List of natural satellites Information

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The Solar System's planets, and its most likely dwarf planets, are known to be orbited by at least 219 natural satellites, or moons. At least 19 of them are large enough to be gravitationally rounded; of these, all are covered by a crust of ice except for Earth's Moon and Jupiter's Io. [1] Several of the largest ones are in hydrostatic equilibrium and would therefore be considered dwarf planets or planets if they were in direct orbit around the Sun and not in their current states (orbiting planets or dwarf planets).

Moons are classed in two separate categories according to their orbits: regular moons, which have prograde orbits (they orbit in the direction of their planets' rotation) and lie close to the plane of their equators, and irregular moons, whose orbits can be pro- or retrograde (against the direction of their planets' rotation) and often lie at extreme angles to their planets' equators. Irregular moons are probably minor planets that have been captured from surrounding space. Most irregular moons are less than 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) in diameter.

The earliest published discovery of a moon other than the Earth's was by Galileo Galilei, who discovered the four Galilean moons orbiting Jupiter in 1610. Over the following three centuries only a few more moons were discovered. Missions to other planets in the 1970s, most notably the Voyager 1 and 2 missions, saw a surge in the number of moons detected, and observations since the year 2000, using mostly large, ground-based optical telescopes, have discovered many more, all of which are irregular.

Moons by primary

Some moons, minor planets and comets of the Solar System to scale
Selected moons, with Earth to scale. Nineteen moons are large enough to be round, and one, Titan, has a substantial atmosphere.
The number of moons discovered in each year until November 2019

Mercury, the smallest and innermost planet, has no moons, or at least none that can be detected to a diameter of 1.6 km (1.0 mi). [2] For a very short time in 1974, Mercury was thought to have a moon.

Venus also has no moons, [3] though reports of a moon around Venus have circulated since the 17th century.

Earth has one Moon, the largest moon of any rocky planet in the Solar System. Earth also has more than 20 known co-orbitals, including the asteroids 3753 Cruithne and 469219 Kamoʻoalewa, and the occasional temporary satellite, like 2020 CD3; however, since they do not permanently orbit Earth, they are not considered moons. (See Other moons of Earth and Quasi-satellite.)

Mars has two known moons, Phobos and Deimos ("fear" and "dread", after attendants of Ares, the Greek god of war, equivalent to the Roman Mars). Searches for more satellites have been unsuccessful, putting the maximum radius of any other satellites at 90 m (100 yd). [4]

Jupiter has 80 moons with known orbits; 72 of them have received permanent designations, and 57 have been named. Its eight regular moons are grouped into the planet-sized Galilean moons and the far smaller Amalthea group. They are named after lovers of Zeus, the Greek equivalent of Jupiter. Its 72 known irregular moons are organized into two categories: prograde and retrograde. The prograde satellites consist of the Himalia group and three others in groups of one. The retrograde moons are grouped into the Carme, Ananke and Pasiphae groups.

Saturn has 83 moons with known orbits; 66 of them have received permanent designations, and 63 have been named. Most of them are quite small. Seven moons are large enough to be in hydrostatic equilibrium, including Titan, the second largest moon in the Solar System. Including these large moons, 24 of Saturn's moons are regular, and traditionally named after Titans or other figures associated with the mythological Saturn. The remaining 59, all small, are irregular, and classified by their orbital characteristics into Inuit, Norse, and Gallic groups, and their names are chosen from the corresponding mythologies. The rings of Saturn are made up of icy objects ranging in size from one centimetre to hundreds of metres, each of which is on its own orbit about the planet. Thus a precise number of Saturnian moons cannot be given, as there is no objective boundary between the countless small anonymous objects that form Saturn's ring system and the larger objects that have been named as moons. At least 150 " moonlets" embedded in the rings have been detected by the disturbance they create in the surrounding ring material, though this is thought to be only a small sample of the total population of such objects.

Uranus has 27 moons, five of which are massive enough to have achieved hydrostatic equilibrium. There are 13 moons that orbit within Uranus's ring system, and another nine outer irregular moons. Unlike most planetary moons, which are named from antiquity, all the moons of Uranus are named after characters from the works of Shakespeare and Alexander Pope's work The Rape of the Lock.

Neptune has 14 moons; the largest, Triton, accounts for more than 99.5 percent of all the mass orbiting the planet. Triton is large enough to have achieved hydrostatic equilibrium, but, uniquely for a large moon, has a retrograde orbit, suggesting it was a dwarf planet that was captured. Neptune also has seven known inner regular satellites, and six outer irregular satellites.

Pluto, a dwarf planet, has five moons. Its largest moon Charon, named after the ferryman who took souls across the River Styx, is more than half as large as Pluto itself, and large enough to orbit a point outside Pluto's surface. In effect, each orbits the other, forming a binary system informally referred to as a double-dwarf-planet. Pluto's four other moons, Nix, Hydra, Kerberos and Styx are far smaller and orbit the Pluto–Charon system. [5]

Among the other dwarf planets, Ceres has no known moons. It is 90 percent certain that Ceres has no moons larger than 1 km in size, assuming that they would have the same albedo as Ceres itself. [6] Eris has one large known moon, Dysnomia. Accurately determining its size is difficult: one indicative estimate of its radius is 350±57.5 km. [7]

Two objects were named as dwarf planets, under the expectation that they would prove to be so (though this remains uncertain). Haumea has two moons, Hiʻiaka and Namaka, of radii ~195 and ~100 km, respectively. [8] Makemake has one moon, discovered in April 2016.

A number of other objects in the Kuiper belt and scattered disk may turn out to be dwarf planets. Orcus, Quaoar, Gonggong, and Sedna are generally agreed to be dwarf planets among astronomers, and all but Sedna are known to have moons. [9] A number of other smaller objects, such as Salacia, Varda, and 2013 FY27, also have moons, although their dwarf planethood is more doubtful. This list includes all objects with best estimated diameter above 700 km, including 2003 AZ84 whose satellite has not been seen since its initial discovery.

As of August 2020, 309 asteroid moons and 119 trans-Neptunian moons (including those of Pluto and the other dwarf planets) had been discovered. [10]

Summary – number of moons
Planet Mercury Venus Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune
Number of moons 0 0 1 2 80 83 27 14
(Possible) dwarf Ceres Orcus 2003 AZ84 Pluto Ixion Salacia 2002 MS4 Haumea Quaoar Make-
make
Varda 2002 AW197 2013 FY27 Gong-
gong
Eris Sedna
Number of moons 0 1 1 5 0 1 0 2 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0
Minor planet
See list

Due to Earth's varying distance from these planets (as well as their distance to the Sun), the limits at which we are able to detect new moons is very inconsistent. As the below graph demonstrates, the absolute magnitude (total inherent brightness, abbreviated H) of moons we have detected around planets peaks at H = 17 for Jupiter, H = 16 for Saturn, H = 13 for Uranus, and H = 11 for Neptune.[ clarification needed] Smaller moons may (and most likely do) exist around each of these planets, but are currently undetectable from Earth. Although spacecraft have visited all of these planets, Earth-based telescopes continue to outperform them in moon-detection ability.[ citation needed]

Planetary moons by absolute magnitude

List

This is a list of the recognized moons of the planets and of the largest potential dwarf planets of the Solar System, ordered by their official Roman numeral designations. Moons that do not yet have official Roman numeral designations (because their orbits are not yet known well enough) are listed after those that do.

