result is the definition of Ramanujan primes:

The nth Ramanujan prime is the least integer Rn for which ${\displaystyle \pi (x)-\pi (x/2)\geq n,}$ for all xRn. [2] In other words: Ramanujan primes are the least integers Rn for which there are at least n primes between x and x/2 for all xRn.

The first five Ramanujan primes are thus 2, 11, 17, 29, and 41.

Note that the integer Rn is necessarily a prime number: ${\displaystyle \pi (x)-\pi (x/2)}$ and, hence, ${\displaystyle \pi (x)}$ must increase by obtaining another prime at x = Rn. Since ${\displaystyle \pi (x)-\pi (x/2)}$ can increase by at most 1,

${\displaystyle \pi (R_{n})-\pi \left({\frac {R_{n}}{2}}\right)=n.}$

## Bounds and an asymptotic formula

For all ${\displaystyle n\geq 1}$, the bounds

${\displaystyle 2n\ln 2n

hold. If ${\displaystyle n>1}$, then also

${\displaystyle p_{2n}

where pn is the nth prime number.

As n tends to infinity, Rn is asymptotic to the 2nth prime, i.e.,

Rn ~ p2n (n → ∞).

All these results were proved by Sondow (2009), [3] except for the upper bound Rn < p3n which was conjectured by him and proved by Laishram (2010). [4] The bound was improved by Sondow, Nicholson, and Noe (2011) [5] to

${\displaystyle R_{n}\leq {\frac {41}{47}}\ p_{3n}}$

which is the optimal form of Rnc·p3n since it is an equality for n = 5.

## References

1. ^ Ramanujan, S. (1919), "A proof of Bertrand's postulate", Journal of the Indian Mathematical Society, 11: 181–182
2. ^
3. ^ Sondow, J. (2009), "Ramanujan primes and Bertrand's postulate", Amer. Math. Monthly, 116 (7): 630–635, arXiv:, doi: 10.4169/193009709x458609
4. ^ Laishram, S. (2010), "On a conjecture on Ramanujan primes" (PDF), International Journal of Number Theory, 6 (8): 1869–1873, CiteSeerX , doi: 10.1142/s1793042110003848.
5. ^ Sondow, J.; Nicholson, J.; Noe, T.D. (2011), "Ramanujan primes: bounds, runs, twins, and gaps" (PDF), Journal of Integer Sequences, 14: 11.6.2, arXiv:, Bibcode: 2011arXiv1105.2249S