Aviation is the activities surrounding mechanical
flight and the
aircraft industry. Aircraft includes
rotary-wing types, morphable wings, wing-less lifting bodies, as well as
lighter-than-air craft such as
hot air balloons and
Aviation began in the 18th century with the development of the
hot air balloon, an apparatus capable of atmospheric displacement through
buoyancy. Some of the most significant advancements in aviation technology came with the controlled gliding flying of
Otto Lilienthal in 1896; then a large step in significance came with the construction of the first powered airplane by the
Wright brothers in the early 1900s. Since that time, aviation has been technologically revolutionized by the introduction of the
jet which permitted a major form of transport throughout the world. (
Did you know
General images -
The following are images from various aviation-related articles on Wikipedia.
History of aviation)
The Biot-Massia glider, restored and on display in the Musee de l'Air. (from
Hounslow, near London, as the hub (from
History of aviation)
"Map of Air Routes and Landing Places in Great Britain, as temporarily arranged by the Air Ministry for civilian flying", published in 1919, showing
History of aviation)
Santos-Dumont's "Number 6" rounding the Eiffel Tower in the process of winning the Deutsch de la Meurthe Prize, October 1901. (from
History of aviation)
Opel RAK.1 - World's first public flight of a manned rocket-powered plane on 30 September 1929 (from
A cross-section comparison of Airbus A380 (double-deck the full length) and Boeing 747-400 (double-deck only in the front section) (from
History of aviation)
The 1884 Krebs & Renard first fully controllable free-flights with the LA FRANCE electric dirigible near Paris (Krebs arch.) (from
G-BOAB, in storage at
London Heathrow Airport following the end of all Concorde flying. This aircraft flew for 22,296 hours between its first flight in 1976 and final flight in 2000. (from
History of aviation)
In the news
(born August 5, 1930) is a former
United States Naval Aviator
. He was
the first person to set foot on the
. His first
in 1966, for which he was the command pilot. On this mission, he performed the first manned docking of two
together with pilot
. Armstrong's second and last spaceflight was as mission commander of the
mission on July 20, 1969. On this mission, Armstrong and
descended to the lunar surface and spent 2.5 hours exploring while
orbited. Armstrong is a recipient of the
Congressional Space Medal of Honor
Before becoming an astronaut, Armstrong was in the
United States Navy and saw action in the
Korean War. After the war, he served as a test pilot at the
National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) High-Speed Flight Station, now known as the
Dryden Flight Research Center, where he flew over 900 flights in a variety of aircraft. As a research pilot, Armstrong served as project pilot on the
F-100 Super Sabre A and C aircraft,
F-101 Voodoo, and the
F-104A Starfighter. He also flew the
North American X-15,
F-106 Delta Dart,
KC-135 Stratotanker and
Paresev. He graduated from
Boeing 747 is a
airliner, often referred to by the nickname
Jumbo Jet. It is among the world's most recognizable
aircraft, and was the first widebody ever produced. Manufactured by
Commercial Airplane unit in the United States, the original version of the 747 was two and a half times the size of the
Boeing 707, one of the common large commercial aircraft of the 1960s. First flown commercially in 1970, the 747 held the passenger capacity record for 37 years.
The four-engine 747 uses a
double deck configuration for part of its length. It is available in passenger, freighter and other versions. Boeing designed the 747's hump-like upper deck to serve as a first class lounge or (as is the general rule today) extra seating, and to allow the aircraft to be easily converted to a cargo carrier by removing seats and installing a front cargo door. Boeing did so because the company expected
supersonic airliners (whose development was announced in the early 1960s) to render the 747 and other subsonic airliners obsolete; while believing that the demand for subsonic cargo aircraft would be robust into the future. The 747 in particular was expected to become obsolete after 400 were sold but it exceeded its critics' expectations with production passing the 1,000 mark in 1993. As of June 2009, 1,416 aircraft have been built, with 107 more in various configurations remaining on order.
747-400, the latest version in service, is among the fastest airliners in service with a high-subsonic cruise speed of
Mach 0.85 (567 mph or 913 km/h). It has an intercontinental range of 7,260 nautical miles (13,450 km; 8,350 mi). The 747-400 passenger version can accommodate 416 passengers in a typical
three-class layout or 524 passengers in a typical two-class layout. The next version of the aircraft, the
747-8, is in production and scheduled to enter service in 2010. The 747 is to be replaced by the
Boeing Y3 (part of the
Boeing Yellowstone Project) in the future.
Today in Aviation
2012 – Eighty-four percent of U.S. domestic airline flights have arrived within 15 minutes of their scheduled arrival time since January 1, their best on-time performance since the
United States Government began tracking their on-time performance in 1988 and an improvement from 77 percent between January 1 and June 30, 2011. They also set a record-low rate of baggage handling mistakes, misdirecting, damaging, or losing only three
suitcases per 1,000 passengers on domestic flights between January 1 and June 30, 2012.
2009 – Lithuanian airline Star1 Airlines commences operations.
Yemenia Flight 626, an Airbus A310-300 flying from Sana'a, Yemen to Moroni, Comoros, crashes into the Indian Ocean with 153 people aboard; one 12-year-old is found clinging to the wreckage.
2007 – A pilot attempting to return to the air after his small plane ran out of room on a wet runway slammed into a house in Arkansas Saturday, killing himself and a woman inside the home.
2007 – A small plane SABRE Lithium matriculation XASMR of ten seats, originating of Monterrey Nuevo Leo’n, piloted by its proprietor Daniel Reedbeds Insipid, confused to a flank of the airport Plan of Guadalupe.
