International Union of Pure and Applied Physics Information

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International Union of Pure and Applied Physics
IUPAP logo.gif
AbbreviationIUPAP
Formation1922; 100 years ago (1922)
Type International
Legal statusActive
PurposeTo stimulate and facilitate international cooperation in physics and the worldwide development of science [1]
Headquarters Trieste [2]
Location
Region served
Worldwide
Membership
International Science Council
Official language
English
President
Michel Spiro
Key people
  • Michel Spiro (President)
  • Silvina Ponce Dawson (Acting President-Designate)
Main organ
Executive Council
Website IUPAP official website

The International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP /ˈjuːpæp, ˈjuː-/) is an international non-governmental organization whose mission is to assist in the worldwide development of physics, to foster international cooperation in physics, and to help in the application of physics toward solving problems of concern to humanity. [1] [4] It was established in 1922 and the first General Assembly was held in 1923 in Paris. [5]

IUPAP carries out this mission by: sponsoring international meetings; fostering communications and publications; encouraging research and education; fostering the free circulation of scientists; [6] [7] promoting international agreements on the use of symbols, units, nomenclature and standards; [8] [9] and cooperating with other organizations on disciplinary and interdisciplinary problems. [10] [11] [12]

IUPAP is a member of the International Science Council.

IUPAP is the lead organization promoting the adoption of the International Year of Basic Sciences for Sustainable Development, [13] a proposal to be considered by the 76th session of the UN General Assembly.

History

In 1919 was formed the International Research Council [14] “largely through the representatives of the National Academy of Sciences, Washington, and of the Royal Society, London, to coordinate international efforts in the different branches of sciences, under whose aegis international associations or unions in different branches of science could be formed".

In accordance with this principle, the 1922 General Assembly of the IRC convened at Brussels and a number of physicists present decided that the formation of a Physics Union was imperative.

Thirteen countries ( Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Netherlands, Empire of Japan, Norway, Poland, Spain, Switzerland, United Kingdom, United States and Union of South Africa) immediately announced their adherence to the new Union.

An Executive committee was formed which undertook to prepare rules, regulations, and activities of the organization. The committee consisted of ten distinguished physicists:- W.H. Bragg, M. Brillouin, O.M. Corbino, M. Knudsen, M. Leblanc, R.A. Millikan, H. Nagaoka, E. Van Aubel, and H. Abraham. The committee had Bragg as President, Van Aubel as Vice-President, and Abraham as Secretary.

This was the birth of the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics.

Committees and governance

The Union is governed by its General Assembly, which meets every three years. The Council is its top executive body, supervising the activities of the nineteen specialized International Commissions and the four Affiliated Commissions – it typically meets once or twice per year. The Union is composed of Members representing identified physics communities. At present 60 Members adhere to IUPAP. The Members are represented by Liaison Committees. Members of the Council and Commissions are elected by the General Assembly, based on nominations received from Liaison Committees and existing Council and Commission members. [15]

The IUPAP specialised Commissions are:

C1. Commission on Policy and Finance

C2. Commission on Symbols, Units, Nomenclature, Atomic Masses & Fundamental Constants

C3. Commission on Statistical Physics

C4. Commission on Astroparticle Physics. The commission was previously known as the Commission on Cosmic Rays.

C5. Commission on Low Temperature Physics

C6. Commission on Biological Physics

C8. Commission on Semiconductors

C9. Commission on Magnetism

C10. Commission on the Structure and Dynamics of Condensed Matter

C11. Commission on Particles and Fields

C12. Commission on Nuclear Physics

C13. Commission on Physics for Development

C14. Commission on Physics Education

C15. Commission on Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics

C16. Commission on Plasma Physics

C17. Commission on Laser Physics and Photonics

C18. Commission on Mathematical Physics

C19. Commission on Astrophysics

C20. Commission on Computational Physics

The Affiliated Commissions are:

AC.1. International Commission for Optics

AC.2. International Commission on General Relativity and Gravitation

AC.3. International Commission for Acoustics

AC.4. International Commission on Medical Physics

In addition IUPAP has established a number of Working Groups to provide an overview of important areas of international collaboration in physics.

