Although research into mathematics education is primarily concerned with the tools, methods, and approaches that facilitate practice or the study of practice, it also covers an extensive field of study encompassing a variety of different concepts, theories and methods.
National and international organisations regularly hold conferences and
publish literature in order to improve mathematics education.
Plato's division of the
liberal arts into the
trivium and the
quadrivium, the quadrivium included the mathematical fields of
geometry. This structure was continued in the structure of
classical education that was developed in medieval Europe. The teaching of geometry was almost universally based on
Euclid'sElements. Apprentices to trades such as masons, merchants, and moneylenders could expect to learn such practical mathematics as was relevant to their profession.
Middle Ages, the academic status of mathematics declined, because it was strongly associated with trade and commerce, and considered somewhat un-Christian. Although it continued to be taught in
European universities, it was seen as subservient to the study of
moral philosophy. The first modern arithmetic curriculum (starting with
division) arose at
reckoning schools in Italy in the 1300s. Spreading along trade routes, these methods were designed to be used in commerce. They contrasted with Platonic math taught at universities, which was more philosophical and concerned numbers as concepts rather than calculating methods. They also contrasted with mathematical methods learned by
artisan apprentices, which were specific to the tasks and tools at hand. For example, the division of a board into thirds can be accomplished with a piece of string, instead of measuring the length and using the arithmetic operation of division.
The first mathematics textbooks to be written in English and French were published by
Robert Recorde, beginning with The Grounde of Artes in 1543. However, there are many different writings on mathematics and mathematics methodology that date back to 1800 BCE. These were mostly located in Mesopotamia, where the Sumerians were practicing multiplication and division. There are also artifacts demonstrating their methodology for solving equations like the
quadratic equation. After the Sumerians, some of the most famous
ancient works on mathematics came from Egypt in the form of the
Rhind Mathematical Papyrus and the
Moscow Mathematical Papyrus. The more famous
Rhind Papyrus has been dated back to approximately 1650 BCE, but it is thought to be a copy of an even older scroll. This papyrus was essentially an early textbook for Egyptian students.
In the 18th and 19th centuries, the
Industrial Revolution led to an enormous increase in
urban populations. Basic numeracy skills, such as the ability to tell the time, count money, and carry out simple
arithmetic, became essential in this new urban lifestyle. Within the new
public education systems, mathematics became a central part of the
curriculum from an early age.
By the twentieth century, mathematics was part of the core curriculum in all
During the twentieth century, mathematics education was established as an independent field of research. Main events in this development include the following:
In 1893, a Chair in mathematics education was created at the University of Göttingen, under the administration of
periodical literature on mathematics education in the United States had generated more than 4,000 articles after 1920, so in 1941 William L. Schaaf published a
classified index, sorting them into their various subjects.
A renewed interest in mathematics education emerged in the 1960s, and the International Commission was revitalized.
In the 20th century, the cultural impact of the "
electronic age" (McLuhan) was also taken up by
educational theory and the teaching of mathematics. While previous approach focused on "working with specialized 'problems' in
arithmetic", the emerging structural approach to knowledge had "small children meditating about
number theory and '
Boy doing sums, Guinea-Bissau, 1974
At different times and in different cultures and countries, mathematics education has attempted to achieve a variety of different objectives. These objectives have included:
The teaching and learning of basic
numeracy skills to all students
The method or methods used in any particular context are largely determined by the objectives that the relevant educational system is trying to achieve. Methods of teaching mathematics include the following:
Games can motivate students to improve skills that are usually learned by rote. In "Number Bingo," players roll 3 dice, then perform basic mathematical operations on those numbers to get a new number, which they cover on the board trying to cover 4 squares in a row. This game was played at a "Discovery Day" organized by
Big Brother Mouse in Laos.
Computer-based math: an approach based on the use of mathematical software as the primary tool of computation.
Conventional approach: the gradual and systematic guiding through the hierarchy of mathematical notions, ideas and techniques. Starts with
arithmetic and is followed by
Euclidean geometry and
elementary algebra taught concurrently. Requires the instructor to be well informed about
elementary mathematics since didactic and curriculum decisions are often dictated by the logic of the subject rather than pedagogical considerations. Other methods emerge by emphasizing some aspects of this approach.
Relational approach: uses class topics to solve everyday problems and relates the topic to current events. This approach focuses on the many uses of mathematics and helps students understand why they need to know it as well as helps them to apply mathematics to real-world situations outside of the classroom.
Discovery math: a constructivist method of teaching (
discovery learning) mathematics which centres around problem-based or inquiry-based learning, with the use of open-ended questions and
manipulative tools. This type of mathematics education was implemented in various parts of Canada beginning in 2005. Discovery-based mathematics is at the forefront of the Canadian "
math wars" debate with many criticizing it for declining math scores.
New Math: a method of teaching mathematics which focuses on abstract concepts such as
functions, and bases other than ten. Adopted in the US as a response to the challenge of early Soviet technical superiority in space, it began to be challenged in the late 1960s. One of the most influential critiques of the New Math was
Morris Kline's 1973 book Why Johnny Can't Add. The New Math method was the topic of one of
Tom Lehrer's most popular parody songs, with his introductory remarks to the song: "...in the new approach, as you know, the important thing is to understand what you're doing, rather than to get the right answer."
Recreational mathematics: mathematical problems that are fun can motivate students to learn mathematics and can increase their enjoyment of mathematics.
Different levels of mathematics are taught at different ages and in somewhat different sequences in different countries. Sometimes a class may be taught at an earlier age than typical as a special or
Elementary mathematics in most countries is taught similarly, though there are differences. Most countries tend to cover fewer topics in greater depth than in the United States. During the primary school years, children learn about whole numbers and arithmetic, including addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. Comparisons and
measurement are taught, in both numeric and pictorial form, as well as
proportionality, patterns, and various topics related to geometry.
At high school level in most of the US,
geometry, and analysis (
calculus) are taught as separate courses in different years.
On the other hand, in most other countries (and in a few US states), mathematics is taught as an integrated subject, with topics from all branches of mathematics studied every year;
students thus undertake a pre-defined course - entailing several topics - rather than choosing courses à la carte as in the United States.
Even in these cases, however, several "mathematics" options may be offered, selected based on the student's intended studies post high school.
(In South Africa, for example,
the options are Mathematics, Mathematical Literacy and Technical Mathematics.)
Thus, a science-oriented curriculum typically overlaps the first year of university mathematics, and includes
differential calculus and
trigonometry at age 16–17 and
logarithmic functions, and
infinite series in their final year of secondary school;
statistics are similarly often taught.
Throughout most of history, standards for mathematics education were set locally, by individual schools or teachers, depending on the levels of achievement that were relevant to, realistic for, and considered socially appropriate for their pupils.
In modern times, there has been a move towards regional or national standards, usually under the umbrella of a wider standard school curriculum. In
England, for example, standards for mathematics education are set as part of the National Curriculum for England, while
Scotland maintains its own educational system. Many other countries have centralized ministries which set national standards or curricula, and sometimes even textbooks.
Ma (2000) summarized the research of others who found, based on nationwide data, that students with higher scores on standardized mathematics tests had taken more mathematics courses in high school. This led some states to require three years of mathematics instead of two. But because this requirement was often met by taking another lower-level mathematics course, the additional courses had a “diluted” effect in raising achievement levels.
In North America, the
National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) published the Principles and Standards for School Mathematics in 2000 for the United States and Canada, which boosted the trend towards
reform mathematics. In 2006, the NCTM released Curriculum Focal Points, which recommend the most important mathematical topics for each grade level through grade 8. However, these standards were guidelines to implement as American states and Canadian provinces chose. In 2010, the National Governors Association Center for Best Practices and the Council of Chief State School Officers published the
Common Core State Standards for US states, which were subsequently adopted by most states. Adoption of the Common Core State Standards in mathematics is at the discretion of each state, and is not mandated by the federal government. "States routinely review their
academic standards and may choose to change or add onto the standards to best meet the needs of their students." The NCTM has state affiliates that have different education standards at the state level. For example,
Missouri has the Missouri Council of Teachers of Mathematics (MCTM) which has its pillars and standards of education listed on its website. The MCTM also offers membership opportunities to teachers and future teachers so that they can stay up to date on the changes in math educational standards.
Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), created by the
Organisation for the Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), is a global program studying the reading, science, and mathematics abilities of 15-year-old students. The first assessment was conducted in the year 2000 with 43 countries participating. PISA has repeated this assessment every three years to provide comparable data, helping to guide global education to better prepare youth for future economies. There have been many ramifications following the results of triennial PISA assessments due to implicit and explicit responses of stakeholders, which have led to education reform and policy change.
According to Hiebert and Grouws, "Robust, useful theories of classroom teaching do not yet exist." However, there are useful theories on how children learn mathematics, and much research has been conducted in recent decades to explore how these theories can be applied to teaching. The following results are examples of some of the current findings in the field of mathematics education.
One of the strongest results in recent research is that the most important feature of effective teaching is giving students "the opportunity to learn". Teachers can set expectations, times, kinds of tasks, questions, acceptable answers, and types of discussions that will influence students' opportunities to learn. This must involve both skill efficiency and conceptual understanding.
Two of the most important features of teaching in the promotion of conceptual understanding times are attending explicitly to concepts and allowing students to struggle with important mathematics. Both of these features have been confirmed through a wide variety of studies. Explicit attention to concepts involves making connections between facts, procedures, and ideas. (This is often seen as one of the strong points in mathematics teaching in East Asian countries, where teachers typically devote about half of their time to making connections. At the other extreme is the US, where essentially no connections are made in school classrooms.) These connections can be made through explanation of the meaning of a procedure, questions comparing strategies and solutions of problems, noticing how one problem is a special case of another, reminding students of the main point, discussing how lessons connect, and so on.
