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Primordial Divine Being
Member of Meitei dragons
The sacred idols of God Pakhangba and his divine consort kept inside the Pakhangba Temple in the Kangla Fort in Imphal.jpg
The sacred idols of God Pakhangba and his divine consort kept inside the Pakhangba Temple in the Kangla Fort in Imphal
Other namesPakhangpa
Affiliation Meitei mythology ( Manipuri mythology) and Meitei religion ( Sanamahism)
Major cult center Iputhou Pakhangba Laishang
Abodeheaven and earth
Region Ancient Kangleipak ( Antique Manipur)
Ethnic group Meitei ethnicity
Festivals Lai Haraoba
Personal information
Siblings Sanamahi and Nongshaba
Consort Nongthang Leima
Children Mangang, Luwang, Khuman, and others (or Salai Taret Apokpas)
Greek equivalent Typhon

Pakhangba ( Meitei: ꯄꯥꯈꯪꯕ, Old Manipuri: ꯄꯥꯈꯪꯄ) is a primordial deity, often represented in the form of a dragon, in Meitei mythology and religion. [1] He is depicted in the heraldry of Manipur kingdom, which originated in paphal ( Meitei: ꯄꯥꯐꯜ), the mythical illustrations of the deity belonging to the traditional beliefs of Sanamahism in Manipur. [2] Among the Meiteis, it is believed that the ancestor of one of the clans manifested himself as the Pakhangba. [3] [4] [5]

The identity of the deity is often fused with Nongda Lairen Pakhangba, the first ruler of the Ningthouja dynasty. [6] [7] The title Pakhangba was also used by other kings in the history of Manipur. [8] [9]

In heraldry

A Pakhangba as a heraldic dragon was present in all the former royal flags and coats of arms of Manipur. The kingdom of Manipur had a set of two flags, a white one and a red one. All featured the Pakhangba dragon in the centre, although not as prominently in the latter flags. [10]


The Pakhangba is the supreme God. He is a man who can change his body to any form, like animals, and others as he is a powerful God. In certain sculptures, known as Kangla-Sa, at the citadel of the Kangla Palace in Imphal, there is a related type of creature represented with a short body. The sculptures are large and were built of brick, standing at each side of the northern gate. They have a similar head and four sturdy legs, but their body is shorter and bears more of a resemblance to a lion.

In 1891, during the Anglo-Manipur War five British officers were executed by Manipuri soldiers below these two Kangla-Sa. The act was a kind of magic ritual in which the blood of the white officers was seen as feeding there in order to weaken British power. For this act Major Maxwell, the Political Agent that was appointed after the war, had destroyed the two kangla-sa with gunpowder following the conquest of Manipur. [11]

See also


  1. ^ Bahadur, Mutua; Santabai, Y. (1989). "Tribal Art of Manipur".
  2. ^ Samiti, Kāmarūpa Anusandhāna (2007). "Journal of the Assam Research Society".
  3. ^ "Proceedings of North East India History Association". 2001.
  4. ^ Bahadur, Mutua; Santabai, Y. (1989). "Tribal Art of Manipur".
  5. ^ Hastings Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics, Volume 11
  6. ^ Nayar, V. K. (2005). Crossing the Frontiers of Conflict in the North East and Jammu and Kashmir: From Real Politik to Ideal Politik. ISBN  9788175412187.
  7. ^ Jain, Jyotindra (1998). "Other Masters: Five Contemporary Folk and Tribal Artists of India".
  8. ^ Samiti, Kāmarūpa Anusandhāna (2007). "Journal of the Assam Research Society".
  9. ^ A Brief history of the Meeteis of Manipur - The Manipur Page
  10. ^ FOTW - Manipur, Indian Princely State
  11. ^ KanglaSha : The story behind the Legend

External links

Media related to Pakhangba at Wikimedia Commons