Each year, IUPAP endorses approximately 30 international conferences and awards grants to the majority of them. Applications for sponsorship can be made via the IUPAP website.

Sponsored conferences fall into four categories:

General Conferences - Type A

These provide a broad overview of an entire field (typically the field of interest to a Commission), and normally occur at two- or three-year intervals, as advances in the field warrant. Attendance in the range of 750-1000 would be anticipated.

Topical Conferences - Type B

These concentrate on broad sub-fields (e.g. nuclear spectroscopy, nuclear reaction mechanisms, heavy ion physics, are possible sub-fields in the field of Nuclear Physics). They would normally be scheduled in the years between the corresponding Type A General conferences. Attendance in the range of 300-600 individuals would be anticipated.

Special Conferences - Type C

These concentrate on much more specialised topics than in the case of Type B Conferences (e.g. angular correlations, lifetime measurements, neutron resonance studies in the field of Nuclear Physics). Attendance in the range of 50-200 would be anticipated.

Workshops in Developing Countries - Type D

These concentrate on meeting the needs of a developing region. Unlike the Type A, B and C conferences, they do not need to be truly international, but should involve neighbouring countries, and they should address the needs of the region. One Type D conference will be approved each year. All applications for Type-D Conferences must be submitted to the Commission on Physics for Development (C13).

IUPAP commissions sponsor various awards for scientists. These include:

  • The IUPAP Young Scientist Prize, approved and adopted at the 2005 General Assembly for all commissions. The prize was renamed Early Career Scientist Prize at the General Assembly 2021.
  • The SUNAMCO Medal, given by the Commission on Symbols, Units, Nomenclature, Atomic Masses and Fundamental Constants (C2)
  • The Boltzmann Medal, awarded by the Commission on Statistical Physics (C3)
  • The Fritz London Award, given by the Commission on Low Temperature Physics (C5)
  • The Young Author Best Paper Award, established by the Commission on Semiconductors (C8) and sponsored by the semiconductor industries of USA, Japan and Europe
  • ICM Award in Magnetism, established by the Commission on Magnetism (C9)
  • The ICPE Medal, sponsored by the Commission on Physics Education (C14)
  • Penning Award Excellence in Low-Temperature Plasma Physics, established by the Commission on Plasma Physics (C16)
  • ICO Prize, awarded by the Affiliated Commission for Optics (AC1)
  • ICO Galileo Galilei Award, awarded by the Affiliated Commission for Optics (AC1)

Member States of IUPAP

IUPAP was founded by 13 states:- Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Netherlands, Empire of Japan, Norway, Poland, Spain, Switzerland, United Kingdom, United States and Union of South Africa in 1922. Since then many new members have joined the union.Today the IUPAP consists of 56 member states.

Below is the list of Member States of IUPAP:-

List of the Current and Former Member States of IUPAP [16]
Country Shares

(2015)

Votes

(2015)

Year of

Joining

Year of

ceasing to

be a member

Rejoining

(1)

Rejoining

(2)

