Modern art includes artistic work produced during the period extending roughly from the 1860s to the 1970s, and denotes the styles and
philosophies of the
art produced during that era. The term is usually associated with art in which the traditions of the past have been thrown aside in a spirit of experimentation. Modern artists experimented with new ways of seeing and with fresh ideas about the nature of materials and functions of art. A tendency away from the
narrative, which was characteristic for the traditional arts, toward
abstraction is characteristic of much modern art. More recent artistic production is often called
contemporary art or
The strands of thought that eventually led to modern art can be traced back to the
Enlightenment.[b] The important modern art critic
Clement Greenberg, for instance, called
Immanuel Kant "the first real Modernist" but also drew a distinction: "The Enlightenment criticized from the outside ... . Modernism criticizes from the inside." The
French Revolution of 1789 uprooted assumptions and institutions that had for centuries been accepted with little question and accustomed the public to vigorous political and social debate. This gave rise to what art historian
Ernst Gombrich called a "self-consciousness that made people select the style of their building as one selects the pattern of a wallpaper."
Influences upon these movements were varied: from exposure to Eastern decorative arts, particularly
Japanese printmaking, to the coloristic innovations of
Delacroix, to a search for more
realism in the depiction of common life, as found in the work of painters such as
Jean-François Millet. The advocates of realism stood against the
idealism of the tradition-bound
academic art that enjoyed public and official favor. The most successful painters of the day worked either through commissions or through large public exhibitions of their own work. There were official, government-sponsored painters' unions, while governments regularly held public exhibitions of new fine and decorative arts.
The Impressionists argued that people do not see objects but only the light which they reflect, and therefore painters should paint in natural light (
en plein air) rather than in studios and should capture the effects of light in their work. Impressionist artists formed a group, Société Anonyme Coopérative des Artistes Peintres, Sculpteurs, Graveurs ("Association of Painters, Sculptors, and Engravers") which, despite internal tensions, mounted a series of independent exhibitions. The style was adopted by artists in different nations, in preference to a "national" style. These factors established the view that it was a
"movement". These traits—establishment of a working method integral to the art, establishment of a movement or visible active core of support, and international adoption—would be repeated by artistic movements in the Modern period in art.
During the years between 1910 and the end of World War I and after the heyday of
cubism, several movements emerged in Paris.
Giorgio de Chirico moved to Paris in July 1911, where he joined his brother Andrea (the poet and painter known as
Alberto Savinio). Through his brother he met Pierre Laprade, a member of the jury at the
Salon d'Automne where he exhibited three of his dreamlike works: Enigma of the Oracle, Enigma of an Afternoon and Self-Portrait. During 1913 he exhibited his work at the
Salon des Indépendants and Salon d’Automne, and his work was noticed by
Guillaume Apollinaire, and several others. His compelling and mysterious paintings are considered instrumental to the early beginnings of
Surrealism. Song of Love (1914) is one of the most famous works by de Chirico and is an early example of the
surrealist style, though it was painted ten years before the movement was "founded" by
André Breton in 1924.
World War I brought an end to this phase but indicated the beginning of a number of
anti-art movements, such as
Dada, including the work of
Marcel Duchamp, and of
Surrealism. Artist groups like
de Stijl and
Bauhaus developed new ideas about the interrelation of the arts, architecture, design, and art education.
Modern art was introduced to the United States with the
Armory Show in 1913 and through European artists who moved to the U.S. during World War I.
By the end of the 1970s, when cultural critics began speaking of "the end of painting" (the title of a provocative essay written in 1981 by
new media art had become a category in itself, with a growing number of artists experimenting with technological means such as
video art. Painting assumed renewed importance in the 1980s and 1990s, as evidenced by the rise of
neo-expressionism and the revival of
Towards the end of the 20th century, a number of artists and architects started questioning the idea of "
the modern" and created typically
Art movements and artist groups
(Roughly chronological with representative artists listed.)
^"One way of understanding the relation of the terms 'modern,' 'modernity,' and 'modernism' is that aesthetic modernism is a form of art characteristic of high or actualized late modernity, that is, of that period in which social, economic, and cultural life in the widest sense [was] revolutionized by modernity ... [this means] that modernist art is scarcely thinkable outside the context of the modernized society of the late nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Social modernity is the home of modernist art, even where that art rebels against it." — Lawrence E. Cahoone
^"In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries momentum began to gather behind a new view of the world, which would eventually create a new world, the modern world." — Lawrence E. Cahoone
Clement, Russell (1996). Four French Symbolists: A Sourcebook on Pierre Puvis de Chavannes, Gustave Moreau, Odilon Redon, and Maurice Denis. Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press.