List of Lithuanian monarchs Information

From Wikipedia
(Redirected from Monarchy of Lithuania)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monarchy_of_Lithuania

Monarchy of Lithuania
Coat of arms of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.svg
Mendog 1578.png
Details
Style His/Her Majesty [3]
First monarch Mindaugas I [1]
Last monarch Stanisław II August [2]
Formation1253
Abolition1795
ResidenceMindaugas' Castle, Voruta (1253−1263)
Gediminas' Castle, Vilnius (late 13th century−late 15th century)
Palace of the Grand Dukes of Lithuania, Vilnius (late 15th century−1665)
AppointerHereditary (1253–1574)
Szlachta (1574–1795)
Hereditary (1918)
Pretender(s) Prince Inigo, Duke of Urach (disputed)

The monarchy of Lithuania concerned the monarchical head of state of Lithuania, which was established as an absolute and hereditary monarchy. Throughout Lithuania's history there were three ducal dynasties that managed to stay in power— House of Mindaugas, House of Gediminas, and House of Jagiellon. Despite this, the one and only King of Lithuania who has ever been crowned was King Mindaugas I, [4] [5] although there were two more instances of royal nobles who were not officially crowned due to unfortunate political circumstances, but de jure received recognition abroad as kings of Lithuania from the pope or the Holy Roman emperorVytautas the Great by Sigismund of Luxembourg [6] and Mindaugas II by Pope Benedict XV, [7] respectively. [6] Others were seen as kings of Lithuania even though they had only considered it and never took further action to claim the throne, as in the case of Gediminas who was recognised as King of Lithuania by Pope John XXII. [8] The hereditary monarchy in Lithuania was first established in the 13th century during the reign of Mindaugas I and officially re-established as a constitutional monarchy on 11 July 1918, only to be abandoned soon afterwards on 2 November 1918.

Lithuania in the present day is a representative democracy in a semi-presidential system based on popular sovereignty, as defined in the current Constitution of Lithuania, and has no monarchy.

List of monarchs of Lithuania

House of Mindaugas (1236–1267)

Name Portrait Birth Marriage(s) Death Claim
King
Mindaugas
1236

1253
(as Grand Duke)

1253

1263
(as King)
Mendog 1578.png c. 1203
Son of mythological Ringaudas
(1) NN, sister of Morta
2 children
(2) Morta
2 children
1263
Aglona
Assassinated by Treniota
and Daumantas
Aged about 60
Right of conquest
Son of mythological Ringaudas
Grand Duke
Treniota
1263

1264
Treniota.jpg Unknown
Son of NN,
Mindaugas' sister
and Vykintas
Unknown
1 child
1264
Murdered by servants
loyal to Mindaugas' son Vaišvilkas
Right of conquest
Nephew of Mindaugas
Grand Duke
Vaišvilkas
Laurušas
1264

1267
Vojshalk.png Unknown
Son of Mindaugas
and Morta
Unmarried and
childless
1268
Was murdered
by Leo I of Galicia
Right of conquest
Son of Mindaugas

House of Monomakh (1267–1269)

Name Portrait Birth Marriage(s) Death Claim
Grand Duke
Shvarn
Lithuanian: Švarnas
1267

1269
c. 1230
Halych
Son of Daniel of Galicia
NN, daughter of Mindaugas
No children
c. 1269
Kholm
Aged about 39
Offered by Vaišvilkas
Brother-in-law
of Vaišvilkas

House of Mindaugas (1269–1285)

Name Portrait Birth Marriage(s) Death Claim
Grand Duke
Traidenis
1270

1282
Lithuanian Grand Duke Traidenis.JPG 1220 Ona of Masovia
1 child
1282
Kernavė
Aged 62
Right of conquest
Possibly a relative
of Mindaugas
Grand Duke
Daumantas
1282

1285
Unknown Unknown 3 March 1285
Died in a battle by Tver
Possibly a son
of Mindaugas

House of Gediminas (1285–1440)

Name Portrait Arms Birth Marriage(s) Death Claim
Grand Duke
Butigeidis
1285

1291
None known Unknown
Son of
Skalmantas (?)
Unknown 1291 Possibly a relative
of Daumantas
Grand Duke
Butvydas
1291

1295
None known Unknown
Son of
Skalmantas (?)
Unknown c. 1294–1295 Brother of Butigeidis
Grand Duke
Vytenis
1295

1316
Witenes.PNG None known 1260
Son of Butvydas
Vikinda
1 child
1316
Aged 56
Son of Butvydas
Grand Duke
Gediminas
1316

1341
Giedymin.PNG None known c. 1275
Son of Butvydas
Jaunė
13 children
c. 1341
Raudonė
Aged about 66
Son of Butvydas
Grand Duke
Jaunutis
1341