The 19 moons that are known to be large enough to have been rounded by their own gravity are listed in bold. The seven largest moons, which are larger than any of the known dwarf planets, are listed in bold and italic. Sidereal period differs from semi-major axis because a moon's speed depends both on the mass of its primary and its distance from it. Angular size from the parent surface actually might differ much depending on the moon location at the given moment and the point where it is observed from the parent surface (and some of these parents might not have a solid surface); the observation point matters especially for moons orbiting very near their parents e.g. Naiad is at average below two times parent radius from the center of Neptune and Cordelia is at average below two times parent radius from the center of Uranus.

Satellites of planets
Satellite of Earth Satellites of Jupiter Satellites of Uranus
Satellites of Mars Satellites of Saturn Satellites of Neptune
Satellites of generally agreed dwarf planets
Satellite of Orcus Satellites of Pluto Satellites of Haumea
Satellite of Quaoar Satellite of Makemake Satellite of Gonggong
Satellite of Eris
Satellites of other dwarf planet candidates
Satellite of 2003 AZ84 Satellite of Salacia Satellite of Varda
Satellite of 2013 FY27
Image Parent Numeral Name Mean radius (km) Orbital semi-major axis (km) Sidereal period ( d)
(r = retrograde)
Angular size from the parent surface [arcmin] Discovery year Discovered by Notes Ref(s)
FullMoon2010.jpg
Earth I (1) Moon 1,738 384,399 27.321582 31.61038 [11] Prehistoric Synchronous rotation [12]
Phobos colour 2008.jpg
Mars I (1) Phobos 11.267 9,380 0.319 12.93259 1877 Hall [13] [14] [15]
Deimos-MRO.jpg
Mars II (2) Deimos 6.2±0.18 23,460 1.262 2.12397 1877 Hall [13] [14] [15]
Jupiter I (1) Io 1,821.6±0.5 421,800 1.769 35.59190 1610 Galileo Main-group moon ( Galilean) [15] [16]
Europa-moon.jpg
Jupiter II (2) Europa 1,560.8±0.5 671,100 3.551 17.85008 1610 Galileo Main-group moon ( Galilean) [15] [16]
Ganymede JunoGill 2217.jpg
Jupiter III (3) Ganymede 2,634.1±0.3 1,070,400 7.155 18.10189 1610 Galileo Main-group moon ( Galilean) [15] [16]
Callisto.jpg
Jupiter IV (4) Callisto 2,410.3±1.5 1,882,700 16.69 9.14172 1610 Galileo Main-group moon ( Galilean) [15] [16]
Amalthea (moon).png
Jupiter V (5) Amalthea 83.5±2 181,400 0.498 5.14942 1892 Barnard Inner moon ( Amalthea) [14] [15] [17]
Cassini-Huygens Image of Himalia.png
Jupiter VI (6) Himalia 69.8 11,461,000 250.56 0.04213 1904 Perrine Prograde irregular ( Himalia) [14] [15] [18] [19]
Elara - New Horizons.png
Jupiter VII (7) Elara 43 11,741,000 259.64 0.02533 1905 Perrine Prograde irregular ( Himalia) [14] [15] [20]
Pasiphaé.jpg
Jupiter VIII (8) Pasiphae 30 23,624,000 743.63 (r) 0.00876 1908 Melotte Retrograde irregular ( Pasiphae) [14] [15] [21]
Sinopé.jpg
Jupiter IX (9) Sinope 19 23,939,000 758.90 (r) 0.00547 1914 Nicholson Retrograde irregular ( Pasiphae) [14] [15] [22]
Lysithea2.jpg
Jupiter X (10) Lysithea 18 11,717,000 259.20 0.01063 1938 Nicholson Prograde irregular ( Himalia) [14] [15] [23]
Carmé.jpg
Jupiter XI (11) Carme 23 23,404,000 734.17 (r) 0.00678 1938 Nicholson Retrograde irregular ( Carme) [14] [15] [23]
Ananké.jpg
Jupiter XII (12) Ananke 14 21,276,000 629.77 (r) 0.00454 1951 Nicholson Retrograde irregular ( Ananke) [14] [15] [24]
Leda WISE-W3.jpg
Jupiter XIII (13) Leda 10 11,165,000 240.92 0.00620 1974 Kowal Prograde irregular ( Himalia) [14] [15] [25]
Thebe.jpg
Jupiter XIV (14) Thebe 49.3±2.0 221,900 0.675 2.23017 1979 Synnott ( Voyager 1) Inner moon ( Amalthea) [14] [15] [26]
Adrastea.jpg
Jupiter XV (15) Adrastea 8.2±2.0 129,000 0.298 0.95414 1979 Jewitt, Danielson ( Voyager 1) Inner moon ( Amalthea) [14] [15] [27]
Metis.jpg
Jupiter XVI (16) Metis 21.5±2.0 128,000 0.295 2.54477 1979 Synnott ( Voyager 1) Inner moon ( Amalthea) [14] [15] [28]
Callirrhoe - New Horizons.gif
Jupiter XVII (17) Callirrhoe 4.5 24,103,000 758.77 (r) 0.00129 2000 Scotti, Spahr, McMillan, Larsen, Montani, Gleason, Gehrels Retrograde irregular ( Pasiphae) [14] [15] [29]
S 2000 J 1.jpg
Jupiter XVIII (18) Themisto 4 7,284,000 130.02 0.00381 1975/2000 Kowal and Roemer (original); Sheppard, Jewitt, Fernández, Magnier (rediscovery) Prograde irregular (Themisto) [14] [15] [30] [31]
Megaclite-Jewitt-CFHT-annotated.gif
Jupiter XIX (19) Megaclite 2.7 23,493,000 752.86 (r) 0.00079 2000 Sheppard, Jewitt, Fernández, Magnier, Dahm, Evans Retrograde irregular ( Pasiphae) [14] [15] [32]
Taygete-Jewitt-CFHT-annotated.gif
Jupiter XX (20) Taygete 2.5 23,280,000 732.41 (r) 0.00074 2000 Sheppard, Jewitt, Fernández, Magnier, Dahm, Evans Retrograde irregular ( Carme) [14] [15] [32]
Chaldene-Jewitt-CFHT-annotated.gif
Jupiter XXI (21) Chaldene 1.9 23,100,000 723.72 (r) 0.00057 2000 Sheppard, Jewitt, Fernández, Magnier, Dahm, Evans Retrograde irregular ( Carme) [14] [15] [32]
Harpalyke-Jewitt-CFHT-annotated.gif
Jupiter XXII (22) Harpalyke 2.2 20,858,000 623.32 (r) 0.00073 2000 Sheppard, Jewitt, Fernández, Magnier, Dahm, Evans Retrograde irregular ( Ananke) [14] [15] [32]
Kalyke-Jewitt-CFHT-annotated.gif
Jupiter XXIII (23) Kalyke 2.6 23,483,000 742.06 (r) 0.00076 2000 Sheppard, Jewitt, Fernández, Magnier, Dahm, Evans Retrograde irregular ( Carme) [14] [15] [32]
Iocaste-Jewitt-CFHT-annotated.gif
Jupiter XXIV (24) Iocaste 2.6 21,060,000 631.60 (r) 0.00085 2000 Sheppard, Jewitt, Fernández, Magnier, Dahm, Evans Retrograde irregular ( Ananke) [14] [15] [32]
Erinome-Jewitt-CFHT-annotated.gif
Jupiter XXV (25) Erinome 1.6 23,196,000 728.46 (r) 0.00048 2000 Sheppard, Jewitt, Fernández, Magnier, Dahm, Evans Retrograde irregular ( Carme) [14] [15] [32]
Isonoe-Jewitt-CFHT-annotated.gif
