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Developed in Sweden, the Greenfish recirculation technology is a water purification technology for sustainable aquaculture production in closed indoor freshwater systems. It was developed at Gothenburg University by Björn Lindén in collaboration with Chalmers associate professor Torsten Wik, under the supervision of professor emeritus Gustaf Olsson at Lund University of Technology.

Several published articles , [1] , [2] , [3] have appeared as well as verification of the system in full-scale farming operations with wet feed and semi-moist fish feed. One of the most important describes the advanced simulator for full-scale recirculation in an aquaculture system with algorithms for complete mass balances calculations, involving: growth of fish, addition of fish feeds, production of waste, bacterial growth and the dynamics of the water purification system.

In the system no less than 28 different parameters of bacterial substrates are described to simulate[ clarification needed Surely the parameters do more than simulate. Or do we mean they are variables within a simulation?] the water purification dynamics of the system.

The microbial scientific basics and water purification technology and engineering rests on formidable scientific knowledge, as can be followed in further references , [4] , [5] , [6] , [7] , [8] , [9] , [10] , [11] , [12] , [13] , [14] , [15] , [16] , [17] , [18] , [19] , [20] [21][ excessive citations] .


  1. ^ Wik, Torsten; Linden, Björn; Wramner, Per (2009): Integrated Dynamic Aquaculture and Wastewater Treatment Modelling for Recirculating Aquaculture Systems. Aquaculture, 287 pp. 361-370. [1]
  2. ^ Cullberg, Mikael (2009): Recirculating Land Based Aquaculture Systems; In: "FISHERIES, SUSTAINABILITY AND DEVELOPMENT, Fifty-two authors on coexistence and development of fisheries and aquaculture in developing and developed countries". The Royal Swedish Academy of Agriculture and Forestry, pp. 323-324. [2]
  3. ^ Berggren, Alexandra (2007): Aquaculture in Sweden towards a sustainable future?; Master's Thesis, Stockholm University. [3]
  4. ^ Copp, J. B. (2001). The COST Simulation Benchmark: Description and Simulator Manual. COST Action 624 and COST Action 682.
  5. ^ Gebauer, R., G. Eggen, E. Hansen and B. Eikebrook (1991). Oppdretts teknologi - vannkvalitet og vannbehandling i lukkede oppdrettsanlegg. Tapir Forlag. Universitetet i Trondheim.
  6. ^ Grau, P., P. M. Sutton, M. Henze, S. Elmaleh, C. P. Grady, W. Gujer and J. Koller (1982). Recommended notation for use in the description of biological wastewater treatment processes. Wat. Res. 16, 1501-1505.
  7. ^ Gujer, W. and M. Boller (1986). Design of a nitrifying tertiary trickling filter based on theoretical concepts. Wat. Res. 20(11), 1353-1362.
  8. ^ Gujer, W., M. Henze, T. Mino and M. Loosdrecht (1999). Activated sludge model no. 3. Wat. Sci. Tech. 39(1), 183-193.
  9. ^ Henze, M., C. P. L. Grady Jr, W. Gujer, G. v. R. Marais and T. Matsuo (1986). Activated sludge model no. 1 by iawprc. Scientitic and technical report no. 1. IAWQ. London, GB.
  10. ^ Henze, M., C. P. L. Grady, W. Gujer, G. Marais and T. Matsuo (1987). A general model for single-sludge wastewater treatment systems. Wat. Res. 21, 505-515.
  11. ^ Henze, M., W. Gujer, T. Mino, M. C. Wentzel, G. v. R. Marais and T. Matsuo(1995). Activated sludge model no. 2. Scientitic and technical report no. 3. IAWQ. London, GB.
  12. ^ Knowles, G., A. L. Downing and M. J. Barrett (1965). Determination of kinetic constants for nitrifying bacteria in mixed culture, with the aid of an electronic computer. J. Gen. Microbiol. 38, 263-278).
  13. ^ Maurer, M., C. Fux, D. Lange and H. Siegrist (1999). Modelling denitrification in a moving bed of porous carriers from a low-loaded wastewater treatment plant. Wat. Sci. Tech. 39(7), 251-159.
  14. ^ Ődegaard, H., B. Gisvold and J. Strickland (2000). The influence of carrier size and shape in the moving bed biofilm process. Wat. Sci. Tech. 41(4-5), 383-391.
  15. ^ Riley, J. P. and G. Skirrow (1975). Chemical Oceanography. Vol. 4. 2nd ed.. Academic Press, London.
  16. ^ Royce, P. and N. Thornhill (1991). Estimation of dissolved carbon dioxide concentrations in aerobic fermentation. AIChE J. 37(11), 1680-1686.
  17. ^ Rusten, B., B. G. Hellstrom, F. Hellstrom, O. Sehested, E. Skjelfoss and B. Svendsen (2000). Pilot testing and preliminary design of moving bed biofilm reactors for nitrigen removal at the Frevar wastewater treatment plant. Wat. Sci. Tech. 41(4-5), 13-20.
  18. ^ Rusten, B., L. J. Hem and H. Ődegaard (1995a). Nitrification of municipal wastewater in moving-bed biofilm reactors. Wat. Environ. Res. 67(1), 75-86.
  19. ^ Rusten, B., L. J. Hem and H. �degaard (1995b). Nitrogen removal from dilute wastewater in cold climate using moving-bed biofilm reactors. Wat. Environ. Res. 67(1), 65-74.
  20. ^ Wik, T. (1999). On modeling the dynamics of fixed biofilm reactors - with focus on nitrifying trickling filters. PhD thesis. Chalmers University of Technology. SE-412 96 Goteborg, Sweden. ISBN  91-7197-797-X.
  21. ^ Wik, T. and C. Breitholtz (1996). Steady-state solution of a two-species biofilm problem. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 50(6), 675-686.