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Excess mortality in the Soviet Union under Joseph Stalin Information

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"Wall of sorrow" at the first exhibition of the victims of Stalinism in Moscow, 19 November 1988
Exhumed mass grave of the Vinnytsia massacre

Estimates of the number of deaths attributable to the Soviet revolutionary and dictator Joseph Stalin vary widely. [1] The scholarly consensus affirms that archival materials declassified in 1991 contain irrefutable data far superior to sources used prior to 1991 such as statements from emigres and other informants. [2] [3] [4] A minority of authors and journalists maintain that "statistics can never fully describe what happened". [1]

Prior to the dissolution of the Soviet Union and the archival revelations, some historians estimated that the numbers killed by Stalin's regime were 20 million or higher. [5] [6] [7] After the Soviet Union dissolved, evidence from the Soviet archives was declassified and researchers were allowed to study it. This contained official records of 799,455 executions (1921–1953), [8] around 1.7 million deaths in the Gulag, [9] [10] some 390,000 [11] deaths during the dekulakization forced resettlement, and up to 400,000 deaths of persons deported during the 1940s, [12] with a total of about 3.3 million officially recorded victims in these categories. [13] According to historian Stephen Wheatcroft, approximately 1 million of these deaths were "purposive" while the rest happened through neglect and irresponsibility. [2] The deaths of at least 5.5 to 6.5 million [14] persons in the Soviet famine of 1932–1933 are sometimes, though not always, included with the victims of the Stalin era. [2] [15]


Passers-by and the corpse of a starved man on a street in Kharkiv, 1932


According to official Soviet estimates, more than 14 million people passed through the Gulag from 1929 to 1953, with a further 7 to 8 million being deported and exiled to remote areas of the Soviet Union, including entire nationalities in several cases. [16]

According to a 1993 study of recently declassified archival Soviet data, a total of 1,053,829 people died in the Gulag (not including labor colonies) from 1934 to 1953 (there was no archival data for the period 1919–1934). [17]: 1024  More recent archival figures for the deaths in the Gulag, labor colonies and prisons combined for 1931–1953 were 1.713 million. [15] According to historian Michael Ellman, non-state estimates of the actual Gulag death toll are usually higher because historians such as Robert Conquest took into account the likelihood of unreliable record keeping. [18] According to author Anne Applebaum, it was common practice to release prisoners who were either suffering from incurable diseases or near death. [19]

OGPU chiefs responsible for construction of the White Sea–Baltic Canal were Naftaly Frenkel (far right) and Matvei Berman (front, second from right), also head of the Gulag from 1932–1939

Golfo Alexopoulos, history professor at the University of South Florida, believes that at least 6 million people died as a result of their detention in the gulags. [20] This estimate is disputed by other scholars, with critics such as J. Hardy stating that the evidence Alexopoulos used is indirect and misinterpreted. [21] Historian Dan Healey argues that the estimate has obvious methodological difficulties. [22][ failed verification]

Citing materials pre-1991, author John G. Heidenrich estimates the number of deaths at 12 million. [23][ undue weight? ] His book is not primarily about estimating deaths from repressive policies in the Soviet Union, and he appears to have relied on Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn's political and literary work The Gulag Archipelago, which historian Stephen G. Wheatcroft explains was not intended as a historical fact but as a challenge to Soviet authorities after their years of secrecy. [24]

According to estimates based on data from Soviet archives post-1991, there were around 1.6 million deaths during the whole period from 1929 to 1953. [25] The tentative historical consensus is that of the 18 million people who passed through the gulag system from 1930 to 1953, between 1.5 and 1.7 million died as a result of their incarceration. [22]

Soviet famine of 1932–1933

Soviet famine of 1932–1933, with areas where the effects of famine were most severe shaded

The deaths of 5.7 [26] to perhaps 7.0 million people [27] [28] in the Soviet famine of 1932–1933 and Soviet collectivization of agriculture are included among the victims of repression during the period of Stalin by some historians. [29] [30] This categorization is controversial, as historians differ as to whether the famine in Ukraine was created as a deliberate part of the campaign of repression against kulaks and others [31] [32] [33] [34] [35] was an unintended consequence of the struggle over forced collectivization, [36] [37] [38] [39] [40] or was primarily a result of natural factors. [41] [42] [43] [44]

Judicial executions

According to official figures there were 777,975 judicial executions for political charges from 1929–53, including 681,692 in 1937–1938, the years of the Great Purge. [9] Unofficial estimates estimate a total number of Stalinism repression deaths in 1937–38 at 700,000–1,200,000. [45] [46] There were also operations of mass ethnic cleansing against various minorities living in Stalin's USSR, known as the National operations of the NKVD, with the largest one being the Polish Operation of the NKVD during which over 111,000 Polish communists and other Poles were exterminated.