Jupiter XXVI (26) Isonoe 2 23,155,000 726.23 (r) 0.00060 2000 Sheppard, Jewitt, Fernández, Magnier, Dahm, Evans Retrograde irregular ( Carme) [14] [15] [32]
Praxidike-Jewitt-CFHT-annotated.gif
Jupiter XXVII (27) Praxidike 3.5 20,908,000 625.39 (r) 0.00115 2000 Sheppard, Jewitt, Fernández, Magnier, Dahm, Evans Retrograde irregular ( Ananke) [14] [15] [32]
Autonoe-discovery-CFHT-annotated.gif
Jupiter XXVIII (28) Autonoe 2 24,046,000 760.95 (r) 0.00057 2001 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular ( Pasiphae)
Thyone-discovery-CFHT-annotated.gif
Jupiter XXIX (29) Thyone 2 20,939,000 627.21 (r) 0.00066 2001 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular ( Ananke) [14] [15] [33]
Hermippe-discovery.gif
Jupiter XXX (30) Hermippe 2 21,131,000 633.9 (r) 0.00065 2001 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular ( Ananke) [14] [15] [33]
Aitne-discovery-CFHT-annotated.gif
Jupiter XXXI (31) Aitne 1.5 23,229,000 730.18 (r) 0.00045 2001 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular ( Carme) [14] [15] [33]
Eurydome-discovery-CFHT-annotated.gif
Jupiter XXXII (32) Eurydome 1.5 22,865,000 717.33 (r) 0.00045 2001 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular ( Pasiphae) [14] [15] [33]
Euanthe-discovery-CFHT-annotated.gif
Jupiter XXXIII (33) Euanthe 1.5 20,797,000 620.49 (r) 0.00050 2001 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular ( Ananke) [14] [15] [33]
Euporie-discovery-CFHT-annotated.gif
Jupiter XXXIV (34) Euporie 1 19,304,000 550.74 (r) 0.00036 2001 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular ( Ananke) [14] [15] [33]
Orthosie-discovery-CFHT-annotated.gif
Jupiter XXXV (35) Orthosie 1 20,720,000 622.56 (r) 0.00033 2001 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular ( Ananke) [14] [15] [33]
Sponde-discovery-CFHT-annotated.gif
Jupiter XXXVI (36) Sponde 1 23,487,000 748.34 (r) 0.00029 2001 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular ( Pasiphae) [14] [15] [33]
Kale-discovery-CFHT-annotated.gif
Jupiter XXXVII (37) Kale 1 23,217,000 729.47 (r) 0.00030 2001 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular ( Carme) [14] [15] [33]
Pasithee-discovery-CFHT-annotated.gif
Jupiter XXXVIII (38) Pasithee 1 23,004,000 719.44 (r) 0.00030 2001 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular ( Carme) [14] [15] [33]
Jupiter XXXIX (39) Hegemone 1.5 23,577,000 739.88 (r) 0.00044 2003 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Fernández Retrograde irregular ( Pasiphae) [14] [15]
Mneme Discovery Image.jpg
Jupiter XL (40) Mneme 1 21,035,000 620.04 (r) 0.00033 2003 Gladman, Allen Retrograde irregular ( Ananke) [14] [15]
Jupiter XLI (41) Aoede 2 23,980,000 761.50 (r) 0.00058 2003 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Fernández, Hsieh Retrograde irregular ( Pasiphae) [14] [15]
Jupiter XLII (42) Thelxinoe 1 21,164,000 628.09 (r) 0.00033 2003 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Gladman, Kavelaars, Petit, Allen Retrograde irregular ( Ananke) [14] [15]
Bigs2002j1barrow.png
Jupiter XLIII (43) Arche 1.5 23,355,000 731.95 (r) 0.00044 2002 Sheppard, Meech, Hsieh, Tholen, Tonry Retrograde irregular ( Carme) [14] [15] [33]
Jupiter XLIV (44) Kallichore 1 23,288,000 728.73 (r) 0.00030 2003 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Fernández Retrograde irregular ( Carme) [14] [15]
Helike CFHT 2003-02-25 annotated.gif
Jupiter XLV (45) Helike 2 21,069,000 626.32 (r) 0.00065 2003 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Fernández, Hsieh Retrograde irregular ( Ananke) [14] [15]
Carpo CFHT 2003-02-25 annotated.gif
Jupiter XLVI (46) Carpo 1.5 17,058,000 456.30 0.00061 2003 Sheppard, Gladman, Kavelaars, Petit, Allen, Jewitt, Kleyna Prograde irregular (Carpo) [14] [15]
Eukelade s2003j1movie arrow.gif
Jupiter XLVII (47) Eukelade 2 23,328,000 730.47 (r) 0.00059 2003 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Fernández, Hsieh Retrograde irregular ( Carme) [14] [15]
Jupiter XLVIII (48) Cyllene 1 23,809,000 752 (r) 0.00029 2003 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular ( Pasiphae) [14] [15]
Kore s2003j14movie circled.gif
Jupiter XLIX (49) Kore 1 24,543,000 779.17 (r) 0.00028 2003 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular ( Pasiphae) [14] [15]
Jupiter L (50) Herse 1 22,983,000 714.51 (r) 0.00030 2003 Gladman, Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Kavelaars, Petit, Allen Retrograde irregular ( Carme) [14] [15]
2010 J 1 CFHT image.gif
Jupiter LI (51) S/2010 J 1 1 23,314,300 723.2 (r) 0.00030 2010 Jacobson, Brozović, Gladman, Alexandersen Retrograde irregular ( Carme) [34]
2010 J 2 CFHT discovery full.gif
Jupiter LII (52) S/2010 J 2 0.5 20,307,200 588.1 (r) 0.00017 2010 Veillet Retrograde irregular ( Ananke) [34]
Dia-Jewitt-CFHT image-crop.png
Jupiter LIII (53) Dia 2 12,118,000 287.0 0.00114 2000 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Fernández, Hsieh Prograde irregular ( Himalia) [34]
2016 J 1 CFHT 2003-02-26 annotated.gif
Jupiter LIV (54) S/2016 J 1 3 20,595,500 602.7 (r) 0.00100 2016 Sheppard Retrograde irregular ( Ananke) [34]
2003 J 18 CFHT recovery full.gif
Jupiter LV (55) S/2003 J 18 1 20,274,000 588.0 (r) 0.00034 2003 Gladman, Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Kavelaars, Petit, Allen Retrograde irregular ( Ananke) [34]
Jupiter LVI (56) S/2011 J 2 0.5 23,329,700 726.8 (r) 0.00015 2011 Sheppard Retrograde irregular ( Pasiphae) [34]
Jupiter LVII (57) Eirene 2 23,731,800 759.7 (r) 0.00058 2003 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Fernández, Hsieh Retrograde irregular ( Carme) [34]
Jupiter LVIII (58) Philophrosyne 1 22,820,000 701.3 (r) 0.00030 2003 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Fernández Retrograde irregular ( Pasiphae) [34]
