Quantum field theory |
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In
quantum field theory, the **quantum vacuum state** (also called the **quantum vacuum** or **vacuum state**) is the
quantum state with the lowest possible
energy. Generally, it contains no physical particles. The word **zero-point field** is sometimes used as a synonym for the vacuum state of a quantized field which is completely individual.

According to present-day understanding of what is called the vacuum state or the quantum vacuum, it is "by no means a simple empty space".^{
[1]}^{
[2]} According to quantum mechanics, the vacuum state is not truly empty but instead contains fleeting
electromagnetic waves and
particles that pop into and out of the quantum field.^{
[3]}^{
[4]}^{
[5]}

The
QED vacuum of
quantum electrodynamics (or QED) was the first vacuum of
quantum field theory to be developed. QED originated in the 1930s, and in the late 1940s and early 1950s it was reformulated by
Feynman,
Tomonaga, and
Schwinger, who jointly received the Nobel prize for this work in 1965.^{
[6]} Today the
electromagnetic interactions and the
weak interactions are unified (at very high energies only) in the theory of the
electroweak interaction.

The
Standard Model is a generalization of the QED work to include all the known
elementary particles and their interactions (except gravity).
Quantum chromodynamics (or QCD) is the portion of the Standard Model that deals with
strong interactions, and
QCD vacuum is the vacuum of quantum chromodynamics. It is the object of study in the
Large Hadron Collider and the
Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, and is related to the so-called vacuum structure of
strong interactions.^{
[7]}

If the quantum field theory can be accurately described through perturbation theory, then the properties of the vacuum are analogous to the properties of the ground state of a quantum mechanical harmonic oscillator, or more accurately, the ground state of a measurement problem. In this case the vacuum expectation value (VEV) of any field operator vanishes. For quantum field theories in which perturbation theory breaks down at low energies (for example, Quantum chromodynamics or the BCS theory of superconductivity) field operators may have non-vanishing vacuum expectation values called condensates. In the Standard Model, the non-zero vacuum expectation value of the Higgs field, arising from spontaneous symmetry breaking, is the mechanism by which the other fields in the theory acquire mass.

The vacuum state is associated with a
zero-point energy, and this zero-point energy (equivalent to the lowest possible energy state) has measurable effects. In the laboratory, it may be detected as the
Casimir effect. In
physical cosmology, the energy of the cosmological vacuum appears as the
cosmological constant. In fact, the energy of a cubic centimeter of empty space has been calculated figuratively to be one trillionth of an
erg (or 0.6 eV).^{
[8]} An outstanding requirement imposed on a potential
Theory of Everything is that the energy of the quantum vacuum state must explain the physically observed cosmological constant.

For a
relativistic field theory, the vacuum is
Poincaré invariant, which follows from
Wightman axioms but can be also proved directly without these axioms.^{
[9]} Poincaré invariance implies that only
scalar combinations of field operators have non-vanishing
VEV's. The
VEV may break some of the
internal symmetries of the
Lagrangian of the field theory. In this case the vacuum has less symmetry than the theory allows, and one says that
spontaneous symmetry breaking has occurred. See
Higgs mechanism,
standard model.

Quantum corrections to Maxwell's equations are expected to result in a tiny nonlinear electric polarization term in the vacuum, resulting in a field-dependent electrical permittivity ε deviating from the nominal value ε_{0} of
vacuum permittivity.^{
[10]} These theoretical developments are described, for example, in Dittrich and Gies.^{
[5]}
The theory of
quantum electrodynamics predicts that the
QED vacuum should exhibit a slight
nonlinearity so that in the presence of a very strong electric field, the permitivity is increased by a tiny amount with respect to ε_{0}. Subject to ongoing experimental efforts^{
[11]} is the effect that a strong electric field would modify the effective
permeability of free space, becoming
anisotropic with a value slightly below *μ*_{0} in the direction of the electric field and slightly exceeding *μ*_{0} in the perpendicular direction. The quantum vacuum exposed to an electric field thereby exhibits
birefringence for an electromagnetic wave travelling in a direction other than that of the electric field. The effect is similar to the
Kerr effect but without matter being present.^{
[12]} This tiny nonlinearity can be interpreted in terms of virtual
pair production^{
[13]} A characteristic electric field strength for which the nonlinearities become sizable is predicted to be enormous, about V/m, known as the
Schwinger limit; the equivalent
Kerr constant has been estimated, being about 10^{20} times smaller than the Kerr constant of water. Explanations for
dichroism from particle physics, outside quantum electrodynamics, also have been proposed.^{
[14]} Experimentally measuring such an effect is very difficult,^{
[15]} and has not yet been successful.