1   Algeria 1 1 2009
2   Argentina 1 1 1951 1984
3   Australia 4 3 1925
4   Austria 2 2 1957
5   Belgium 4 3 1922
6   Brazil 8 4 1951
7   Canada 8 4 1922
8   Chile 1 1 1984
9   China-Beijing (PRC) 15 5 1984
10   China-Taipei (Taiwan) 5 3 1984
11   Costa Rica 1 1 2009
12   Croatia 1 1 1993
13   Cyprus 1 1 2003
14   Czech Republic 4 3 1993
15   Denmark 3 2 1922
16   Estonia 1 1 2002
17   Ethiopia 1 1 2009 No Voting rights [17]
18   Finland 3 2 1947
19   France 15 5 1922
20   Germany 15 5 1954
21   Ghana 1 1 ?
22   Greece 1 1 2009
23   Hungary 3 2 1948
24   India 8 4 1948
25   Iran 1 1 ?
26   Ireland 1 1 1966
27   Israel 2 2 1951
28   Italy 12 5 1923
29   Japan 15 5 1922
30   Jordan 2 1 2018
31   Korea (ROK) 10 5 1969
32   Latvia 1 1 2002
33   Lithuania 1 1 2002
34   Mexico 2 2 1925
35   Netherlands 4 3 1922
36   New Zealand 1 1 1954
37   Norway 3 2 1922
38   Pakistan 0 0 1951 2017
39   Peru 1 1 2009
40   Philippines 1 1 2009
41   Poland 4 3 1922
42   Portugal 1 1 1984
43   Romania 1 1 1947 1960-87 2009
44   Russia 18 6 1957
45   Saudi Arabia 1 1 1990
46   Senegal 1 1 ? No voting rights
47   Singapore 2 2 2009
48   Slovakia 1 1 1993
49   Slovenia 1 1 1993
50   South Africa 3 2 1922
51   Spain 8 4 1922
52   Sweden 8 4 1923
53    Switzerland 4 3 1922
54   Tunisia 1 1 2005
55   United Kingdom 15 5 1922
56   United States 18 6 1922
  Bolivia 0 0 1963
  Bulgaria 0 0 1957
  Cameroon 1 1 2009 2017
  Colombia 1 1 2009 2017
  Cuba 1 1 1969 No voting rights
  Egypt 1 1 1948 2017
  East Germany 1960
  Kenya 1 1 1995 2017
  Nigeria 0 0 1990
  Republic of China

(membership renewed as China-Taipei)

1934 1984
  Soviet Union

(succeeded by Russia)

18 6 1957
  Yugoslavia 0 0 1954 1992

List of IUPAP Presidents

The IUPAP President is the head of the Executive Council. IUPAP Presidents are elected by the General Assembly. During the election of the Executive Council, the future President is also elected to the post of President-Designate. Thus in every Executive Council the current President-Designate will succeed the incumbent President.

Below is the list of IUPAP Presidents since its inception in 1922.

Term President Nationality
1922-1931 Sir Willilam Henry Bragg [4]   United Kingdom
1931-1934 Robert Andrews Millikan [10]   United States
1934-1947 Mann Siegbahn [5]   Sweden
1947-1951 Hendrik Anthony Kramers [18]   Netherlands
1951-1957 Sir Nevill Francis Mott [19] [20]   United Kingdom
1957-1960 Edoardo Amaldi [21]   Italy
1960-1963 Homi Jehangir Bhabha [5]   India
1963-1966 Louis Eugène Félix Néel [5]   France
1966-1969 Dmitrii Ivanovich Blokhintsev [22]   Soviet Union
1969-1972 Robert Fox Bacher [10]   United States
1972-1975 Heinz Maier-Leibnitz [23]   Germany
1975-1978 Sir Clifford Charles Butler [24]   United Kingdom
1978-1981 Leonard Sosnowski [25]   Poland
1981-1984 Kai Manne Börje Siegbahn   Sweden
1984-1987 David Allan Bromley [26]   Canada/  United States
1987-1990 Larkin Kerwin [27]   Canada
1990-1993 Yuri Andreevich Ossipyan [28]   Russia
1993-1996 Yasatuka Yamaguchi [29]   Japan
1996-1999 Jan S. Nilsson [30] [31]   Sweden
1999-2002 Burton Richter [32] [33]   United States
2002-2005 Yves Pierre Petroff   France
2005-2008 Alan Astbury [34]   Canada
2008-2011 Sukekatsu Ushioda   Japan
2011-2014 Cecilia Jarlskog [35]   Sweden
2014-2017 Bruce McKellar [36]   Australia
2017-2020 Kennedy J. Reed [35]   United States
2020-2023 Michel Spiro [37]   France

See also

References

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External links