History of communication Information

From Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_communication

The history of communication technologies (media and appropriate inscription tools) have evolved in tandem with shifts in political and economic systems, and by extension, systems of power. Communication can range from very subtle processes of exchange, to full conversations and mass communication. The history of communication itself can be traced back since the origin of speech circa 100,000 BCE. [1] The use of technology in communication may be considered since the first use of symbols about 30,000 years BCE. Among the symbols used, there are cave paintings, petroglyphs, pictograms and ideograms. Writing was a major innovation, as well as printing technology and, more recently, telecommunications and the Internet.

Primitive times

Human communication was initiated with the origin of speech approximately 100,000 BCE. [1] Symbols were developed about 30,000 years ago. The imperfection of speech allowed easier dissemination of ideas and eventually resulted in the creation of new forms of communications, improving both the range at which people could communicate and the longevity of the information. All of those inventions were based on the key concept of the symbol.

The oldest known symbols created for communication were cave paintings, a form of rock art, dating to the Upper Paleolithic age. The oldest known cave painting is located within Chauvet Cave, dated to around 30,000 BC. [2] These paintings contained increasing amounts of information: people may have created the first calendar as far back as 15,000 years ago. [3] The connection between drawing and writing is further shown by linguistics: in Ancient Egypt and Ancient Greece the concepts and words of drawing and writing were the same (Egyptian: 's-sh', Greek: 'graphein'). [4]

Petroglyphs

Petroglyphs from Häljesta ( sv), Sweden. Nordic Bronze Age

The next advancement in the history of communications came with the production of petroglyphs, carvings into a rock surface. It took about 20,000 years for Homo sapiens to move from the first cave paintings to the first petroglyphs, which are dated to approximately the Neolithic and late Upper Paleolithic boundary, about 10,000 to 12,000 years ago.

It is possible that Homo sapiens (humans) of that time used some other forms of communication, often for mnemonic purposes - specially arranged stones, symbols carved in wood or earth, quipu-like rocks, tattoos, but little other than the most durable carved stones has survived to modern times and we can only speculate about their existence based on our observation of still existing 'hunter-gatherer' cultures such as those of Africa or Oceania. [5]

Pictograms

Pictograph from 1510 telling a story of coming of missionaries to Hispaniola

A pictogram (pictograph) is a symbol representing a concept, object, activity, place or event by illustration. Pictography is a form of proto-writing whereby ideas are transmitted through drawing. Pictographs were the next step in the evolution of communication: the most important difference between petroglyphs and pictograms is that petroglyphs are simply showing an event, but pictograms are telling a story about the event, thus they can for example be ordered chronologically.

Pictograms were used by various ancient cultures all over the world since around 9000 BC, when tokens marked with simple pictures began to be used to label basic farm produce, and become increasingly popular around 6000–5000 BC.

They were the basis of cuneiform [6] and hieroglyphs, and began to develop into logographic writing systems around 5000 BC.

Ideograms

The beginning of the Lord's Prayer in Míkmaq hieroglyphic writing. The text reads Nujjinen wásóq – "Our father / in heaven".

Pictograms, in turn, evolved into ideograms, graphical symbols that represent an idea. Their ancestors, the pictograms, could represent only something resembling their form: therefore a pictogram of a circle could represent a sun, but not concepts like 'heat', 'light', 'day' or 'Great God of the Sun'. Ideograms, on the other hand, could convey more abstract concepts.

Because some ideas are universal, many different cultures developed similar ideograms. For example, an eye with a tear means 'sadness' in Native American ideograms in California, as it does for the Aztecs, the early Chinese and the Egyptians.[ citation needed]

Ideograms were precursors of logographic writing systems.

Writing

26th century BC Sumerian cuneiform script in Sumerian language, listing gifts to the high priestess of Adab on the occasion of her election. One of the earliest examples of human writing.

Early scripts

The oldest-known forms of writing were primarily logographic in nature, based on pictographic and ideographic elements. Most writing systems can be broadly divided into three categories: logographic, syllabic and alphabetic (or segmental); however, all three may be found in any given writing system in varying proportions, often making it difficult to categorise a system uniquely.