Soviet famine of 1946–1947

The last major famine to hit the Soviet Union began in July 1946, reached its peak in February–August 1947 and then quickly diminished in intensity, although there were still some famine deaths in 1948. [47] Economist Michael Ellman states that the hands of the state could have fed all those who died of starvation. He argues that had the policies of the Soviet regime been different, there might have been no famine at all or a much smaller one. Ellman claims that the famine resulted in an estimated 1 to 1.5 million lives lost in addition to secondary population losses due to reduced fertility. [47]

Population transfer by the Soviet Union

Deportation of kulaks

Large numbers of kulaks regardless of their nationality were resettled to Siberia and Central Asia. According to data from Soviet archives, which were published in 1990, 1,803,392 people were sent to labor colonies and camps in 1930 and 1931, and 1,317,022 reached the destination. Deportations on a smaller scale continued after 1931. Data from the Soviet archives indicates 2.4 million kulaks were deported from 1930–1934. [48] The reported number of kulaks and their relatives who had died in labour colonies from 1932 to 1940 was 389,521. [11] [49] Popular history author Simon Sebag Montefiore estimated that 15 million kulaks and their families were deported by 1937; during the deportation, many people died, but the full number is not known. [50]

Forced settlements in the Soviet Union of 1939–1953

Funeral of the deported Crimean Tatars in Krasnovishersk, late 1944

According to Russian historian Pavel Polian, 5.870 million persons were deported to forced settlements from 1920–1952, including 3.125 million from 1939–1952. [48] Those ethnic minorities considered a threat to Soviet security in 1939–52 were forcibly deported to Special Settlements run by the NKVD. Poles, Ukrainians from western regions, Soviet Germans, Balts, and Estonians peoples from the Caucasus and Crimea were the primary victims of this policy. Data from the Soviet archives list 309,521 deaths in the Special Settlements from 1941–48 and 73,454 in 1949–50. [51] According to Polian these people were not allowed to return to their home regions until after the death of Stalin, the exception being Soviet Germans who were not allowed to return to the Volga region of the Soviet Union. According to Soviet archives, the heaviest mortality rate was documented in people from the Northern Caucasus (the Chechens, Ingush) with 144,704 deaths, or 24.7% of the entire deported population, as well as 44,125 deaths from Crimea, or a 19.3% mortality rate. [52]

Katyn massacre

The massacre was prompted by NKVD chief Lavrentiy Beria's proposal to execute all captive members of the Polish officer corps, dated 5 March 1940, approved by the Politburo of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, including its leader Joseph Stalin. The number of victims is estimated at about 22,000. [53]

Total number of victims

The memorial wall with the names of Stalin's victims, at the Butovo firing range outside Moscow

Writing in Slavic Review, demographers Barbara Anderson and Brian Silver maintained that limited census data make a precise death count impossible. Instead, they offer a probable range of 3.2 to 5.5 million excess deaths for the entire Soviet Union from 1926 to 1939, a period that covers collectivization, the civil war in the countryside, the purges of the late 1930s and major epidemics of typhus and malaria. [54]

Some historians claim that the death toll was around 20 million, [62] a figure based on Conquest's book The Great Terror (1968), with some estimates relying in part on demographic losses such as Conquest's. [63] In 2001, American historian Richard Pipes argued that the population had decreased by 9 to 10 million people from the 1932 to 1939 censuses. [64] In 2003, British historian Simon Sebag Montefiore suggested that Stalin was ultimately responsible for the deaths of at least 20 million people. [65] In 2006, political scientist Rudolph Rummel wrote that the earlier higher victim total estimates are correct, although he included those killed by the government of the Soviet Union in other Eastern European countries as well. [66] [67] In his most recent edition of The Great Terror (2007), Conquest stated that while exact numbers may never be known with complete certainty, at least 15 million people were killed "by the whole range of Soviet regime's terrors." [68] According to Barbara Anderson and Brian Silver, historians such as Robert Conquest made the most primitive of errors. They asserted that these Cold Warriors overestimated fertility rates and underrated the impact of assimilation, through which many Ukrainians were redesignated as Russians in the 1939 census, confusing population deficits, which included unborn children, with excess deaths. [54]

Historians such as J. Arch Getty, