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Temporal range: Miocene, 14–11  Ma
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Artiodactyla
Family: Giraffidae
Genus: Giraffokeryx
Pilgrim 1910 [1]
Type species
Giraffokeryx punjabiensis

Giraffokeryx is an extinct genus of medium-sized giraffids known from the Miocene of the Indian subcontinent and Eurasia. It is distinguished from other giraffids by the four ossicones on its head; one pair in front of the eyes on the anterior aspect of the frontal bone and the other behind the eyes in the fronto parietal region overhanging the temporal fossae. It has a brachydont dentition like in other giraffids and its legs and feet are of medium length. [2] Giraffokeryx is considered monotypic by most authors, in the form of G. punjabiensis, but other species have been assigned to the genus:

  • G. chinjensis was assigned to the genus, but later included within the extinct species Giraffa priscilla. The distribution of this latter species and G. punjabiensis indicates that the Himalayas still did not act as a barrier for faunal dispersal during the middle Miocene. [3]
  • G. anatoliensis, a partial skull with a postorbital horn and isolated teeth from Turkey, had shorter and less inclined horns than G. punjabiensis. [4]

Giraffokeryx resembled either an okapi or a small giraffe. It is a possible ancestor of both. [5]

See also


  1. ^ Giraffokeryx in the Paleobiology Database retrieved June 2013
  2. ^ Bhatti, Z.H., Khan, M.A., Khan, A.M., Akhtar, M., Ghaffar, A., Iqbal, M., Ikram, T. Giraffokeryx (Artiodactyla: Mammalia) remains from the lower Siwaliks of Pakistan, December 2012 Pakistan Journal of Zoology 44:6 pp. 1623–31 824419715
  3. ^ Bhatti et al. 2012, pp. 1628–9
  4. ^ Geraads, D., Aslan, F. Giraffidae from the middle Miocene hominoid locality of Çandır (Turkey) 2003 Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg 240 695125429
  5. ^ Mitchell, G.; Skinner, J. D. (2003). "On the origin, evolution and phylogeny of giraffes Giraffa camelopardalis" (PDF). Transactions of the Royal Society of South Africa. 58 (1): 51–73. doi: 10.1080/00359190309519935. S2CID  6522531.

Further reading

Pilgrim, G. E. (1910). "Notices of new mammalian genera and species from the Tertiaries of India". Records of the Geological Survey of India. 40 (1): 63–71.