The invention of the first writing systems is roughly contemporary with the beginning of the Bronze Age in the late Neolithic of the late 5th millennium BC. The first writing system is generally believed to have been invented in prehistoric Sumer and developed by the late 4th millennium BC into cuneiform. Egyptian hieroglyphs, and the undeciphered Proto-Elamite writing system and Indus Valley script, also date to this era, though a few scholars have questioned the Indus Valley script's status as a writing system.

The original Sumerian writing system was derived from a system of clay tokens used to represent commodities. By the end of the 4th millennium BC, this had evolved into a method of keeping accounts, using a round-shaped stylus impressed into soft clay at different angles for recording numbers. This was gradually augmented with pictographic writing using a sharp stylus to indicate what was being counted. Round-stylus and sharp-stylus writing was gradually replaced about 2700–2000 BC by writing using a wedge-shaped stylus (hence the term cuneiform), at first only for logograms, but developed to include phonetic elements by 2800 BC. About 2600 BC cuneiform began to represent syllables of spoken Sumerian language.

Finally, cuneiform writing became a general purpose writing system for logograms, syllables, and numbers. By the 26th century BC, this script had been adapted to another Mesopotamian language, Akkadian, and from that to others such as Hurrian, and Hittite. Scripts similar in appearance to this writing system include those for Ugaritic and Old Persian.

The Chinese script may have originated independently of the Middle Eastern scripts, around the 16th century BC (early Shang Dynasty), out of a late neolithic Chinese system of proto-writing dating back to c. 6000 BC. The pre-Columbian writing systems of the Americas, including Olmec and Mayan, are also generally believed to have had independent origins.

Alphabet

A Specimen of typeset fonts and languages, by William Caslon, letter founder; from the 1728 Cyclopaedia.

The first pure alphabets (properly, " abjads", mapping single symbols to single phonemes, but not necessarily each phoneme to a symbol) emerged around 2000 BC in Ancient Egypt, but by then alphabetic principles had already been incorporated into Egyptian hieroglyphs for a millennium (see Middle Bronze Age alphabets).

By 2700 BC, Egyptian writing had a set of some 22 hieroglyphs to represent syllables that begin with a single consonant of their language, plus a vowel (or no vowel) to be supplied by the native speaker. These glyphs were used as pronunciation guides for logograms, to write grammatical inflections, and, later, to transcribe loan words and foreign names.

However, although seemingly alphabetic in nature, the original Egyptian uniliterals were not a system and were never used by themselves to encode Egyptian speech. In the Middle Bronze Age an apparently "alphabetic" system is thought by some to have been developed in central Egypt around 1700 BC for or by Semitic workers, but we cannot read these early writings and their exact nature remains open to interpretation.

Over the next five centuries this Semitic "alphabet" (really a syllabary like Phoenician writing) seems to have spread north. All subsequent alphabets around the world[ citation needed] with the sole exception of Korean Hangul have either descended from it, or been inspired by one of its descendants.

Scholars agree that there is a relationship between the West-Semitic alphabet and the creation of the Greek alphabet. There is debate between scholars regarding the earliest uses of the Greek alphabet because of the changes that were made to create the Greek alphabet. [7]

The Greek alphabet had the following characteristics:

  1. The Greek lettering we know of today traces back to the eighth century B.C.
  2. Early Greek scripts used the twenty-two West-Semitic letters, and included five supplementary letters.
  3. Early Greek was not uniform in structure, and had many local variations.
  4. The Greek lettering was written using a lapidary style of writing.
  5. Greek was written in a boustrophedon style.

Scholars believe that at one point in time, early Greek scripts were very close to the West-Semitic alphabet. Over time, the changes that were made to the Greek alphabet were introduced as a result of the need for the Greeks to find a better way to express their spoken language in a more accurate way. [7]

Storytelling

Verbal communication is one of the earliest forms of human communication, the oral tradition of storytelling has dated back to various times in history. The development of communication in its oral form can be categorized based on certain historical periods. The complexity of oral communication has always been reflective based on the circumstance of the time period. Verbal communication was never bound to one specific area, instead, it had and continues to be a globally shared tradition of communication. [8] People communicated through song, poems, and chants, as some examples. People would gather in groups and pass down stories, myths, and history. Oral poets from Indo-European regions were known as "weavers of words" for their mastery over the spoken word and ability to tell stories. [9] Nomadic people also had oral traditions that they used to tell stories of the history of their people to pass them on to the next generation.

Nomadic tribes have been the torch bearers of oral storytelling. Nomads of Arabia are one example of the many nomadic tribes that have continued through history to use oral storytelling as a tool to tell their histories and the story of their people. Due to the nature of nomadic life, these individuals were often left without architecture and possessions to call their own, and often left little to no traces of themselves. [10] The richness of the nomadic life and culture is preserved by early Muslim scholars who collect the poems and stories that are handed down from generation to generation. Poems created by these Arabic nomads are passed down by specialists known as sha'ir. These individuals spread the stories and histories of these nomadic tribes, and often in times of war, would strengthen morale within members of given tribes through these stories.[ citation needed]

In its natural form, oral communication was, and has continued to be, one of the best ways for humans to spread their message, history, and traditions to the world.[ citation needed]

Timeline of writing technology

  • 30,000 BC – In ice-age Europe, people mark ivory, bone, and stone with patterns to keep track of time, using a lunar calendar. [11]
  • 14,000 BC – In what is now Mezhirich, Ukraine, the first known artifact with a map on it is made using bone. [11]
  • Prior to 3500 BC – Communication was carried out through paintings of indigenous tribes.
  • 3500s BC – The Sumerians develop cuneiform writing and the Egyptians develop hieroglyphic writing.
  • 16th century BC – The Phoenicians develop an alphabet.
  • 105 – Tsai Lun invents paper.
  • 7th century – Hindu-Malayan empires write legal documents on copper plate scrolls, and write other documents on more perishable media.
  • 751 – Paper is introduced to the Muslim world after the Battle of Talas.
  • 1250 – The quill is used for writing. [11]

Timeline of printing technology

History of telecommunication

The history of telecommunication - the transmission of signals over a distance for the purpose of communication - began thousands of years ago with the use of smoke signals and drums in Africa, America and parts of Asia. In the 1790s the first fixed semaphore systems emerged in Europe however it was not until the 1830s that electrical telecommunication systems started to appear.

Pre-electric

  • AD 26–37 – Roman Emperor Tiberius rules the empire from the island of Capri by signaling messages with metal mirrors to reflect the sun.
  • 1520 – Ships on Ferdinand Magellan's voyage signal to each other by firing cannon and raising flags.

Telegraph

Landline telephone

Phonograph

Radio and television

Fax

  • 1843 – Patent issued for the "Electric Printing Telegraph", a very early forerunner of the fax machine
  • 1926 – Commercial availability of the radiofax
  • 1964 – First modern fax machine commercially available (Long Distance Xerography)

Mobile telephone

  • 1947 – Douglas H. Ring and W. Rae Young of Bell Labs propose a cell-based approach which led to " cellular phones."
  • 1965 – Chandros Rypinski, Jr. patents the first multiple channel radio telephone system [12] which was licensed to Bell Labs [13] (patent no. US3173996A).
  • 1981 – Comvik introduces the world's first automatic mobile phone service followed a week later by Nordic Mobile Telephone
  • 1991 – GSM is put into operation
  • 1992 – Neil Papworth sends the first SMS (or text message), on the Vodafone network. [14] [15] [16] [17] [18] [19] [20]
  • 1999 – 45% of Australians have a mobile phone.
  • 2014 – The number of mobile connections surpasses the global population. [21]