2016 J 1 CFHT 2003-02-26 annotated.gif
Jupiter LIX (59) S/2017 J 1 2 23,484,000 734.2 (r) 0.00059 2017 Sheppard Retrograde irregular ( Pasiphae) [34]
Eupheme CFHT 2003-02-25 annotated.gif
Jupiter LX (60) Eupheme 1 21,199,710 627.8 (r) 0.00033 2003 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Fernández, Hsieh Retrograde irregular ( Ananke) [34]
Jupiter LXI (61) S/2003 J 19 1 22,757,000 697.6 (r) 0.00030 2003 Gladman, Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Kavelaars, Petit, Allen Retrograde irregular ( Carme) [34]
Valetudo CFHT precovery 2003-02-28 annotated.gif
Jupiter LXII (62) Valetudo 0.5 18,928,100 532.0 0.00018 2016 Sheppard Prograde irregular (Valetudo) [34]
2017 J 2 CFHT 2003-02-26 annotated.gif
Jupiter LXIII (63) S/2017 J 2 1 23,241,000 723.8 (r) 0.00030 2017 Sheppard Retrograde irregular ( Carme) [34]
2017 J 3 CFHT 2003-12-25 annotated.gif
Jupiter LXIV (64) S/2017 J 3 1 20,639,300 605.8 (r) 0.00033 2017 Sheppard Retrograde irregular ( Ananke) [34]
Pandia CFHT precovery 2003-02-28.png
Jupiter LXV (65) Pandia 1.5 11,494,800 251.8 (r) 0.00090 2017 Sheppard Prograde irregular ( Himalia) [34]
Jupiter LXVI (66) S/2017 J 5 1 23,169,400 720.5 (r) 0.00030 2017 Sheppard Retrograde irregular ( Carme) [34]
Jupiter LXVII (67) S/2017 J 6 1 22,394,700 684.7 (r) 0.00031 2017 Sheppard Retrograde irregular ( Pasiphae) [34]
Jupiter LXVIII (68) S/2017 J 7 1 20,571,500 602.8 (r) 0.00034 2017 Sheppard Retrograde irregular ( Ananke) [34]
2017 J 8 CFHT precovery full.gif
Jupiter LXIX (69) S/2017 J 8 0.5 23,174,400 720.7 (r) 0.00015 2017 Sheppard Retrograde irregular ( Carme) [34]
Jupiter LXX (70) S/2017 J 9 1 21,430,000 640.9 (r) 0.00032 2017 Sheppard Retrograde irregular ( Ananke) [34]
Ersa CFHT precovery 2003-02-24.png
Jupiter LXXI (71) Ersa 1.5 11,453,000 250.4 (r) 0.00091 2018 Sheppard Retrograde irregular ( Himalia) [34]
Jupiter LXXII (72) S/2011 J 1 0.5 20,155,300 580.7 (r) 0.00017 2011 Sheppard Retrograde irregular ( Carme) [34]
2003 J 2 Gladman CFHT annotated.gif
Jupiter S/2003 J 2 1 20,554,400 602.02 (r) 0.00034 2003 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Fernández, Hsieh Retrograde irregular ( Ananke) [14] [15]
2003 J 4 Gladman CFHT annotated.gif
Jupiter S/2003 J 4 1 22,048,600 668.85 (r) 0.00031 2003 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Fernández, Hsieh Retrograde irregular ( Pasiphae) [14] [15]
2003 J 9 Gladman CFHT annotated.gif
Jupiter S/2003 J 9 0.5 24,168,700 767.6 (r) 0.00014 2003 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Fernández Retrograde irregular ( Carme) [14] [35]
2003 J 10 Gladman CFHT annotated.gif
Jupiter S/2003 J 10 1 22,896,000 707.78 (r) 0.00030 2003 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Fernández Retrograde irregular ( Carme?) [14] [15]
2003 J 12 Gladman CFHT annotated.gif
Jupiter S/2003 J 12 0.5 21,557,700 646.64 (r) 0.00016 2003 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Fernández Retrograde irregular ( Ananke) [14] [15]
2003 J 16 CFHT recovery full.gif
Jupiter S/2003 J 16 1 20,512,500 600.18 (r) 0.00034 2003 Gladman, Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Kavelaars, Petit, Allen Retrograde irregular ( Ananke) [14] [36]
S2003j23ccircle.gif
Jupiter S/2003 J 23 1 24,678,100 792.00 (r) 0.00028 2003 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Fernández Retrograde irregular ( Pasiphae) [14] [15]
Jupiter S/2003 J 24 3 23,088,000 715.4 (r) 0.00090 2003 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Gladman, Kleyna, Veillet Retrograde irregular ( Carme) [37]
Mimas Cassini.jpg
Saturn I (1) Mimas 198.2±0.4 185,540 0.942 10.70414 1789 Herschel Main-group moon [14] [15]
PIA17202 - Approaching Enceladus.jpg
Saturn II (2) Enceladus 252.1±0.2 238,040 1.370 9.63979 1789 Herschel Main-group moon [14] [15]
PIA18317-SaturnMoon-Tethys-Cassini-20150411.jpg
Saturn III (3) Tethys 533.1±0.7 294,670 1.888 15.50227 1684 Cassini Main-group moon ( Sidera Lodoicea) [14] [15]
Dione3 cassini big.jpg
Saturn IV (4) Dione 561.4±0.4 377,420 2.737 12.09288 1684 Cassini Main-group moon ( Sidera Lodoicea) [14] [15]
PIA07763 Rhea full globe5.jpg
Saturn V (5) Rhea 763.8±1.0 527,070 4.518 11.20110 1672 Cassini Main-group moon ( Sidera Lodoicea) [14] [15]
Titan in natural color Cassini.jpg
Saturn VI (6) Titan 2,574.73±0.09 1,221,870 15.95 15.21310 1655 Huygens Main-group moon [14] [15]
Hyperion true.jpg
Saturn VII (7) Hyperion 135 1,500,880 21.28 0.64339 1848 W.Bond, G. Bond, and Lassell Main-group moon [14] [15]
Iapetus 706 1419 1.jpg
Saturn VIII (8) Iapetus 735.6±1.5 3,560,840 79.33 1.44396 1671 Cassini Main-group moon ( Sidera Lodoicea) [14] [15]
Phoebe cassini.jpg
Saturn IX (9) Phoebe 106.5±0.7 12,947,780 550.31 (r) 0.05681 1899 Pickering Retrograde irregular ( Norse) [14] [15]
PIA12714 Janus crop.jpg
Saturn X (10) Janus 89.5±1.4 151,460 0.695 6.60056 1966 Dollfus; Voyager 1 (confirmed) Inner moon (co-orbital) [14] [15]
PIA09813 Epimetheus S. polar region.jpg Saturn XI (11) Epimetheus 58.1±1.8 151,410 0.694 4.28713 1966 Walker; Voyager 1 (confirmed) Inner moon (co-orbital) [14] [15]
Cassini Helene N00086698 CL.jpg
Saturn XII (12) Helene 17.6±0.4 377,420 2.737 0.37911 1980 Laques, Lecacheux Main-group trojan [14] [15]
Telesto cassini closeup.jpg
Saturn XIII (13) Telesto 12.4±0.4 294,710 1.888 0.36052 1980 Smith, Reitsema, Larson, Fountain ( Voyager 1) Main-group trojan [14] [15]
Calypso N1644755236 1.jpg
Saturn XIV (14) Calypso 10.7±0.7 294,710 1.888 0.31110 1980 Pascu, Seidelmann, Baum, Currie Main-group trojan [14] [15]
Atlas color PIA21449.png
Saturn XV (15) Atlas 15.1±0.9 137,670 0.602 1.30693 1980 Terrile ( Voyager 1) Inner moon ( shepherd) [14] [15]