1345
Jaŭnut. Яўнут (A. Tarasievič, 1675).jpg None known c. 1306−1309
Son of Gediminas
and Jaunė
Unknown
3 children
c. 1366
Aged 57−60
Son of Gediminas
Grand Duke
( Diarchy with Kęstutis)
Algirdas
1345

1377
Algirdas kunigaikštis.jpg COA of Gediminaičiai dynasty Lithuania.svg c. 1296
Son of Gediminas
and Jaunė
(1) Maria of Vitebsk
6 children
(2) Uliana of Tver
8 children
c. 1377
Maišiagala
Aged about 81
Right of conquest
Son of Gediminas
Grand Duke
( Diarchy with Kęstutis)
Jogaila Algirdaitis
May 1377

August 1381
Žygimont Aŭgust-Jagajła. Жыгімонт Аўгуст-Ягайла (K. Aleksandrovič, 1790).jpg COA Jagiellon.svg c. 1352−1362
Vilnius
Son of Algirdas
and Uliana of Tver
(1) Jadwiga of Poland
No children
(2) Anna of Cilli
1 child
(3) Elizabeth Granowska
No children
(4) Sophia of Halshany
2 children
1 June 1434
Gródek Jagielloński
Aged 72−82
Son of Algirdas
Grand Duke
Kęstutis
1381

1382
Kiejstut.JPG COA of Gediminaičiai dynasty Lithuania.svg c. 1297
Senieji Trakai
Son of Gediminas
and Jaunė
Birutė
3 children
1382
Kreva
Murdered by the
order of Jogaila while imprisoned
Aged 84–85
Right of conquest
Son of Gediminas
Grand Duke
Jogaila Algirdaitis
3 August 1382

1 June 1434
(51 years, 302 days)
Žygimont Aŭgust-Jagajła. Жыгімонт Аўгуст-Ягайла (K. Aleksandrovič, 1790).jpg COA Jagiellon.svg c. 1352−1362
Vilnius
Son of Algirdas
and Uliana of Tver
(1) Jadwiga of Poland
No children
(2) Anna of Cilli
1 child
(3) Elizabeth Granowska
No children
(4) Sophia of Halshany
2 children
1 June 1434
Gródek Jagielloński
Aged 72−82
Right of conquest
Son of Algirdas
Act of Kreva signed in 1385
Poland and Lithuania de jure are ruled by one monarch but remain to be separate states.
King of Poland
and Grand Duke
Jogaila Algirdaitis
3 August 1382

1 June 1434
(51 years, 302 days)
Žygimont Aŭgust-Jagajła. Жыгімонт Аўгуст-Ягайла (K. Aleksandrovič, 1790).jpg COA Jagiellon.svg c. 1352−1362
Vilnius
Son of Algirdas
and Uliana of Tver
(1) Jadwiga of Poland
No children
(2) Anna of Cilli
1 child
(3) Elizabeth Granowska
No children
(4) Sophia of Halshany
2 children
1 June 1434
Gródek Jagielloński
Aged 72−82
Son of Algirdas
Grand Duke
Skirgaila
1386

1392
Skirgajła. Скіргайла (A. Guagnini, 1578).jpg COA of Gediminaičiai dynasty Lithuania.svg c. 1353–1354
Vilnius
Son of Algirdas
and Uliana of Tver
Unmarried
and childless
11 January 1397
Kyiv
Possibly poisoned
by the order of the
Russian Orthodox priests
Aged 43−44
Offered by Jogaila
Son of Algirdas
Astrava Agreement signed in 1392
Following the Lithuanian Civil War, Skirgaila is replaced by Vytautas. The latter and their successors de jure act as regents of the King of Poland until 1440.
Grand Duke
King-elect of Lithuania
Vytautas
Vytautas the Great
4 August 1392

27 October 1430
(38 years, 84 days)
Vitaŭt Vialiki. Вітаўт Вялікі (XVIII).jpg COA of Gediminaičiai dynasty Lithuania.svg c. 1350
Senieji Trakai
Son of Kęstutis
and Birutė
(1) Anna
1 child
(2) Uliana Olshanska
No children
27 October 1430
Trakai
Aged about 80
Offered by Jogaila
Son of Kęstutis
Grand Duke
Švitrigaila
October 1430

