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Flora Nwapa
Florence Nwanzuruahu Nkiru Nwapa.jpg
BornFlorence Nwanzuruahu Nkiru Nwapa
(1931-01-13)13 January 1931
Oguta, Nigeria
Died16 October 1993(1993-10-16) (aged 62)
Enugu, Nigeria
OccupationAuthor and publisher
Nationality Nigerian
Alma mater University College, Ibadan;
Edinburgh University
GenresNovels; short stories; poems; plays
Notable works Efuru (1966)
Idu (1970)
This Is Lagos and Other Stories (1971)
SpouseChief Gogo Nwakuche

Florence Nwanzuruahu Nkiru Nwapa (13 January 1931 – 16 October 1993), was a Nigerian author who has been called the mother of modern African Literature. She was the forerunner to a generation of African women writers, and the first African woman novelist to be published in the English language in Britain. She achieved international recognition with her first novel Efuru, published in 1966 by Heinemann Educational Books. While never considering herself a feminist, she was best known for recreating life and traditions from an Igbo woman's viewpoint. [1]

She published African literature and promoted women in African society. [2] She was one of the first African women publishers when she founded Tana Press in Nigeria in 1970. Nwapa engaged in governmental work in reconstruction after the Biafran War; in particular, she worked with orphans and refugees who were displaced during the war. [3]


Early years and education

Nwapa was born in Oguta, [4] in south-Eastern Nigeria, the eldest of the six children of Christopher Ijeoma (an agent with the United Africa Company) and Martha Nwapa, a teacher of drama. [5] Flora Nwapa attended school in Oguta, Secondary School at Elelenwa in Port Harcourt and CMS Girls School, Lagos, which later moved to Ibadan to merge with Kudeti Girls School and was renamed St Anne's School Ibadan. In 1953, when she was 22 years old, she attended university and in 1957, at the age of 26, earned a B.A. degree from University College, Ibadan. She then went to Scotland, where she earned a Diploma in Education from Edinburgh University in 1958. [6]

Family life

Flora Nwapa had three children: Ejine Nzeribe (from her previous relationship), Uzoma Gogo Nwakuche and Amede Nzeribe. She was married to Chief Gogo Nwakuche.

Her uncle, A. C. Nwapa, was Nigeria's first Minister of Commerce and Industries, according to The House of Nwapa, the documentary by Onyeka Nwelue. [7]

Teaching and public service

After returning to Nigeria, Nwapa joined the Ministry of Education in Calabar as an Education Officer until 1959. She then took employment as a teacher at Queen's School in Enugu, where she taught English and Geography from 1959 to 1962. She continued to work in both education and the civil service in several positions, including as Assistant Registrar, University of Lagos (1962–67). [2] After the Nigerian civil war of 1967–70, she accepted cabinet office as Minister of Health and Social Welfare in East Central State (1970–71), and subsequently as Minister of Lands, Survey and Urban Development (1971–74). [1] She was a visiting lecturer at Alvan Ikoku Federal College of Education in Owerri, Nigeria. In 1989, she was appointed a visiting professor of creative writing at University of Maiduguri. [8]

Writing and publishing

Nwapa's first book, Efuru, was published in 1966 at the age of 30 years and is considered a pioneering work as an English-Language novel by an African woman writer. [1] She sent the transcript to the famous Nigerian author Chinua Achebe in 1962, who replied with a very positive letter and even included money for the postage to mail the manuscript to the English publisher, Heinemann. [9] [10]

Nwapa followed Efuru with the novels such as Idu (1970), Never Again (1975), One is Enough (1981), and Women are Different (1986). She published two collections of stories – This is Lagos (1971) and Wives at War (1980) – and the volume of poems, Cassava Song and Rice Song (1986). She is also the author of several books for children. [11]

In the year 1974, she founded Tana Press, and in 1977 the Flora Nwapa Company, publishing her own adult and children's literature as well as works by other writers. [1] [12] She gave as one of her objectives: "to inform and educate women all over the world, especially Feminists (both with capital F and small f) about the role of women in Nigeria, their economic independence, their relationship with their husbands and children, their traditional beliefs and their status in the community as a whole". [13] [14] Tana has been described as "the first press run by a woman and targeted at a large female audience. A project far beyond its time at a period when no one saw African women as constituting a community of readers or a book-buying demographic." [15]

At the beginning of Nwapa's literary career, as a result of the way feminism was viewed and the way it was portrayed, she had no interest in feminism because she felt it was prejudiced against men but she eventually came to terms with it. However, her struggle with feminism is representative of the present conversations about the movement in Africa and the world at large. [16]

