The equations below are only physically valid in a Newtonian framework, and not applicable to coordinate systems moving relative to each other at speeds approaching the
speed of light.
Galileo formulated these concepts in his description of uniform motion.
The topic was motivated by his description of the motion of a
ball rolling down a
ramp, by which he measured the numerical value for the
gravity near the surface of the
Standard configuration of coordinate systems for Galilean transformations.
Although the transformations are named for Galileo, it is the
absolute time and space as conceived by
Isaac Newton that provides their domain of definition. In essence, the Galilean transformations embody the intuitive notion of addition and subtraction of velocities as
The notation below describes the relationship under the Galilean transformation between the coordinates (x, y, z, t) and (x′, y′, z′, t′) of a single arbitrary event, as measured in two coordinate systems S and S′, in uniform relative motion (
velocityv) in their common x and x′ directions, with their spatial origins coinciding at time t = t′ = 0:
Note that the last equation holds for all Galilean transformations up to addition of a constant, and expresses the assumption of a universal time independent of the relative motion of different observers.
In the language of
linear algebra, this transformation is considered a
shear mapping, and is described with a matrix acting on a vector. With motion parallel to the x-axis, the transformation acts on only two components:
Though matrix representations are not strictly necessary for Galilean transformation, they provide the means for direct comparison to transformation methods in special relativity.
The Galilean symmetries can be uniquely written as the
composition of a rotation, a translation and a uniform motion of spacetime. Let x represent a point in three-dimensional space, and t a point in one-dimensional time. A general point in spacetime is given by an ordered pair (x, t).
Two Galilean transformations G(R, v, a, s) and G(R' , v′, a′, s′)compose to form a third Galilean transformation,
G(R′, v′, a′, s′) ⋅ G(R, v, a, s) = G(R′ R, R′ v + v′, R′ a + a′ + v′ s, s′ + s).
The set of all Galilean transformations Gal(3) forms a
group with composition as the group operation.
The group is sometimes represented as a matrix group with
spacetime events (x, t, 1) as vectors where t is real and x ∈ R3 is a position in space.
action is given by
where s is real and v, x, a ∈ R3 and R is a
The composition of transformations is then accomplished through
matrix multiplication. Care must be taken in the discussion whether one restricts oneself to the connected component group of the orthogonal transformations.
Gal(3) has named subgroups. The identity component is denoted SGal(3).
Let m represent the transformation matrix with parameters v, R, s, a:
spatial Euclidean transformations.
uniformly special transformations / homogenous transformations, isomorphic to Euclidean transformations.
shifts of origin / translation in Newtonian spacetime.
rotations (of reference frame) (see
SO(3)), a compact group.
uniform frame motions / boosts.
The parameters s, v, R, a span ten dimensions. Since the transformations depend continuously on s, v, R, a, Gal(3) is a
continuous group, also called a topological group.
The structure of Gal(3) can be understood by reconstruction from subgroups. The
semidirect product combination () of groups is required.
This Lie Algebra is seen to be a special
classical limit of the algebra of the
Poincaré group, in the limit c → ∞. Technically, the Galilean group is a celebrated
group contraction of the Poincaré group (which, in turn, is a
group contraction of the de Sitter group SO(1,4)).
Formally, renaming the generators of momentum and boost of the latter as in
P0 ↦ H / c
Ki ↦ c ⋅ Ci,
where c is the speed of light (or any unbounded function thereof), the commutation relations (structure constants) in the limit c → ∞ take on the relations of the former.
Generators of time translations and rotations are identified. Also note the group invariants LmnLmn and PiPi.
In matrix form, for d = 3, one may consider the regular representation (embedded in GL(5; R), from which it could be derived by a single group contraction, bypassing the Poincaré group),
The infinitesimal group element is then
Central extension of the Galilean group
One may consider a
central extension of the Lie algebra of the Galilean group, spanned by H′, P′i, C′i, L′ij and an operator M:
The so-called Bargmann algebra is obtained by imposing , such that M lies in the
commutes with all other operators.