Prometheus 12-26-09b.jpg
Saturn XVI (16) Prometheus 43.1±2.7 139,380 0.613 3.65177 1980 Collins ( Voyager 1) Inner moon ( shepherd) [14] [15]
Pandora PIA07632.jpg
Saturn XVII (17) Pandora 40.7±1.5 141,720 0.629 3.35177 1980 Collins ( Voyager 1) Inner moon ( shepherd) [14] [15]
Pan by Cassini, March 2017.jpg
Saturn XVIII (18) Pan 14.1 133,580 0.575 1.28662 1990 Showalter ( Voyager 2) Inner moon ( shepherd) [14] [15]
Ymir-CFHT.gif
Saturn XIX (19) Ymir 9 23,140,400 1,315.58 (r) 0.00268 2000 Gladman Retrograde irregular ( Norse) [14] [15]
Paaliaq-CFHT.gif
Saturn XX (20) Paaliaq 11 15,200,000 686.95 0.00499 2000 Gladman Prograde irregular ( Inuit) [14] [15]
Tarvos discovery.gif
Saturn XXI (21) Tarvos 7.5 17,983,000 926.23 0.00288 2000 Gladman, Kavelaars Prograde irregular ( Gallic) [14] [15]
Ijiraq-discovery-CFHT.gif
Saturn XXII (22) Ijiraq 6 11,124,000 451.42 0.00373 2000 Gladman, Kavelaars Prograde irregular ( Inuit) [14] [15]
Suttungr-discovery-CFHT.gif
Saturn XXIII (23) Suttungr 3.5 19,459,000 1,016.67 (r) 0.00124 2000 Gladman, Kavelaars Retrograde irregular ( Norse) [14] [15]
Kiviuq-CFHT.gif
Saturn XXIV (24) Kiviuq 8 11,110,000 449.22 0.00498 2000 Gladman Prograde irregular ( Inuit) [14] [15]
Mundilfari-discovery-CFHT.gif
Saturn XXV (25) Mundilfari 3.5 18,628,000 952.77 (r) 0.00130 2000 Gladman, Kavelaars Retrograde irregular ( Norse) [14] [15]
Albiorix WISE-W4.jpg
Saturn XXVI (26) Albiorix 16 16,182,000 783.45 0.00682 2000 Holman, Spahr Prograde irregular ( Gallic) [14] [15]
Skathi-discovery-CFHT.gif
Saturn XXVII (27) Skathi 4 15,540,000 728.20 (r) 0.00178 2000 Gladman, Kavelaars Retrograde irregular ( Norse) [14] [15]
Erriapus-discovery-CFHT.gif
Saturn XXVIII (28) Erriapus 5 17,343,000 871.19 0.00199 2000 Gladman, Kavelaars Prograde irregular ( Gallic) [14] [15]
Siarnaq-discovery-CFHT.gif
Saturn XXIX (29) Siarnaq 20 18,015,400 896.44 0.00766 2000 Gladman, Kavelaars Prograde irregular ( Inuit) [14] [15]
Thrymr-discovery-CFHT.gif
Saturn XXX (30) Thrymr 3.5 20,314,000 1,094.11 (r) 0.00119 2000 Gladman, Kavelaars Retrograde irregular ( Norse) [14] [15]
Narvi.jpg
Saturn XXXI (31) Narvi 3.5 19,007,000 1,003.86 (r) 0.00127 2003 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular ( Norse) [14] [15]
Methone PIA14633.jpg
Saturn XXXII (32) Methone 1.45 194,440 1.010 0.07319 2004 Porco, Charnoz, Brahic, Dones ( Cassini–Huygens) Alkyonide moon [15]
Pallene N1665945513 1.jpg
Saturn XXXIII (33) Pallene 2.22 212,280 1.154 0.09908 2004 Gordon, Murray, Beurle, et al. ( Cassini–Huygens) Alkyonide moon [15]
Polydeuces.jpg
Saturn XXXIV (34) Polydeuces 1.3 377,200 2.737 0.02802 2004 Porco et al. ( Cassini–Huygens) Main-group trojan [15]
Daphnis (Saturn's Moon).jpg
Saturn XXXV (35) Daphnis 3.8±0.8 136,500 0.594 0.33381 2005 Porco et al. ( Cassini–Huygens) Inner moon ( shepherd) [15]
Saturn XXXVI (36) Aegir 3 20,751,000 1,117.52 (r) 0.00100 2004 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Marsden Retrograde irregular ( Norse) [14] [15]
Bebhionn-cassini.png
Saturn XXXVII (37) Bebhionn 3 17,119,000 834.84 0.00121 2004 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Marsden Prograde irregular ( Gallic) [14] [15]
Bergelmir.png
Saturn XXXVIII (38) Bergelmir 3 19,336,000 1,005.74 (r) 0.00107 2004 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Marsden Retrograde irregular ( Norse) [14] [15]
Bestla-cassini.png
Saturn XXXIX (39) Bestla 3.5 20,192,000 1,088.72 (r) 0.00120 2004 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Marsden Retrograde irregular ( Norse) [14] [15]
Saturn XL (40) Farbauti 2.5 20,377,000 1,085.55 (r) 0.00085 2004 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Marsden Retrograde irregular ( Norse) [14] [15]
Saturn XLI (41) Fenrir 2 22,454,000 1,260.35 (r) 0.00061 2004 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Marsden Retrograde irregular ( Norse) [14] [15]
Fornjot-cassini.png
Saturn XLII (42) Fornjot 3 25,146,000 1,494.2 (r) 0.00082 2004 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Marsden Retrograde irregular ( Norse) [14] [15]
Hati-cassini.png
Saturn XLIII (43) Hati 3 19,846,000 1,038.61 (r) 0.00104 2004 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Marsden Retrograde irregular ( Norse) [14] [15]
Hyrrokkin-cassini.png
Saturn XLIV (44) Hyrrokkin 4 18,437,000 931.86 (r) 0.00150 2004 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular ( Norse) [15]
Kari-cassini.png
Saturn XLV (45) Kari 3.5 22,089,000 1,230.97 (r) 0.00109 2006 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular ( Norse) [15]
Loge N00177425.jpg
Saturn XLVI (46) Loge 3 23,058,000 1,311.36 (r) 0.00090 2006 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular ( Norse) [15]
Saturn XLVII (47) Skoll 3 17,665,000 878.29 (r) 0.00117 2006 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular ( Norse) [15]
Saturn XLVIII (48) Surtur 3 22,704,000 1,297.36 (r) 0.00091 2006 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular ( Norse) [15]
Anthe crop.jpg
Saturn XLIX (49) Anthe 0.9 197,700 1.0365 0.04437 2007 Porco et al. ( Cassini–Huygens) Alkyonide moon [38]
Saturn L (50) Jarnsaxa 3 18,811,000 964.74 (r) 0.00110 2006 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular ( Norse) [15]
Greip-cassini.png
Saturn LI (51) Greip 3 18,206,000 921.19 (r) 0.00114 2006 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular ( Norse) [15]
Tarqeq-cassini.png
Saturn LII (52) Tarqeq 3.5 18,009,000 887.48 0.00134 2007 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Prograde irregular ( Inuit) [15]
N1643264379 1.jpg
Saturn LIII (53) Aegaeon 0.33 167,500 0.808 0.02076 2008 Cassini Imaging Science Team Cassini–Huygens G-ring moonlet [39] [40]