Computers and Internet

ARPANET access points in the 1970s
  • 1971 – Erna Schneider Hoover invent a computerized switching system for telephone traffic.
  • 1971 – 8-inch floppy disk removable storage medium for computers is introduced. [25]
  • 1973 – Optelecom, Inc. delivers the first operational optical communications system under an ARPA contract to the US Army Missile Command, and the first commercial fiber optic system to Chevron. [26]
  • 1975 – "First list servers are introduced." [25]
  • 1976 – The personal computer (PC) market is born.
  • 1977 – Donald Knuth begins work on TeX.
  • 1981 – Hayes Smartmodem introduced. [27]
  • 1983 – Microsoft Word software is launched. [28]
  • 1985 – AOL is launched.
  • 1989 – Tim Berners-Lee and Robert Cailliau build the prototype system which became the World Wide Web at CERN.
  • 1989 – WordPerfect 5.1 word processing software released. [27]
  • 1989 – Lotus Notes software is launched. [29]
  • 1991 – Anders Olsson transmits solitary waves through an optical fiber with a data rate of 32 billion bits per second.
  • 1992 – Internet2 organization is created.
  • 1992 – IBM ThinkPad 700C laptop computer created. It was lightweight compared to its predecessors. [27]
  • Screenshot of NCSA Mosaic browser
    1993 – Mosaic graphical web browser is launched. [29]
  • 1994 – Internet radio broadcasting is born.
  • 1996 – The first Dense Wave Division Multiplexing (WDM) system was installed by Ciena Corp. [30] WDM subsequently became the common basis of all telecommunications networks [31] and a foundation of the Internet.
  • 1996 – Motorola StarTAC mobile phone introduced. It was significantly smaller than previous cellphones. [27]
  • 1997 – SixDegrees.com is launched, the first of a number of early social networking services
  • 1999 – Napster peer-to-peer file sharing is launched. [27]
  • 2001 – Cyworld adds social networking features and becomes the first of a number of mass-market social networking service
  • 2003 – Skype video calling software is launched.
  • 2004 – Facebook is launched, becoming the largest social networking site in 2009.
  • 2005 – YouTube, the video sharing site, is launched.
  • 2005 – Reddit is launched.
  • 2006 – Twitter is launched.
  • 2007 – iPhone is launched.
  • 2009 – WhatsApp is launched.
  • 2010 – Instagram is launched.
  • 2011 – Snapchat is launched.
  • 2015 – Discord is launched.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Miyagawa, Shigeru; Ojima, Shiro; Berwick, Robert C.; Okanoya, Kazuo (2014). "The integration hypothesis of human language evolution and the nature of contemporary languages". Frontiers in Psychology. 5: 564. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00564. ISSN  1664-1078. PMC  4048833. PMID  24936195.
  2. ^ Paul Martin Lester, Visual Communication with Infotrac: Images with Messages, Thomson Wadsworth, 2005, ISBN  0-534-63720-5, Google Print: p.48
  3. ^ according to a claim by Michael Rappenglueck, of the University of Munich (2000) [1]
  4. ^ David Diringer, The Book Before Printing: Ancient, Medieval and Oriental, Courier Dover Publications, 1982, ISBN  0-486-24243-9, Google Print: p.27
  5. ^ David Diringer, History of the Alphabet, 1977; ISBN  0-905418-12-3.
  6. ^ "Linguistics 201: The Invention of Writing". Pandora.cii.wwu.edu. Archived from the original on 2017-07-21. Retrieved 2012-10-02.
  7. ^ a b Naveh, Joseph (1973). "Some Semitic Epigraphical Considerations on the Antiquity of the Greek Alphabet". American Journal of Archaeology. 77 (1): 1–8. doi: 10.2307/503227. JSTOR  503227. S2CID  193106657.
  8. ^ Panini, et al. Fiorini, R, et al. F (March–April 2015). "Oral communication: short history and some rules". Giornale Italiano di Nefrologia. 32 (2). PMID  26005935.
  9. ^ Woodward, Roger (14 May 2014). The textualization of the Greek alphabet. Cambridge University Press. ISBN  9781107731905. OCLC  875096147.
  10. ^ "History of the Arabs". History World.
  11. ^ a b c "Invention and Technology". Volume Library 1. The Southwestern Company. 2009. pp. 9–15.
  12. ^ US3173996A, Rypinski, Jr Chandos A., "Multiple channel radio telephone system", issued 1965-03-16 
  13. ^ "Marty Cooper's History of Radio — Urgent Communications article". urgentcomm.com. November 2009. Retrieved 2021-11-09.
  14. ^ "Hppy bthdy txt!". BBC. 3 December 2002. Retrieved November 23, 2013.
  15. ^ "Vodafone marks the 20th Anniversary of the world's first SMS". Malta Independent. 3 December 2012. Retrieved November 23, 2013.
  16. ^ Rashmee Ahmed (December 4, 2002). "UK hails 10th birthday of SMS". Times of India. Retrieved November 23, 2013.
  17. ^ Roberto Rocha (December 8, 2007). "OMG! Txt msgs r 15 yrs old :)". Montreal Gazette. Archived from the original on September 27, 2012. Retrieved November 23, 2013.
  18. ^ Ingri Peritz (November 30, 2012). "He sent the first text message 20 years ago, and forever changed the world". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved November 23, 2013.
  19. ^ Tracy McVeigh (1 December 2012). "Text messaging turns 20". The Guardian. Retrieved November 23, 2013.
  20. ^ Paul Irish (December 3, 2012). "Text messaging turns 20 today". The Star. Retrieved November 23, 2013.
  21. ^ Name (2014-10-06). "Number of mobile connections to surpass global population". Tech Monitor. Retrieved 2021-11-09.
  22. ^ Taylor, Nick (2007). Laser: The Inventor, the Nobel Laureate, and the Thirty-Year Patent War. Backinprint.com.
  23. ^ Tom Van Vleck (2001), "History of Electronic Mail", Multicians.org
  24. ^ Anton A. Huurdeman (2003). "Chronology". Worldwide History of Telecommunications. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN  978-0-471-20505-0.
  25. ^ a b Cornell University Library (2003). "Digital Preservation and Technology Timeline". Digital Preservation Management. Archived from the original on 2015-08-06. Retrieved 2018-12-26.
  26. ^ Taylor, Nick (2007). Laser: The Inventor, the Nobel Laureate, and the Thirty-Year Patent War. Backinprint.com. pp. 225–226.
  27. ^ a b c d e Christopher Null (April 2, 2007). "The 50 Best Tech Products of All Time". PC World.
  28. ^ Paul Ford (April 2014), The Great Works of Software – via Medium
  29. ^ a b Matthew Kirschenbaum (July 2013), "10 Most Influential Software Programs Ever", Slate, USA
  30. ^ Markoff, John (1997-03-03). "Fiber-Optic Technology Draws Record Stock Value". The New York Times. ISSN  0362-4331. Retrieved 2021-11-09.
  31. ^ Grobe, Klaus (2013). Wavelength Division Multiplexing: A Practical Engineering Guide. Michael Eiselt (1st ed.). Wiley. p. 2. OCLC  849801363.