1 August 1432
Lithuanian Grand Duke Švitrigaila.jpg COA of Gediminaičiai dynasty Lithuania.svg Before 1370
Vilnius
Son of Algirdas
and Uliana of Tver
Anna of Tver
1 child
10 February 1452
Lutsk
Aged about 82
Son of Algirdas
Grand Duke
Sigismund Kęstutaitis
Lithuanian: Žygimantas Kęstutaitis
1432

1440
Žygimont Kiejstutavič. Жыгімонт Кейстутавіч (XIX).jpg COA of Gediminaičiai dynasty Lithuania.svg 1365
Trakai
Son of Kęstutis
and Birutė
Unknown
1 child
20 March 1440
Trakai
Murdered by supporters
of Švitrigaila
Aged 75
Son of Kęstutis

House of Jagiellon (1440–1569)

Name Portrait Arms Birth Marriage(s) Death Claim
King of Poland
and Grand Duke
Casimir IV Jagiellon
Lithuanian: Kazimieras Jogailaitis
29 June 1440

7 June 1492
(51 years, 344 days)
Kazimier Jagajłavič. Казімер Ягайлавіч (1645).jpg COA Jagiellon.svg 30 November 1427
Kraków
Son of Jogaila Algirdaitis
and Sophia of Halshany
Elisabeth of Austria
12 children
7 June 1492
Old Grodno Castle
Aged 64
Son of Jogaila
King of Poland
and Grand Duke
Alexander Jagiellon
Lithuanian: Aleksandras Jogailaitis
30 July 1492

19 August 1506
(14 years, 20 days)
Aleksander Jagiellonczyk.jpg COA Jagiellon.svg 5 August 1461
Kraków
Son of Kazimieras Jogailaitis and
Elisabeth of Austria
Helena of Moscow
No children
19 August 1506
Vilnius
Aged 45
Son of Casimir IV Jagiellon
King of Poland
and Grand Duke
Sigismund I
Sigismund I the Old
Lithuanian: Žygimantas Senasis
8 December 1506

1 April 1548
(41 years, 115 days)
Kulmbach Sigismund I the Old.jpg COA Jagiellon.svg 1 January 1467
Kozienice
Son of Kazimieras Jogailaitis and
Elisabeth of Austria
(1) Barbara Zápolya
2 children
(2) Bona Sforza
6 children
1 April 1548
Kraków
Aged 81
Son of Casimir IV Jagiellon
King of Poland
and Grand Duke
Sigismund II Augustus
Lithuanian: Žygimantas Augustas
1 April 1548

7 July 1572
(24 years, 97 days)
Cranach the Younger Sigismund II Augustus.jpg COA Jagiellon.svg 1 August 1520
Kraków
Son of Žygimantas the Old
and Bona Sforza
(1) Elisabeth of Austria
No children
(2) Barbara Radziwiłł
No children
(3) Catherine of Austria
No children
7 July 1572
Knyszyn
Aged 51
Son of Sigismund I
Union of Lublin signed in 1569
Poland and Lithuania are united into a single Commonwealth.

House of Urach (1918)

Name Portrait Arms Birth Marriage(s) Death Claim
King-elect
Mindaugas II
July 11, 1918

November 2, 1918
(115 days)
WilhelofUrach.jpg Wappen des Herzogs von Urach.svg 30 May 1864
Monaco
Son of Wilhelm, 1st Duke of Urach and
Princess Florestine of Monaco
(1) Duchess Amalie in Bavaria
9 children
(2) Princess Wiltrud of Bavaria
No children
24 March 1928
Rapallo
Aged 63
De jure restoration
Offered by the Lithuanian Council
Offer withdrawn

Timeline of Lithuanian monarchs

Sigismund II Augustus Sigismund I the Old Alexander Jagiellon Casimir IV Jagiellon Sigismund Kęstutaitis Švitrigaila Vytautas Skirgaila Jogaila Kęstutis Jogaila Algirdas Jaunutis Gediminas Vytenis Butvydas Butigeidis Traidenis Shvarn Vaišvilkas Treniota Mindaugas House of Jagiellon House of Gediminas House of Mindaugas House of Monomakh House of Mindaugas