Her work was anthologized in publications ranging from Présence Africaine and Black Orpheus in the 1960s and '70s to Daughters of Africa in 1992. [17]

Later years

Nwapa's career as an educator continued throughout her life and encompassed teaching at colleges and universities internationally, including at New York University, Trinity College, the University of Minnesota, the University of Michigan and the University of Ilorin. She said in an interview with Contemporary Authors, "I have been writing for nearly thirty years. My interest has been on both the rural and the urban woman in her quest for survival in a fast-changing world dominated by men." [1]

Flora Nwapa died of pneumonia on 16 October 1993 at a hospital in Enugu, Nigeria, at the age of 62. [18] Her final novel, The Lake Goddess, was posthumously published. [19]

Selected bibliography

  • Efuru, Heinemann Educational Books, 1966; Waveland Press, 2013, ISBN  9781478613275
  • Idu, Heinemann African Writers Series, No. 56, ISBN  0-435-90056-0; 1970
  • Never Again, Enugu: Tana Press, 1975; Nwamife, 1976; Africa World Press, 1992, ISBN  9780865433182
  • One Is Enough, Enugu: Flora Nwapa Co., 1981; Tana Press, 1984; Africa World Press, 1992, ISBN  9780865433229
  • Women are Different, Enugu: Tana Press, 1986; Africa World Press, 1992, ISBN  9780865433267
  • The Lake Goddess, Lawrenceville, NJ: Africa World Press, 1995
Short stories/poems
  • This Is Lagos and Other Stories, Enugu: Nwamife, 1971; Africa World Press, 1992, ISBN  9780865433212
  • Wives at War and Other Stories, Enugu: Nwamife, 1980; Flora Nwapa Co./Tana Press, 1984; Africa World Press, 1992, ISBN  9780865433281
  • Cassava Song and Rice Song, Enugu: Tana Press, 1986
Children's books
  • Emeka, Driver's Guard, London: University of London Press, 1972; Enugu: Flora Nwapa Company, 1987
  • Mammywater, 1979; Enugu: Flora Nwapa Company, 1984
  • The Adventures of Deke, Enugu: Flora Nwapa Co., 1980
  • The Miracle Kittens, Enugu: Flora Nwapa Company, 1980
  • Journey to Space, Enugu: Flora Nwapa Company, 1980


Flora Nwapa is the subject of a documentary entitled The House of Nwapa, made by Onyeka Nwelue, [20] that premiered in August 2016. [21] [22] [23]

On 13 January 2017, Nwapa's birthday was marked with a Google Doodle. [24] [25] [26] [27]

Flora Nwapa's son, Uzoma Gogo Nwakuche, founded the Flora Nwapa Foundation, a California non-profit corporation in 1994 following the death of his mother in 1993. The Flora Nwapa Foundation celebrated Efuru@50 in 2016. [28] [29] [30]