Saturn LIV (54) Gridr 3 19,418,000 1,010.55 (r) 0.00107 2019 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular ( Norse) [41]
Saturn LV (55) Angrboda 3 20,636,000 1,107.13 (r) 0.00100 2019 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular ( Norse) [42]
Saturn LVI (56) Skrymir 4 21,163,000 1,149.82 (r) 0.00130 2019 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular ( Norse) [43]
Saturn LVII (57) Gerd 4 21,174,000 1,150.69 (r) 0.00130 2019 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular ( Norse) [44]
Saturn LVIII (58) S/2004 S 26 4 26,676,000 1,627.18 (r) 0.00103 2019 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Marsden Retrograde irregular ( Norse) [45]
Saturn LIX (59) Eggther 6 19,976,000 1,054.45 (r) 0.00207 2019 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Marsden, Jacobson Retrograde irregular ( Norse) [46]
Saturn LX (60) S/2004 S 29 4 16,981,000 826.44 0.00163 2019 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Marsden Prograde irregular ( Inuit) [47]
Saturn LXI (61) Beli 3 20,396,000 1,087.84 (r) 0.00101 2019 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular ( Norse) [48]
Saturn LXII (62) Gunnlod 4 21,214,000 1,153.96 (r) 0.00130 2019 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular ( Norse) [49]
Saturn LXIII (63) Thiazzi 4 24,168,000 1,403.18 (r) 0.00114 2019 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular ( Norse) [50]
Saturn LXIV (64) S/2004 S 34 3 24,299,000 1,414.59 (r) 0.00085 2019 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular ( Norse) [51]
Saturn LXV (65) Alvaldi 6 22,412,000 1,253.08 (r) 0.00185 2019 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Marsden Retrograde irregular ( Norse) [52]
Saturn LXVI (66) Geirrod 4 21,908,000 1,211.02 (r) 0.00126 2019 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular ( Norse) [53]
Saturn S/2004 S 7 3 20,999,000 1,140.24 (r) 0.00098 2004 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Marsden Retrograde irregular ( Norse?) [14] [15]
Saturn S/2004 S 12 2.5 19,878,000 1,046.19 (r) 0.00087 2004 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Marsden Retrograde irregular ( Norse) [14] [15]
Saturn S/2004 S 13 3 18,404,000 933.48 (r) 0.00112 2004 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Marsden Retrograde irregular ( Norse?) [14] [15]
Saturn S/2004 S 17 2 19,447,000 1,014.70 (r) 0.00071 2004 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Marsden Retrograde irregular ( Norse?) [14] [15]
Saturn S/2004 S 21 3 22,645,000 1,272.61 (r) 0.00091 2019 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular ( Norse) [54]
Saturn S/2004 S 24 3 22,901,000 1,294.25 0.00090 2019 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Marsden Prograde irregular (group unknown, possibly Gallic) [55]
Saturn S/2004 S 28 4 22,020,000 1,220.31 (r) 0.00125 2019 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Marsden Retrograde irregular ( Norse?) [56]
Saturn S/2004 S 31 4 17,568,000 869.65 0.00157 2019 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Marsden Prograde irregular ( Inuit) [57]
Saturn S/2004 S 36 3 23,192,000 1,319.07 (r) 0.00089 2019 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular ( Norse) [58]
Saturn S/2004 S 37 4 15,892,000 748.18 (r) 0.00174 2019 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular ( Norse) [59]
Saturn S/2004 S 39 3 23,575,000 1,351.83 (r) 0.00088 2019 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular ( Norse) [60]
Saturn S/2006 S 1 3 18,790,000 963.37 (r) 0.00110 2006 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular ( Norse) [15]
Saturn S/2006 S 3 3 22,096,000 1,227.21 (r) 0.00094 2006 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular ( Norse) [15]
Saturn S/2007 S 2 3 16,725,000 808.08 (r) 0.00124 2007 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular ( Norse) [15]
Saturn S/2007 S 3 3 18,975,000 977.8 (r) 0.00109 2007 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular ( Norse?) [15]
PIA11665 moonlet in B Ring cropped.jpg
Saturn S/2009 S 1 0.15 117,000 0.471 0.01755 2009 Cassini Imaging Science Team Cassini–Huygens B-ring moonlet [61]
Saturn S/2019 S 1 3 11,221,000 443.8 0.00185 2021 Ashton, Gladman, Petit, Alexandersen Prograde irregular ( Inuit) [62]
Ariel (moon).jpg
Uranus I (1) Ariel 578.9±0.6 190,900 2.520 24.04417 1851 Lassell Main-group moon [14] [15]
PIA00040 Umbrielx2.47.jpg
Uranus II (2) Umbriel 584.7±2.8 266,000 4.144 16.70601 1851 Lassell Main-group moon [14] [15]
Titania (moon) color cropped.jpg
Uranus III (3) Titania 788.9±1.8 436,300 8.706 13.19926 1787 Herschel Main-group moon [14] [15]
Voyager 2 picture of Oberon.jpg
Uranus IV (4) Oberon 761.4±2.6 583,500 13.46 9.37940 1787 Herschel Main-group moon [14] [15]
PIA18185 Miranda's Icy Face.jpg
Uranus V (5) Miranda 235.8±0.7 129,900 1.413 15.50863 1948 Kuiper Main-group moon [14] [15]
Cordeliamoon.png
Uranus VI (6) Cordelia 20.1±3 49,800 0.335 5.65502 1986 Terrile ( Voyager 2) Inner moon ( shepherd) [14] [15]
Opheliamoon.png
Uranus VII (7) Ophelia 21.4±4 53,800 0.376 5.17391 1986 Terrile ( Voyager 2) Inner moon ( shepherd) [14] [15]
Biancamoon.png
Uranus VIII (8) Bianca 25.7±2 59,200 0.435 5.22195 1986 Smith ( Voyager 2) Inner moon [14] [15]
Cressida.png
Uranus IX (9) Cressida 39.8±2 61,800 0.464 7.50987 1986 Synnott ( Voyager 2) Inner moon [14] [15]
Desdemonamoon.png
Uranus X (10) Desdemona 32±4 62,700 0.474 5.89254 1986 Synnott ( Voyager 2) Inner moon [14] [15]
Julietmoon.png
Uranus XI (11) Juliet 46.8±4 64,400 0.493 8.24256 1986 Synnott ( Voyager 2) Inner moon [14] [15]
Portia1.jpg
Uranus XII (12) Portia 67.6±4.0 66,100 0.513 11.40909 1986 Synnott ( Voyager 2) Inner moon [14] [15]
Rosalindmoon.png
