Portal:Mathematics Information
The Mathematics Portal
Mathematics is the study of representing and reasoning about abstract objects (such as numbers, points, spaces, sets, structures, and games). Mathematics is used throughout the world as an essential tool in many fields, including natural science, engineering, medicine, and the social sciences. Applied mathematics, the branch of mathematics concerned with application of mathematical knowledge to other fields, inspires and makes use of new mathematical discoveries and sometimes leads to the development of entirely new mathematical disciplines, such as statistics and game theory. Mathematicians also engage in pure mathematics, or mathematics for its own sake, without having any application in mind. There is no clear line separating pure and applied mathematics, and practical applications for what began as pure mathematics are often discovered. ( Full article...)
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Did you know (autogenerated) 
 ... that John Rolph was arrested while trying to solve Euclid's geometry problems?
 ... that a math mistake while fencing with longswords gave cognitive scientist Tom Griffiths a broken right wrist?
 ... that a book on polyhedra by Piero della Francesca fell victim to "probably the first fullblown case of plagiarism in the history of mathematics" when Luca Pacioli copied it in his Divina proportione?
 ... that to rebuild the collection of Tāoga Niue Museum in the aftermath of Cyclone Heta, staff searched through rubbish dumps for historic items?
 ... that the 1914 Lubin vault fire in Philadelphia destroyed several thousand unique early silent films?
 ... that 100 years after Mary Emily Sinclair wrote a master's thesis in mathematics on the discriminants of quintic polynomials, Helaman Ferguson based a sculpture on her work?
 ... that the Summa de arithmetica (title page shown), thought to be the first printed work on algebra, contains the first published description of doubleentry accounting?
 ... that mathematician Gunilla Kreiss, the daughter of HeinzOtto Kreiss, later became his granddaughter?
More did you know –
 ... that there are 115,200 solutions to the ménage problem of permuting six femalemale couples at a twelveperson table so that men and women alternate and are seated away from their partners?
 ... that mathematician Paul Erdős called the Hadwiger conjecture, a stillopen generalization of the fourcolor problem, "one of the deepest unsolved problems in graph theory"?
 ...that the six permutations of the vector (1,2,3) form a regular hexagon in 3d space, the 24 permutations of (1,2,3,4) form a truncated octahedron in four dimensions, and both are examples of permutohedra?
 ...that Ostomachion is a mathematical treatise attributed to Archimedes on a 14piece tiling puzzle similar to tangram?
 ...that some functions can be written as an infinite sum of trigonometric polynomials and that this sum is called the Fourier series of that function?
 ...that the identity elements for arithmetic operations make use of the only two whole numbers that are neither composites nor prime numbers, 0 and 1?
 ...that as of April 2010 only 35 even numbers have been found that are not the sum of two primes which are each in a Twin Primes pair? ref
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Banach–Tarski paradox Image credit: Benjamin D. Esham 
The Banach–Tarski paradox is a theorem in settheoretic geometry which states that a solid ball in 3dimensional space can be split into a finite number of nonoverlapping pieces, which can then be put back together in a different way to yield two identical copies of the original ball. The reassembly process involves only moving the pieces around and rotating them, without changing their shape. However, the pieces themselves are complicated: they are not usual solids but infinite scatterings of points. A stronger form of the theorem implies that given any two "reasonable" solid objects (such as a small ball and a huge ball) — solid in the sense of the continuum — either one can be reassembled into the other. This is often stated colloquially as "a pea can be chopped up and reassembled into the Sun". ( Full article...)
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