Deliberate, productive struggle with mathematical ideas refers to the fact that when students exert effort with important mathematical ideas, even if this struggle initially involves confusion and errors, the result is greater learning. This is true whether the struggle is due to intentionally challenging, well-implemented teaching, or unintentionally confusing, faulty teaching.
Formative assessment is both the best and cheapest way to boost student achievement, student engagement, and teacher professional satisfaction. Results surpass those of reducing class size or increasing teachers' content knowledge. Effective assessment is based on clarifying what students should know, creating appropriate activities to obtain the evidence needed, giving good feedback, encouraging students to take control of their learning and letting students be resources for one another.
Homework which leads students to practice past lessons or prepare future lessons is more effective than those going over today's lesson. Students benefit from feedback. Students with learning disabilities or low motivation may profit from rewards. For younger children, homework helps simple skills, but not broader measures of achievement. Jason Williams, secondary teacher of Maths in England, has pioneered Hegarty Maths and uses this as a way to streamline marking and assessment.
Students with genuine difficulties (unrelated to motivation or past instruction) struggle with
basic facts, answer impulsively, struggle with mental representations, have poor
number sense, and have poor short-term memory. Techniques that have been found productive for helping such students include peer-assisted learning, explicit teaching with visual aids, instruction informed by
formative assessment, and encouraging students to think aloud.
Elementary school children need to spend a long time learning to express algebraic properties without symbols before learning algebraic notation. When learning symbols, many students believe letters always represent unknowns and struggle with the concept of
variable. They prefer arithmetic reasoning to
algebraic equations for solving word problems. It takes time to move from arithmetic to algebraic generalizations to describe patterns. Students often have trouble with the
minus sign and understand the
equals sign to mean "the answer is...".
As with other educational research (and the
social sciences in general), mathematics education research depends on both quantitative and qualitative studies.
Quantitative research includes studies that use
inferential statistics to answer specific questions, such as whether a certain
teaching method gives significantly better results than the status quo. The best quantitative studies involve randomized trials where students or classes are randomly assigned different methods to test their effects. They depend on large samples to obtain statistically significant results.
Qualitative research, such as
discourse analysis, and
clinical interviews, depend on small but focused samples in an attempt to understand student learning and to look at how and why a given method gives the results it does. Such studies cannot conclusively establish that one method is better than another, as randomized trials can, but unless it is understood why treatment X is better than treatment Y, application of results of quantitative studies will often lead to "lethal mutations" of the finding in actual classrooms. Exploratory qualitative research is also useful for suggesting new
hypotheses, which can eventually be tested by randomized experiments. Both qualitative and quantitative studies, therefore, are considered essential in education—just as in the other social sciences. Many studies are “mixed”, simultaneously combining aspects of both quantitative and qualitative research, as appropriate.
There has been some controversy over the relative strengths of different types of research. Because randomized trials provide clear, objective evidence on “what works”, policymakers often consider only those studies. Some scholars have pushed for more random experiments in which teaching methods are randomly assigned to classes. In other disciplines concerned with human subjects—like
psychology, and policy evaluation—controlled, randomized experiments remain the preferred method of evaluating treatments. Educational statisticians and some mathematics educators have been working to increase the use of randomized experiments to evaluate teaching methods. On the other hand, many scholars in educational schools have argued against increasing the number of randomized experiments, often because of philosophical objections, such as the ethical difficulty of randomly assigning students to various treatments when the effects of such treatments are not yet known to be effective, or the difficulty of assuring rigid control of the independent variable in fluid, real school settings.
^Robson, E. (2008). Mathematics in Ancient Iraq: A Social History. Princeton University Press.: p. 109 "Many Old Babylonian mathematical practitioners … knew that the square on the diagonal of a right triangle had the same area as the sum of the squares on the length and width: that relationship is used in the worked solutions to word problems on cut-and-paste ‘algebra’ on seven different tablets, from Ešnuna, Sippar, Susa, and an unknown location in southern Babylonia."
^Ferguson, Kitty (2010). Pythagoras : His Lives and the Legacy of a Rational Universe. London: Icon. pp. 78–84.
^Ma, X. (2000). "A longitudinal assessment of antecedent course work in mathematics and subsequent mathematical attainment". Journal of Educational Research. 94 (1): 16–29.
^Cook, Thomas D. (2002). "Randomized Experiments in Educational Policy Research: A Critical Examination of the Reasons the Educational Evaluation Community has Offered for Not Doing Them". Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis. 24 (3): 175–199.
^Shadish, William R.; Cook, Thomas D.; Campbell, Donald T. (2002). Experimental and quasi-experimental designs for generalized causal inference (2nd ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
^Kelly, Anthony (2008). "Reflections on the National Mathematics Advisory Panel Final Report". Educational Researcher. 37 (9): 561–4.
S2CID143471869. This is the introductory article to an issue devoted to this debate on report of the National Mathematics Advisory Panel, particularly on its use of randomized experiments.
^Sparks, Sarah (October 20, 2010). "Federal Criteria For Studies Grow". Education Week. p. 1.
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