Electronics has hugely influenced the development of modern society. The central driving force behind the entire electronics industry is the
semiconductor industry sector, which has annual sales of over $481 billion as of 2018. The largest industry sector is
e-commerce, which generated over $29 trillion in 2017. (Full article...)
This approach is especially useful in the design of
mechanical filters—these use mechanical devices to implement an electrical function. However, the technique can be used to solve purely mechanical problems, and can also be extended into other, unrelated, energy domains. Nowadays, analysis by analogy is a standard design tool wherever more than one energy domain is involved. It has the major advantage that the entire system can be represented in a unified, coherent way. Electrical analogies are particularly used by
transducer designers, by their nature they cross energy domains, and in
control systems, whose
actuators will typically be domain-crossing transducers. A given system being represented by an electrical analogy may conceivably have no electrical parts at all. For this reason domain-neutral terminology is preferred when developing network diagrams for control systems. (Full article...)
The iPhone 6 and iPhone 6 Plus are
smartphones that were designed and marketed by
Apple Inc. They are the
eighth generation of the
iPhone, succeeding the
iPhone 5C and
iPhone 5S, and were announced on September 9, 2014, and released on September 19, 2014. The iPhone 6 and iPhone 6 Plus jointly were themselves replaced as the flagship devices of the iPhone series by the
iPhone 6S and iPhone 6S Plus on September 9, 2015. The iPhone 6 and 6 Plus include larger 4.7 and 5.5 inches (120 and 140 mm) displays, a faster processor, upgraded cameras, improved
Wi-Fi connectivity and support for a
near field communications-based
mobile payments offering.
The iPhone 6 and 6 Plus received positive reviews, with critics regarding their redesign, specifications, camera, and battery life as being improvements over previous iPhone models. However, aspects of the design of iPhone 6 were also criticized, including plastic strips on the rear of the device for its antenna that disrupted the otherwise metal exterior, and the screen resolution of the standard-sized iPhone 6 being lower than other devices in its class. The iPhone 6
sold extremely well, making it the best-selling
iPhone model and the
most successful smartphone to date. (Full article...)
The Electro-Dynamic Light Company of New York was a lighting and electrical distribution company organized in 1878. The company held the patents for the first practical incandescent electric lamp and electrical distribution system of incandescent electric lighting. They also held a patent for an electric meter to measure the amount of electricity used. The inventions were those of
Albon Man and
William E. Sawyer. They gave the patent rights to the company, which they had formed with a group of businessmen. It was the first company in the world formally established to provided electric lighting and was the first company organized specifically to manufacture and sell
incandescent electric light bulbs.
Man, an attorney from New York City, supplied money for experimentation to Sawyer, an electrical engineer. This partnership developed into the Electro-Dynamic Light Company that brought in other investors that became partners. Sawyer devised a unique electrical distribution system where electrical power could be obtained anywhere in the city from an electrical generator with the turn of a switch to light up electric lamps to produce glowing light like a gas lamp. It was unique in that it produced this power without consumers having to maintain local galvanic batteries and at a fraction of the cost of producing the same lighting as from gas lamps. Other features of the system were that safety devices were built in to prevent the early destroying of the other electric lamps in the circuit should there be a power surge due to a lamp burning up early and leaving the distribution circuit. The patents for the Man and Sawyer system were in place before any other electrical companies had similar systems. (Full article...)
The iPhone 5S maintains almost the same external design as its predecessor, the
iPhone 5, although the 5S received a new white/gold color scheme in addition to white/silver and space gray/black. The 5S has vastly upgraded internal hardware, however. It introduced the
A7 64-bit dual-core system-on-chip, the first
64-bit processor to be used on a smartphone, accompanied by the
M7 "motion co-processor". A redesigned home button with
Touch ID, a
fingerprint recognition system which can be used to unlock the phone and authenticate
App Store and
iTunes Store purchases, was also introduced. The camera was also updated with a larger
aperture and a dual-LED flash optimized for different
color temperatures. Earphones known as EarPods were included with the 5S, and Apple released accessories including a case and a dock. It had a 4-inch display, similar to the
iPhone 5 and
iPhone 5C. (Full article...)
Air stripline is a form of electrical
planar transmission line whereby a conductor in the form of a thin metal strip is suspended between two
ground planes. The idea is to make the
dielectric essentially air. Mechanical support of the line may be a thin substrate, periodical insulated supports, or the device connectors and other electrical items.
Air stripline is most commonly used at
microwave frequencies, especially in the
C band. Its advantage over standard stripline and other planar technologies is that its air dielectric avoids
dielectric loss. Many useful circuits can be constructed with air stripline and it is also easier to achieve strong coupling between components in this technology than with other planar formats. It was invented by Robert M. Barrett in the 1950s. (Full article...)