Uranus XIII (13) Rosalind 36±6 69,900 0.558 5.55745 1986 Synnott ( Voyager 2) Inner moon [14] [15]
Belinda.gif
Uranus XIV (14) Belinda 40.3±8 75,300 0.624 5.54853 1986 Synnott ( Voyager 2) Inner moon [14] [15]
Puck.png
Uranus XV (15) Puck 81±2 86,000 0.762 9.18426 1985 Synnott ( Voyager 2) Inner moon [14] [15]
Caliban discovery.jpg
Uranus XVI (16) Caliban 36.4 7,231,100 579.73 (r) 0.03473 1997 Gladman, Nicholson, Burns, Kavelaars Retrograde irregular [63] [15]
Uranus-sycorax2.gif
Uranus XVII (17) Sycorax 93 12,179,400 1,288.38 (r) 0.05261 1997 Gladman, Nicholson, Burns, Kavelaars Retrograde irregular [63] [15]
Prospero - Uranus moon.jpg
Uranus XVIII (18) Prospero 25 16,256,000 1,978.29 (r) 0.01059 1999 Gladman, Holman, Kavelaars, Petit, Scholl Retrograde irregular [14] [15]
Uranus - Setebos image.jpg
Uranus XIX (19) Setebos 24 17,418,000 2,225.21 (r) 0.00949 1999 Gladman, Holman, Kavelaars, Petit, Scholl Retrograde irregular [14] [15]
Stephano - Uranus moon.jpg
Uranus XX (20) Stephano 16 8,004,000 677.36 (r) 0.01379 1999 Gladman, Holman, Kavelaars, Petit, Scholl Retrograde irregular [14] [15]
Uranus XXI (21) Trinculo 9.5 8,504,000 749.24 (r) 0.00770 2001 Holman, Kavelaars, Milisavljevic Retrograde irregular [14] [15]
Uranus XXII (22) Francisco 11 4,276,000 266.56 (r) 0.01779 2001 Holman, Kavelaars, Milisavljevic, Gladman Retrograde irregular [14] [15]
S2003u3acircle.gif
Uranus XXIII (23) Margaret 10 14,345,000 1,687.01 0.00480 2003 Sheppard, Jewitt Prograde irregular [14] [15]
Uranus moon 021002 02.jpg
Uranus XXIV (24) Ferdinand 10 20,901,000 2,887.21 (r) 0.00329 2001 Holman, Kavelaars, Milisavljevic, et al. Retrograde irregular [14] [15]
Perditamoon.png
Uranus XXV (25) Perdita 15 76,417 0.638 2.02003 1999 Karkoschka ( Voyager 2) Inner moon [15]
Mabmoon.png
Uranus XXVI (26) Mab 12 97,736 0.923 1.13999 2003 Showalter, Lissauer Inner moon [15]
Cupidmoon.png
Uranus XXVII (27) Cupid 9 74,392 0.613 1.26207 2003 Showalter, Lissauer Inner moon [15]
Triton2.jpg
Neptune I (1) Triton 1,353.4±0.9 354,800 5.877 (r) 28.18266 1846 Lassell Retrograde irregular [14] [15]
Nereid-Voyager2.jpg
Neptune II (2) Nereid 170±25 5,513,820 360.14 0.21293 1949 Kuiper Prograde irregular [64] [15]
Naiad Voyager.png
Neptune III (3) Naiad 33±3 48,224 0.294 9.61322 1989 Terrile ( Voyager 2) Inner moon [14] [15]
Neptune Trio.jpg
Neptune IV (4) Thalassa 41±3 50,075 0.311 11.07513 1989 Terrile ( Voyager 2) Inner moon [14] [15]
Despina.jpg
Neptune V (5) Despina 78±4.7 52,526 0.335 19.21905 1989 Synnott ( Voyager 2) Inner moon [14] [15]
Galatea moon.jpg
Neptune VI (6) Galatea 88±4 61,953 0.429 16.20753 1989 Synnott ( Voyager 2) Inner moon [14] [15]
Larissa 1.jpg
Neptune VII (7) Larissa 97±3 73,548 0.555 13.63126 1981 Reitsema, Hubbard, Lebofsky, Tholen ( Voyager 2) Inner moon [14] [15]
Proteus (Voyager 2).jpg
Neptune VIII (8) Proteus 210±7 117,647 1.122 15.52114 1989 Synnott ( Voyager 2) Inner moon [14] [15]
N2002n1b.jpg
Neptune IX (9) Halimede 31 15,728,000 1,879.71 (r) 0.01357 2002 Holman, Kavelaars, Grav, Fraser, Milisavljevic Retrograde irregular [14] [15]
Psmathe feat.jpg
Neptune X (10) Psamathe 20 46,695,000 9,115.91 (r) 0.00295 2003 Jewitt, Kleyna, Sheppard, Holman, Kavelaars Retrograde irregular [14] [15]
Sao VLT-FORS1 2002-09-03 annotated.gif
Neptune XI (11) Sao 22 22,422,000 2,914.07 0.00675 2002 Holman, Kavelaars, Grav, Fraser, Milisavljevic Prograde irregular [14] [15]
Laomedeia VLT-FORS1 2002-09-03 annotated.gif
Neptune XII (12) Laomedeia 21 23,571,000 3,167.85 0.00613 2002 Holman, Kavelaars, Grav, Fraser, Milisavljevic Prograde irregular [14] [15]
Neso VLT-FORS1 2002-09-03.gif
Neptune XIII (13) Neso 30 48,387,000 9,373.99 (r) 0.00426 2002 Holman, Kavelaars, Grav, Fraser, Milisavljevic Retrograde irregular [14] [15]
Hippocamp-heic1904b.jpg Neptune XIV (14) Hippocamp 17.4 105,283 0.9362 1.48317 2013 Showalter et al. Inner moon [65]
Orcus-vanth hst2.jpg Orcus I (1) Vanth 221±5 9,000±9 9.539 178.32646 [66] 2005 Brown & Suer Synchronous rotation [67]
2003AZ84 Hubble.png
2003 AZ84 (unnamed) 72±12 (unknown) (unknown) (unknown) 2005 Brown & Suer [68]
Charon in True Color - High-Res.jpg Pluto I (1) Charon 606±0.5 19,591 6.387 225.95169 [69] 1978 Christy Synchronous rotation [14] [15]
Nix best view.jpg Pluto II (2) Nix 22.5 48,671 24.85 3.25544 2005 Weaver, Stern, Buie, et al. Chaotic rotation [14] [15]
Hydra Enhanced Color.jpg Pluto III (3) Hydra 27.5 64,698 38.20 2.97537 2005 Weaver, Stern, Buie, et al. Chaotic rotation [14] [15]
Kerberos (moon).jpg Pluto IV (4) Kerberos 7 57,729 32.17 0.85066 2011 Showalter ( Hubble) Chaotic rotation [14] [15] [70] [71]
Styx (moon).jpg Pluto V (5) Styx 5.5 42,393 20.16 0.91691 2012 Showalter ( Hubble) Chaotic rotation [14] [15] [72]
Salacia Hubble.png Salacia I (1) Actaea 142±5 5,724±27 5.494 184.52468 [73] 2006 Noll et al. [67]
Haumea Hubble.png Haumea I (1) Hiʻiaka ≈160 49,880 49.12 22.33209 [74] 2005 Brown et al. [8] [75] [76]
Haumea II (2) Namaka ≈85 25,657 18.2783 23.34213 2005 Brown et al. [8] [75] [76]
Quaoar-weywot hst.jpg Quaoar I (1) Weywot 37 14,500±800 12.438 19.08427 [77] 2007 Brown [78]
Makemake moon Hubble image with legend (cropped).jpg Makemake S/2015 (136472) 1 ≈87.5 >21,000 >12.4 <29.65766 [79] 2016 Parker et al. [80] [81]
Varda-ilmare hst.jpg Varda I (1) Ilmarë 163±18 [82] 4,809±39 5.751 251.47660 [83] 2009 Noll et al. [84]
2013FY27.gif
2013 FY27 (unnamed) 95 (unknown) (unknown) (unknown) 2018 Sheppard [85]
2007 OR10 and its moon.png Gonggong I (1) Xiangliu <100 [86] 24,020±200 25.221 44.35325 [87] 2010 Marton, Kiss & Müller assuming a prograde orbit [86]
Eris and dysnomia2.jpg
Eris I (1) Dysnomia 350±60 [7] 37,273±64 15.786 66.64145 [88] 2005 Brown, Rabinowitz, Trujillo et al. SDO moon [89]