Union of Lublin

In 1564, King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania Sigismund II Augustus renounced his rights to the hereditary Lithuanian throne—the separate inauguration ceremony and insignia of the Grand Duke of Lithuania were abolished. On July 1 1569, Sigismund II Augustus united both of the countries into a single bi- federation, known as the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, which had existed for the next 226 years. The Union included constitutional changes such as creating a formal elective monarchy, which would simultaneously reign over both parties. [9] Following the death of Sigismund II in 1572, the title "Grand Duke of Lithuania" was merged with the Polish Crown on accesssion to the throne, thus losing its former institutional significance. During the Deluge of the Second Northern War, the Union temporarily disintegrated in 1655 when the magnates of the Grand Dutchy of Lithuania de jure signed the Union of Kėdainiai with the Swedish Empire. [10] However, it was never implemented and short-lived due to Sweden losing the war. [10] The Commonwealth permanently ceased to exist in 1795, following its third partition by the neighbouring powers, Prussia, Russia and Austria. Following the partitions, the lands of ethnic Lithuania were divided— Lithuania proper became a part of the Russian Empire while Sudovia became a part of the Kingdom of Prussia.

Titles

King

The full title of the Lithuanian king from 1253 to 1263 was: [11]

In Lithuanian: Dievo malonės, Lietuvos karalius

In Latin: Dei Gratia Rex Lettowiae

In English: By the Grace of God, King of the Lithuania

As the territory of Lithuania expanded eastwards, other king-titled grand dukes who ruled the country adopted similar titles for introducing themselves abroad. For instance, Grand Duke of Lithuania Vytenis was sometimes regarded as Rex Lethowinorum (King of Lithuanians) while his successor Gediminas took the Latin title of Rex Lithuanorum et Multorum Ruthenorum (King of Lithuanians and many Ruthenians). [12] [13] [14] [15] Teutonic Knights referred to Algirdas and his wife Uliana as "Grand King of Lithuania" and "Grand Queen of Lithuania". [16]

Grand Duke

Officially, the title of Grand Duke of Lithuania was introduced after the Pact of Horodło in 1413. [16] Until then, previous monarchs were called by different titles, including kings. This was because in Lithuania, unlike in the majority of other European monarchies, the Grand Duke was a sovereign monarch who was accountable to no one, thus de facto king. [16] The full title of the Grand Duke of Lithuania was: [17]

In Lithuanian: Lietuvos didysis kunigaikštis

In Latin: Magnus Dux Lithuaniae

In Ruthenian: Великій Кнѧзь Литовскій[ citation needed]

In English: Grand Duke of the Lithuania

Following the Act of Krėva with Poland in 1385, the full Latin title was changed to Dei Gratia Rex Poloniae Magnus Dux Lithuaniae ( By the Grace of God, King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania).

History of the monarchy

Kingdom of Lithuania under Mindaugas I

As the conquests of Prussia by the Teutonic Order and of Livonia by the Livonian Brothers were coming to an end, both Catholic religious orders began posing an existential threat to then-pagan Lithuania. In response, Duke Mindaugas, who by then had managed to strengthen his grip in various Baltic and Slavic lands, sought to consolidate power and unite Lithuania into one political entity, convert to Christianity, and become king. [18] In 1250 or 1251, he was baptised as a Roman Catholic. In 1253, probably in Vilnius or Novogrudok, [6] he and his wife Morta were crowned King and Queen, thus establishing a short-lived alliance with the Livonian Order. This laid the basis for the international recongnition of the newly created Kingdom of Lithuania as a Western country.

Attempts of coronation in the Grand Dutchy of Lithuania

The ruler of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania Vytautas the Great was widely considered to be King of Lithuania by the European leaders and Lithuanian nobles of the time. [19] Some historical documents suggest that at the time of signing the Treaty of Salynas in 1398, Lithuanian nobles had acknowledged Vytautas as their King as a symbolic declaration of allegiance. [20] Vytautas himself sought to officially establish his reign by coronation at least three times. [6] However, all three attempts were unsuccessful because the political situation was much more complicated—by this point the Grand Dutchy of Lithuania and the Kingdom of Poland were under a joint rule of the Grand Duke of Lithuania and King of Poland Jogaila (Władysław II Jagiełło) with the Crown being in Kraków, Poland. As a consequence, the idea of a fully-fledged Lithuanian monarchy as well as Poland losing its influence over its neighbour was met with fierce resistance from the Polish nobles. [6] The first time coronation was planned on 8 September, 1430, but after one of the delegations that transported the crown learned that the first delegation was robbed on its way to Lithuania, they returned to Nuremberg. In the same year of October, Vytautas up until his death had planned his coronation at least two more times but with no success. [6]