The presence of virtual particles can be rigorously based upon the
non-commutation of the
quantized electromagnetic fields. Non-commutation means that although the
average values of the fields vanish in a quantum vacuum, their
variances do not.^{
[16]} The term "
vacuum fluctuations" refers to the variance of the field strength in the minimal energy state,^{
[17]} and is described picturesquely as evidence of "virtual particles".^{
[18]} It is sometimes attempted to provide an intuitive picture of virtual particles, or variances, based upon the Heisenberg
energy-time uncertainty principle:

(with Δ

According to
Astrid Lambrecht (2002): "When one empties out a space of all matter and lowers the temperature to absolute zero, one produces in a *Gedankenexperiment* [thought experiment] the quantum vacuum state."^{
[1]} According to
Fowler &
Guggenheim (1939/1965), the
third law of thermodynamics may be precisely enunciated as follows:

It is impossible by any procedure, no matter how idealized, to reduce any assembly to the absolute zero in a finite number of operations.

^{ [25]}(See also.^{ [26]}^{ [27]}^{ [28]})

Photon-photon interaction can occur only through interaction with the vacuum state of some other field, for example through the Dirac electron-positron vacuum field; this is associated with the concept of
vacuum polarization.^{
[29]} According to
Milonni (1994): "... all quantum fields have zero-point energies and vacuum fluctuations."^{
[30]} This means that there is a component of the quantum vacuum respectively for each component field (considered in the conceptual absence of the other fields), such as the electromagnetic field, the Dirac electron-positron field, and so on. According to Milonni (1994), some of the effects attributed to the
vacuum electromagnetic field can have several physical interpretations, some more conventional than others. The
Casimir attraction between uncharged conductive plates is often proposed as an example of an effect of the vacuum electromagnetic field. Schwinger, DeRaad, and Milton (1978) are cited by Milonni (1994) as validly, though unconventionally, explaining the Casimir effect with a model in which "the vacuum is regarded as truly a state with all physical properties equal to zero."^{
[31]}^{
[32]} In this model, the observed phenomena are explained as the effects of the electron motions on the electromagnetic field, called the source field effect. Milonni writes:

The basic idea here will be that the Casimir force may be derived from the source fields alone even in completely conventional QED, ... Milonni provides detailed argument that the measurable physical effects usually attributed to the vacuum electromagnetic field cannot be explained by that field alone, but require in addition a contribution from the self-energy of the electrons, or their radiation reaction. He writes: "The radiation reaction and the vacuum fields are two aspects of the same thing when it comes to physical interpretations of various QED processes including the Lamb shift, van der Waals forces, and Casimir effects."

^{ [33]}

This point of view is also stated by Jaffe (2005): "The Casimir force can be calculated without reference to vacuum fluctuations, and like all other observable effects in QED, it vanishes as the fine structure constant, *α*, goes to zero."^{
[34]}

The vacuum state is written as or . The vacuum expectation value (see also Expectation value) of any field should be written as .