See also

References

  1. ^ Ice in the Solar System - NASA
  2. ^ Warell, J.; Karlsson, O. (2007). "A search for natural satellites of Mercury". Planetary and Space Science. 55 (14): 2037–2041. Bibcode: 2007P&SS...55.2037W. doi: 10.1016/j.pss.2007.06.004.
  3. ^ "Solar System Exploration: Planets: Venus: Moons". NASA. Archived from the original on 11 February 2016. Retrieved 16 March 2008.
  4. ^ Sheppard, Scott; et al. (2004). "A Survey for Outer Satellites of Mars: Limits to Completeness". The Astronomical Journal. 128 (5): 2542–2546. arXiv: astro-ph/0409522. Bibcode: 2004AJ....128.2542S. doi: 10.1086/424541. S2CID  45681283.
  5. ^ Buie, Marc W.; Grundy, William M.; Young, Eliot F.; Young, Leslie A.; Stern, S. Alan (2006). "Orbits and Photometry of Pluto's Satellites: Charon, S/2005 P1, and S/2005 P2". The Astronomical Journal. 132 (1): 290–298. arXiv: astro-ph/0512491. Bibcode: 2006AJ....132..290B. doi: 10.1086/504422. S2CID  119386667.. a, i, e per JPL (site updated 2008 Aug 25)
  6. ^ Bieryla, Allyson; Parker, J. W. (December 2006). "Search for Satellites around Ceres". 2007 AAS/AAPT Joint Meeting, American Astronomical Society Meeting 209, #25.02; Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society. 38: 933. Bibcode: 2006AAS...209.2502B.
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