Further reading

  • Asante, Molefi Kete, Yoshitaka Miike, and Jing Yin, eds. The global intercultural communication reader (Routledge, 2014)
  • Berger, Arthur Asa. Media and communication research methods: An introduction to qualitative and quantitative approaches (SAGE 2013)
  • Briggs, Asa, and Peter Burke. A Social History of the Media: From Gutenberg to the Internet. Cambridge: Polity, 2002.
  • Burke, Peter. A Social History of Knowledge: From Gutenberg to Diderot (2000)
  • Burke, Peter. A Social History of Knowledge II: From the Encyclopaedia to Wikipedia (2012)
  • de Mooij, Marieke. "Theories of Mass Communication and Media Effects Across Cultures." in Human and Mediated Communication around the World (Springer 2014) pp 355–393.
  • Esser, Frank, and Thomas Hanitzsch, eds. The handbook of comparative communication research (Routledge, 2012)
  • Gleick, James (2011). The Information: A History, a Theory, a Flood. ISBN  978-0-375-42372-7.
  • Jensen, Klaus Bruhn, ed. A handbook of media and communication research: qualitative and quantitative methodologies (Routledge, 2013)
  • Paxson, Peyton. Mass Communications and Media Studies: An Introduction (Bloomsbury, 2010)
  • Poe, Marshall T. A History of Communications: Media and Society From the Evolution of Speech to the Internet (Cambridge University Press; 2011) 352 pages; Documents how successive forms of communication are embraced and, in turn, foment change in social institutions.
  • Schramm, Wilbur. Mass Communications (1963)
  • Schramm, Wilbur, ed. Mass Communications: A Reader (1960)
  • Simonson, Peter. Refiguring Mass Communication: A History (2010)