- ^
^{a}^{b}Astrid Lambrecht (2002). Hartmut Figger; Dieter Meschede; Claus Zimmermann (eds.).*Observing mechanical dissipation in the quantum vacuum: an experimental challenge; in*. Berlin/New York: Springer. p. 197. ISBN 978-3-540-42418-5.**Laser physics at the limits** **^**Christopher Ray (1991).*Time, space and philosophy*. London/New York: Routledge. Chapter 10, p. 205. ISBN 978-0-415-03221-6.**^**"AIP Physics News Update,1996". Archived from the original on 2008-01-29. Retrieved 2008-02-29.**^**Physical Review Focus Dec. 1998- ^
^{a}^{b}Walter Dittrich & Gies H (2000).*Probing the quantum vacuum: perturbative effective action approach*. Berlin: Springer. ISBN 978-3-540-67428-3. **^**For a historical discussion, see for example Ari Ben-Menaḥem, ed. (2009). "Quantum electrodynamics (QED)".*Historical Encyclopedia of Natural and Mathematical Sciences*. Vol. 1 (5th ed.). Springer. pp. 4892*ff*. ISBN 978-3-540-68831-0. For the Nobel prize details and the Nobel lectures by these authors, see "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1965". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2012-02-06.**^**Jean Letessier; Johann Rafelski (2002).*Hadrons and Quark-Gluon Plasma*. Cambridge University Press. p. 37*ff*. ISBN 978-0-521-38536-7.**^**Sean Carroll, Sr Research Associate - Physics, California Institute of Technology, June 22, 2006 C-SPAN broadcast of Cosmology at Yearly Kos Science Panel, Part 1**^**Bednorz, Adam (November 2013). "Relativistic invariance of the vacuum".*The European Physical Journal C*.**73**(12): 2654. arXiv: 1209.0209. Bibcode: 2013EPJC...73.2654B. doi: 10.1140/epjc/s10052-013-2654-9. S2CID 39308527.**^**David Delphenich (2006). "Nonlinear Electrodynamics and QED". arXiv: hep-th/0610088.**^**Battesti, Rémy; et al. (November 2018). "High magnetic fields for fundamental physics".*Physics Reports*. 765–766: 1–39. arXiv: 1803.07547. Bibcode: 2018PhR...765....1B. doi: 10.1016/j.physrep.2018.07.005. S2CID 4931745.**^**Mourou, G. A., T. Tajima, and S. V. Bulanov,*Optics in the relativistic regime*; § XI*Nonlinear QED*,*Reviews of Modern Physics*vol.**78**(no. 2), 309-371 (2006) pdf file.**^**Klein, James J. and B. P. Nigam,*Birefringence of the vacuum*,*Physical Review*vol.**135**, p. B1279-B1280 (1964).**^**Holger Gies; Joerg Jaeckel; Andreas Ringwald (2006). "Polarized Light Propagating in a Magnetic Field as a Probe of Millicharged Fermions".*Physical Review Letters*.**97**(14): 140402. arXiv: hep-ph/0607118. Bibcode: 2006PhRvL..97n0402G. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.97.140402. PMID 17155223. S2CID 43654455.**^**Davis; Joseph Harris; Gammon; Smolyaninov; Kyuman Cho (2007). "Experimental Challenges Involved in Searches for Axion-Like Particles and Nonlinear Quantum Electrodynamic Effects by Sensitive Optical Techniques". arXiv: 0704.0748 [ hep-th].**^**Myron Wyn Evans; Stanisław Kielich (1994).*Modern nonlinear optics, Volume 85, Part 3*. John Wiley & Sons. p. 462. ISBN 978-0-471-57548-1.For all field states that have classical analog the field quadrature variances are also greater than or equal to this commutator.

**^**David Nikolaevich Klyshko (1988).*Photons and nonlinear optics*. Taylor & Francis. p. 126. ISBN 978-2-88124-669-2.**^**Milton K. Munitz (1990).*Cosmic Understanding: Philosophy and Science of the Universe*. Princeton University Press. p. 132. ISBN 978-0-691-02059-4.The spontaneous, temporary emergence of particles from vacuum is called a "vacuum fluctuation".

**^**For an example, see P. C. W. Davies (1982).*The accidental universe*. Cambridge University Press. pp. 106. ISBN 978-0-521-28692-3.**^**A vaguer description is provided by Jonathan Allday (2002).*Quarks, leptons and the big bang*(2nd ed.). CRC Press. pp. 224*ff*. ISBN 978-0-7503-0806-9.The interaction will last for a certain duration