Wilhelm Karl von Urach (Mindaugas II)

Kingdom of Lithuania (1918) de jure under Mindaugas II

During the First World War, the German Empire wanted Lithuania proper to be annexed and become a part of either Prussia or Saxony, [21] which for 123 years remained to be a part of the Russian Empire following the Third Partition of the Polish−Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1795. In an attempt to avoid becoming a province but remain on good terms with Germany, the Council of Lithuania decided to establish a separate constitutional monarchy with Wilhelm von Urach as King with his residence being in Verkiai Palace. According to the twelve-point document resembling the rudiments of a Constitution, the Kingdom of Lithuania was supposed to have had a bicameral legislature with a representative role of the monarch. Wilhelm von Urach was also presented with conditions such as adopting the title of Mindaugas II, letting his children to a Lithuanian school, only appointing courtiers, ministers and other high-ranking public officials who are Lithuanian citizens and speak the country's official language as well as not leaving the state for more than two months per year without the permission of the government. However, as the war was coming to an end, it became clear that Germany would lose the war. On October 5, 1918, in the Reichstag the new Chancellor of Germany Maximilian of Baden accounced that his state acknowledged the right of nations to self-determination and supported their efforts of becoming independent countries. [22] Soon afterwards, Germany expressed its official support for the independence of Lithuania. [22] Furthermore, the diplomats of France had also unambiguously proclaimed to the Council of Lithuania and the Parliament that having a monarch of German descent would be seen as unacceptable. [23] On November 2, 1918, as it became apparent that King-elect Mindaugas himself was hesitant to arrive in Lithuania for his coronation due to political unrest, the Council decided to abandon the idea of being a satellite monarchy and establish a fully independent republic instead.

Monarchism in present-day Lithuania

Although currently there are no monarchist parties in modern Lithuania, there is a monarchist movement, which is in favor of re-establishing the short-lived monarchy of 1918. [24] The movement alongside the Lithuanian Royal Union of Nobility believe that the current Lithuanian state did not undergo all of the complicated and necessary procedures to truly abolish the Lithuanian monarchy. [25] According to the senate marshal of the organization "Palace of the Kingdom of Lithuania", Stanislovas Švedarauskas:

Can we present the specific date when the Kingdom of Lithuania of the Middle Ages ceased to exist and when did the Lithuanian 20th-century constitutional monarchy end? In the words of historians, when Mindaugas I died in 1263, the Kingdom had disappeared as well. However, after almost 100 years, in the 14th century, Gediminas would send his letters proclaiming to be "King of Lithuanians and many Ruthenians." In November 1918, the State Council left the question of Mindaugas II to the Constituent Assembly. And while it is true that the latter declared Lithuania to be a democratic republic on May 15, 1920, I have never heard of the Constituent Assembly officially denouncing the State Council's declaration of July 11, 1918, which called to create a constitutional monarchy in Lithuania and invite Mindaugas II to take his throne. [25]

"For Lithuania it is necessary to restore the monarchical institution, which would unite the nation and be a standard of Western welfare in its highest quality. The constitutional monarchy can make Lithuania a welfare state and save the country from a deep moral crisis," he added. [26] However, political commentator Česlovas Iškauskas has responded to such claims, by saying:

In 1918, Germany exerted great influence. But now the idea of re-establishing the constitutional monarchy as well as the activities of the "Palace of the Kingdom of Lithuania" to me seems like a game when you have nothing better to do. At the moment Lithuania has much more important issues—it needs to think how to withstand current threats, not about a new monarchy. [26]

Prince Inigo von Urach, the grandson of Wilhelm von Urach (Mindaugas II), claims that according to Almanach de Gotha he remains to be the rightful claimant to the Lithuanian throne [27] and is willing to become King of Lithuania, if the nation wants him to. To quote him from an interview for LRT, "It's not my thing to decide it [the idea of officially being crowned King], that's the thing of the population here, of the citizens of Lithuania. It's not my thing [to decide]. But I promise—if they want me, I would be ready for this job." [24] [28] He also mentioned that Wilhelm von Urach expressed his will in his Testament of "keeping the claim of the throne" of Lithuania as well as Monaco. [28]