The Revox B215 is a
cassette deck manufactured by
Studer from 1985 until around 1990. A professional version with different control layout and audio path electronics was manufactured concurrently as the Studer A721. A later improved version was marketed as the Revox B215S. Because it was expensive compared to other consumer models and had exceptionally good mechanical performance and durability, the B215 was used primarily by professional customers—radio stations, recording studios and real-time cassette duplicators.
The B215 used a proven, reliable four-motor
tape transport derived from the earlier B710 model. The B215 differed from the B710 and competing decks of the period in having an unusual, computer-like control panel and elaborate automation performed by three
Philipsmicrocontrollers. The deck was equipped with automatic tape calibration, microcontroller-assisted setting of recording levels, and
non-volatile memory. (Full article...)
First-generation "chrome bumper" Naim NAIT
The Naim NAIT (acronym for "Naim Audio Integrated amplifier") is an integrated amplifier from the British
Naim Audio. The original NAIT is one of the most recognisable pieces of hi-fi equipment ever made. Hi-fi critic Lucio Cadeddu recognised its legendary status, referring to it as "one of the most controversial and famous integrated amps in the history of HiFi".
Sinclair Scientific calculator photographed
The Sinclair Scientificcalculator was a 12-function, pocket-sized
scientific calculator introduced in 1974, dramatically undercutting in price other calculators available at the time. The Sinclair Scientific Programmable, released a year later, was advertised as the first budget programmable calculator.
Significant modifications to the
algorithms used meant that a
chipset intended for a four-function calculator was able to process
scientific functions, but at the cost of reduced speed and accuracy. Compared to contemporary scientific calculators, some functions were slow to execute, and others had limited accuracy or gave the wrong answer, but the cost of the Sinclair was a fraction of the cost of competing calculators. (Full article...)
The Yamaha NS-10 studio monitor, identifiable by its horizontal lettering and distinctive white cone.
The Yamaha NS-10 is a loudspeaker that became a standard nearfield
studio monitor in the music industry among rock and pop recording engineers. Launched in 1978, the NS-10 started life as a bookshelf speaker destined for the domestic environment. It was poorly received but eventually became a valuable tool with which to mix rock recordings. The speaker has a characteristic white-coloured mid–bass drive unit.
Technically, it is known as a speaker that easily reveals poor quality in recordings. Recording engineers sought to dull its treble response by hanging tissue paper in front of it, resulting in what became known as the "tissue paper effect" – a type of comb filtering. The NS-10 has been used to monitor a large number of successful recordings by numerous artists, leading
Gizmodo to refer to it as "the most important loudspeaker you never heard of". (Full article...)
The Sinclair Executive was the world's first "slimline"
pocket calculator, and the first to be produced by
Clive Sinclair's company
Sinclair Radionics. Introduced in 1972, there were at least two different versions of the Sinclair Executive, with different keyboard markings, and another called the Sinclair Executive Memory, introduced in 1973.
Its small size was made possible by pulsing the current to the
Texas Instruments TMS1802 "calculator on a chip"
integrated circuit, reducing the power consumption by a factor of more than 10. The Executive was highly successful, making £1.8 million of profit for Sinclair and winning a
Design Council Award for Electronics. (Full article...)
The Sinclair Sovereign was a high-end
calculator introduced by
Clive Sinclair's company
Sinclair Radionics in 1976. It was an attempt to escape from the unprofitable low end of the market, and one of the last calculators Sinclair produced. Made with a case of pressed
steel that a variety of finishes, it cost between £30 and £60 at a time when other calculators could be purchased for under £5. A number of factors meant that the Sovereign was not a commercial success, including the cost, high
import levies on components, competition from cheaper calculators manufactured abroad, and the development of more power-efficient designs using
liquid-crystal displays. Though it came with a five-year guarantee, issues such as short battery life limited its usefulness. The company moved on to producing computers soon afterwards.
The term originated during the early years of computing and referred to the large mechanical assembly that held the central processor and input/output complex. Later the term was used to distinguish high-end commercial machines from less powerful units which were often contained in smaller packages. Today, this term refers primarily to
IBMSystem z9 mainframes, the lineal descendants of the
System/360, but it is also used for the lineal descendents of the
Burroughs large systems and the
UNIVAC 1100/2200 series mainframes.
Bose headphones are a family of headphone products sold by the
Bose Corporation. The company pioneered the development of headphones that use
active noise cancellation technology. It took
Bose about 10 years to develop the first QuietComfort Headphones, released in 1989. The current revision provides active equalization as well as active noise reduction.