*Δt*. This implies that the amplitude for the total energy involved in the interaction is spread over a range of energies*ΔE*.**^**This "borrowing" idea has led to proposals for using the zero-point energy of vacuum as an infinite reservoir and a variety of "camps" about this interpretation. See, for example, Moray B. King (2001).*Quest for zero point energy: engineering principles for 'free energy' inventions*. Adventures Unlimited Press. pp. 124*ff*. ISBN 978-0-932813-94-7.**^**Quantities satisfying a canonical commutation rule are said to be noncompatible observables, by which is meant that they can both be measured simultaneously only with limited precision. See Kiyosi Itô (1993). "§ 351 (XX.23) C: Canonical commutation relations".*Encyclopedic dictionary of mathematics*(2nd ed.). MIT Press. p. 1303. ISBN 978-0-262-59020-4.**^**Paul Busch; Marian Grabowski; Pekka J. Lahti (1995). "§III.4: Energy and time".*Operational quantum physics*. Springer. pp. 77*ff*. ISBN 978-3-540-59358-4.- ^
^{a}^{b}For a review, see Paul Busch (2008). "Chapter 3: The Time–Energy Uncertainty Relation". In J.G. Muga; R. Sala Mayato; Í.L. Egusquiza (eds.).*Time in Quantum Mechanics*. Lecture Notes in Physics. Vol. 734 (2nd ed.). Springer. pp. 73–105. arXiv: quant-ph/0105049. Bibcode: 2002tqm..conf...69B. doi: 10.1007/978-3-540-73473-4_3. ISBN 978-3-540-73472-7. S2CID 14119708. **^**Fowler, R., Guggenheim, E.A. (1965).*Statistical Thermodynamics. A Version of Statistical Mechanics for Students of Physics and Chemistry*, reprinted with corrections, Cambridge University Press, London, page 224.**^**Partington, J.R. (1949).*An Advanced Treatise on Physical Chemistry*, volume 1,*Fundamental Principles. The Properties of Gases*, Longmans, Green and Co., London, page 220.**^**Wilks, J. (1971). The Third Law of Thermodynamics, Chapter 6 in*Thermodynamics*, volume 1, ed. W. Jost, of H. Eyring, D. Henderson, W. Jost,*Physical Chemistry. An Advanced Treatise*, Academic Press, New York, page 477.**^**Bailyn, M. (1994).*A Survey of Thermodynamics*, American Institute of Physics, New York, ISBN 0-88318-797-3, page 342.**^**Jauch, J.M., Rohrlich, F. (1955/1980).*The Theory of Photons and Electrons. The Relativistic Quantum Field Theory of Charged Particles with Spin One-half*, second expanded edition, Springer-Verlag, New York, ISBN 0-387-07295-0, pages 287–288.**^**Milonni, P.W. (1994).*The Quantum Vacuum. An Introduction to Quantum Electrodynamics*, Academic Press, Inc., Boston, ISBN 0-12-498080-5, page xv.**^**Milonni, P.W. (1994).*The Quantum Vacuum. An Introduction to Quantum Electrodynamics*, Academic Press, Inc., Boston, ISBN 0-12-498080-5, page 239.**^**Schwinger, J.; DeRaad, L.L.; Milton, K.A. (1978). "Casimir effect in dielectrics".*Annals of Physics*.**115**(1): 1–23. Bibcode: 1978AnPhy.115....1S. doi: 10.1016/0003-4916(78)90172-0.**^**Milonni, P.W. (1994).*The Quantum Vacuum. An Introduction to Quantum Electrodynamics*, Academic Press, Inc., Boston, ISBN 0-12-498080-5, page 418.**^**Jaffe, R.L. (2005). Casimir effect and the quantum vacuum,*Phys. Rev. D***72**: 021301(R), http://1–5.cua.mit.edu/8.422_s07/jaffe2005_casimir.pdf^{[ permanent dead link]}

- Free pdf copy of The Structured Vacuum - thinking about nothing by Johann Rafelski and Berndt Muller (1985) ISBN 3-87144-889-3.
- M.E. Peskin and D.V. Schroeder,
*An introduction to Quantum Field Theory*. - H. Genz,
*Nothingness: The Science of Empty Space* - Puthoff, H. E.; Little, S. R.; Ibison, M. (2001). "Engineering the Zero-Point Field and Polarizable Vacuum for Interstellar Flight". arXiv: astro-ph/0107316.
- E. W. Davis, V. L. Teofilo, B. Haisch, H. E. Puthoff, L. J. Nickisch, A. Rueda and D. C. Cole(2006)" Review of Experimental Concepts for Studying the Quantum Vacuum Field"