1999 – A NAS Whiting Field, Florida, flight instructor bails out of a Beechcraft T-34C Turbo Mentor and parachutes to safety moments before the plane crashes near East Brewton, Alabama.
1994 – Airbus A330 test flight crash at Toulouse France (7 killed).
1985 – 39 remaining hostages from Flight 847 are freed in Beirut.
1975 – The United States Navy reclassifies all of its “attack aircraft carriers” (CVA) as “aircraft carriers” (CV); “nuclear-powered attack aircraft carriers” (CVA(N)) become “nuclear-powered aircraft carriers” (CVN).
1972 – The American
1972 bombing campaign against North Vietnam has destroyed 106 bridges, all of the country’s oil depots, and the pipeline running south to the Demilitarized Zone.
1971 – The crew of Soyuz 11, Georgi Dobrovolski, Viktor Patsayev and Vladislav Volkov, are killed after undocking from space station Salyut 1 after a three-week stay. A valve on their spacecraft accidentally opens when the service module separates, letting their air leak out into space. The capsule reenters and lands normally, and their deaths are only discovered when it is opened by the recovery team. Technically the only fatalities in space (above 100 km).
Aeroflot Flight 902, a Tupolev Tu-104, is shot down by a missile near Voznesenka, Krasnoyarsk Krai; all 84 die in Russia's worst air accident at that time.
1959 Kadena Air Base F-100 crash, A U. S. Air Force North American F-100 Super Sabre fighter suffers an in-flight engine fire over Okinawa. The pilot ejects safely, but the F-100 crashes into Miyamori Elementary School and surrounding houses in Uruma, killing 11 students at the school and six other people in the neighborhood and injuring 210 others, including 156 students at the school.
1956 – The
1956 Grand Canyon mid-air collision between United Airlines Flight 718, a DC-7 and TWA Flight 2, a Lockheed Constellation, over the Grand Canyon, kills all 128 aboard both planes; operating under Visual Flight Rules, the planes fail to see each other; the Federal Aviation Administration is created in the aftermath; the FAA establishes new rules for passenger carriers, among them the requirement to operate under Instrument Flight Rules, even in good weather.
United Airlines Flight 610, a Douglas DC-6, flies into a mountain in Larimer County, Colorado due to navigational error; all 45 passengers and 5 crew members are killed.
1951 – The second prototype Republic XF-91 Thunderceptor, 46-681, had an engine failure during takeoff from Edwards AFB, California. Republic Aviation test pilot Carl Bellinger escaped from the aircraft just as the tail melted off; total flight time was a mere ninety seconds. By the time fire apparatus arrived, driving seven miles (11 km) across the dry lake bed, the tail section had been reduced to ashes.
1950 – A Royal Canadian Navy Lt. Mervin C. “Butch” Hare of the 803 Naval Fighter Squadron departs from Montreal, Quebec in Hawker Sea Fury FB.11, TF997, but fails to arrive at home base of HMCS Shearwater, Dartmouth, Nova Scotia. Despite a massive international air search, nothing is found. In February 1968, two foresters discovered the wreckage in a remote area of Maine. The Sea Fury had struck a tree on top of the ridge with its port wing root and struck the ground within about 150 feet. The force of the impact dug a 15 foot diameter crater and the aircraft broke up and scattered, within a 50 yard radius. There had been several small fires. Lt. Hare’s parachute harness pieces were later found near the crater, ending an initial speculation that he had bailed out and perished somewhere else in the Maine woods.
1943 – U. S. forces land on Rendova Island. A sweep by 27 Japanese Zero fighters over the area accomplishes little and almost is wiped out, and 43 U. S. aircraft bomb Munda Airfield. In the evening, a Japanese torpedo strike by 25 Mitsubishi G4 Ms (Allied reporting name “Betty”) escorted by 24 Zero fighters sinks an attack transport, with 17 of the G4 Ms shot down by U. S. Marine Corps F4U Corsairs and antiaircraft fire.
1943 – Since November 1,
1942, Italy has lost 2,190 military aircraft and suffered another 1,790 damaged.
1943 – Since June 1, the U. S. Army Air Forces‘ Eleventh Air Force has flown 407 sorties against Japanese forces on Kiska in the Aleutian Islands. U. S. Navy PV-1 Venturas have made additional night bombing attacks on the island.
1943 – Royal Air Force Bomber Command has lost 3,448 aircraft – About 1,600 of them to German night fighters – And about 20,000 aircrewmen on night raids since the beginning of World War II. Since April 1, Bomber Command has lost 762 aircraft, 561 of them to German night fighters.
1941 – No. 410 (Night Fighter) Squadron and No. 412 (Fighter) Squadron were formed in England.
1941 – German fighter pilot Werner Mölders shoots down five Soviet bombers, bringing his aerial victory total to 82. He becomes the first pilot to surpass the World War I record of 80 victories set by Manfred von Richtofen in
1918 and the highest-scoring ace in history at the time.
1920 – A provisional establishment of 1340 officers and 3905 airmen for the CAF was authorized by Order-in-Council.
1911 – The Curtiss A-1 seaplane is tested for the first time by Glenn Curtiss.
1910 – The first airplane bombing tests are made as Glenn H. Curtiss drops dummy bombs from his own Curtiss biplane on the shape of a battleship marked by flagged buoys on Lake Keuka, New York.
1901 – At enormous personal risk, Herr Berson and Professor Süring of the Berliner Verein für Luftschiffahrt establish the first ratified altitude record for balloons. Their 8,510-cu. ft. balloon Preussen (Prussia) ascends to 35,435 feet.
^ Associated Press, "Carriers Do Better On Arrival Time, Liggage," The Washington Post, August 10, 2012, p. A9.