References

  1. ^ As King of Lithuania
  2. ^ As Grand Duke of Lithuania
  3. ^ Only formally held by King Mindaugas I and King-elect Mindaugas II.
  4. ^ Sužiedėlis, Simas, ed. (1970–1978). "Mindaugas". Encyclopedia Lituanica. Vol. III. Boston, Massachusetts: Juozas Kapočius. pp. 538–543. LCC 74-114275.
  5. ^ Vauchez, Andre; Richard Barrie Dobson; Adrian Walford; Michael Lapidge (2000). Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages. Routledge. p. 855. ISBN  1-57958-282-6.
  6. ^ a b c d e f Nadveckė, Ineta (6 July 2019) Trys Lietuvos karaliai: vienas tikras, vienas nelabai ir vienas beveik LRT.
  7. ^ Stuttgart archives, HStA. GU 117, file 847: copy of letter from Benedict XV dated 24 July 1918.
  8. ^ Gediminas(in Lithuanian). Visuotinė lietuvių enciklopedija.
  9. ^ Norman Davies, God's Playground: A History of Poland in Two Volumes, Oxford University Press, p.153. Two Podlasian officers were deprived of their lands and offices.
  10. ^ a b Frost (2000), p. 168
  11. ^ ''Dalijamės sielos džiaugsmu, tautine didybe ir sveikiname visus bendrapiliečius su Valstybės diena – Lietuvos karaliaus Mindaugo karūnavimo iškilmėmis!'' (in Lithuanian). Lietuvos vyriausiasis administracinis teismas.
  12. ^ Patackas, Algirdas (2018) ''Vytautas Didysis – Rex electus?'' (in Lithuanian) Lrytas.lt.
  13. ^ Gedimino laiškai [Letters of Gediminas] (PDF) (in Lithuanian). Vilnius: Vilnius University, Institute of Lithuanian Literature and Folklore. p. 2. Retrieved 30 May 2021.
  14. ^ Reading the Middle Ages, Volume II: From c.900 to c.1500, Third Edition
  15. ^ Making a Great Ruler: Grand Duke Vytautas of Lithuania
  16. ^ a b c Savukynas, Virginijus (2 June 2019) Kas buvo mūsų valdovai – karaliai ar kunigaikščiai? (in Lithuanian) LRT.
  17. ^ ALEXANDER * MAGNUS DUX LITHUANIAE Kuzma Art.
  18. ^ Kiaupa, Zigmantas; Jūratė Kiaupienė; Albinas Kunevičius (2000) [1995]. The History of Lithuania Before 1795 (English ed.). Vilnius: Lithuanian Institute of History. pp. 43–127. ISBN  9986-810-13-2.
  19. ^ Dr Leikis, Algimantas (10 November 2014) Urachas – Mindaugas II: popierinis Lietuvos karalius? (in Lithuanian) komentaras.lt.
  20. ^ Cibulskis, Gediminas (8 September 2010) Nekarūnuotas Lietuvos karalius Vytautas (in Lithuanian) 15min.
  21. ^ Lietuvos Taryba ir vokiečių okupacinė valdžia 1918 m. p. 11
  22. ^ a b Skirius, Juozas. Gimtoji isitorija [Native History] (in Lithuanian). Emokykla. Retrieved 10 May, 2022.
  23. ^ Bukaitė, Vilma (October 2, 2019) Svaigi Antano Smetonos karjera: nuo banko darbuotojo iki prezidento (in Lithuanian). Lrytas.lt.
  24. ^ a b Jakilaitis, E. (2018) ''Paskelbtojo karaliaus Mindaugo II anūkas: monarchija Lietuvai būtų pigiau ir naudingiau'' (in Lithuanian). Delfi.
  25. ^ a b Giedraitis, Rimantas (7 July 2012) ''Turėtume savo karalių, nereikėtų varvinti seilės į svetimus?'' (in Lithuanian) 15min.
  26. ^ a b Kontrimavičiūtė, Inga (September 19, 2012). Lietuvos karalystė – ne tuščia fantazija? (in Lithuanian). Delfi.
  27. ^ Salvatore Ferdinando Antonio Caputo. ''The Monarchy in Lithuania''
  28. ^ a b Dėmesio centre. Karaliaus anūkas Inigo von Urachas. LRT. Archived from the original on 3 March 2018.