See also


  1. ^ a b c d e Susan Leisure, "Nwapa, Flora", Postcolonial Studies @ Emory, Emory University, Fall 1996.
  2. ^ a b Literary Encyclopedia
  3. ^ "Florence Nwapa: The Mother Of African Literature". The Guardian Nigeria News - Nigeria and World News. 13 January 2019. Retrieved 22 May 2022.
  4. ^ Hamilton, Janice, Nigeria in Pictures, p. 71.
  5. ^ "Interesting Things About Flora Nwapa, Nigeria’s First Female Novelist", Information Nigeria, 1 March 2013.
  6. ^ Hannan, Martin, "Untold stories of Edinburgh University alumni told in new project", The National, 3 December 2018.
  7. ^ Akinbode, Ayomide (13 January 2019). "Flora Nwapa: Mother of Modern African Literature". Retrieved 22 May 2022.
  8. ^ "Flora Nwapa's sweet remembrance at UNIMAID". Tribune Online. 4 December 2016. Retrieved 22 May 2022.
  9. ^ Ainehi Edoro, "Flora Nwapa and the Letter That Changed Nigerian Literature Forever",, 24 February 2016. Retrieved March 2017.
  10. ^ Ezenwa-Ohaeto, Chinua Achebe: A Biography, p. 93, ( ISBN  9780253333421), via google-books.
  11. ^ ThriftBooks. "Flora Nwapa Books | List of books by author Flora Nwapa". ThriftBooks. Retrieved 27 April 2021.
  12. ^ Hans M. Zell, "Publishing and Book Development in Africa: A Bibliography" (Studies on Books and Reading, UNESCO), p. 4.
  13. ^ Margaret Busby, "Flora Nwapa", Daughters of Africa: An International Anthology of Words and Writings by Women of African Descent (1992), Vintage: 1993, p. 399.
  14. ^ "Frankfurt Book Fair 1980", Flora Nwapa interviewed in The African Book Publishing Record, Vol. VII, No. 1, 1981, p. 6.
  15. ^ Edoro, Ainehi, "Flora Nwapa and the Letter That Changed Nigerian Literature Forever" Archived 25 March 2017 at the Wayback Machine, Brittle Paper, 3 February 2016.
  16. ^ "Everything about Flora Nwapa screamed 'feminist', everything but her own words - Ventures Africa". Ventures Africa. 13 January 2017. Retrieved 24 May 2018.
  17. ^ Berrian, Brenda F., "Flora Nwapa (1931–1993): A Bibliography", Research in African Literatures, Vol. 26, No. 2, Flora Nwapa (Summer 1995), pp. 124–129.
  18. ^ Brenda F, Berrian, "In Memoriam: Flora Nwapa (1931–1993", Signs, Vol. 20, No. 4, Postcolonial, Emergent, and Indigenous Feminisms (Summer 1995), pp. 996–999.
  19. ^ Emenyonu, Ernest N., "Flora Nwapa (1931–93)", in Paul Schellinger (ed.), Encyclopedia of the Novel, Vol. 2, Routledge, 1998, p. 952.
  20. ^ Wealth Ominabo Dickson, Interview with Onyeka Nwelue, Premium Times, 18 August 2016.
  21. ^ Cheta Igbokwe, "Onyeka Nwelue’s ‘House of Nwapa’ Documentary Film Premiers in Zimbabwe", State Reporters, 28 August 2016.
  22. ^ Abubakar Adam Ibrahim, "‘Why I made a documentary on Flora Nwapa’" Archived 24 March 2017 at the Wayback Machine, Daily Trust, 2 October 2016.
  23. ^ Ikhide R. Ikheloa, "Flora Nwapa and the house that Onyeka Nwelue built for her", Ikhide blog, 27 November 2016.
  24. ^ "Flora Nwapa's 86th Birthday", Google Doodles Archive, 13 January 2017.
  25. ^ "Google Celebrates Flora Nwapa with a 'This Day in History' Doodle" Archived 22 March 2017 at the Wayback Machine, Brittle Paper, 13 January 2017.
  26. ^ Tonye Bakare, "Google honours late Nigerian novelist Flora Nwapa", The Guardian (Nigeria), 13 January 2017.
  27. ^ "Google celebrates Flora Nwanzuruahu Nwapa with a doodle", Vanguard, 14 January 2017.
  28. ^ Abubakar Adam Ibrahim and Nurudeen Oyewole, "How social media inspired me to become a writer", Sunday Trusy, 21 August 2016, via PressReader.
  29. ^ "Writer, Scholars Mark 50 Years of Flora Nwapa’s Efuru In Five Cities", The Elites, 29 August 2016.
  30. ^ Yinka Olatunbosun, "Nigeria: Drums for Flora Nwapa's Efuru At 50", This Day, 4 September 2016.

Further reading

  • Adeniyi, Idowu Emmanuel. "Male Other, Female Self and Post-feminist Consciousness in Sembène Ousmane’s God’s Bits of Wood and Flora Nwapa’s Efuru." Ibadan Journal of English Studies 7 (2019):57-72.
  • Curry, Ginette. Awakening African Women: The Dynamics of Change. Cambridge Scholars Press, London. 4 January 2004. [1].
  • Adeola, James (ed.), In Their Own Voices, African Women Writers Talk, Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, 1990.
  • Andrade, Susan Z., "Rewriting History, Motherhood and Rebellion", Research in African Literatures 21. (1990): 91-110.
  • Ezeigbo, Theodora Akachi, "Traditional Women’s Institutions in Igbo Society: Implications for the Igbo Female Writer", Languages and Cultures 3. (1990): 149–65.
  • Githaiga, Anna, Notes on Flora Nwapa's "Efuru", Nairobi: Heinemann Educational Books, 1979.
  • Ikonne, Chidi, "The Society and Woman’s Quest for Selfhood in Flora Nwapa’s Early Novels". Kunapipi 6. (1984): 68–78.
  • Nzegwu, Femi, Love, Motherhood and the African Heritage: The Legacy of Flora Nwapa, African Renaissance Foundation (paperback 2003), ISBN  1-903625-09-2
  • Ogunyemi, Chikwenye Okonjo, Africa Wo/Man Palava, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996.
  • Umeh, Marie, Emerging Perspectives on Flora Nwapa: Critical and Theoretical Essays, Africa World Press (1998), ISBN  0-86543-515-4
  • Wilentz, Gay, Binding Cultures, Black Women Writers in Africa and the Diaspora, Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1992.

External links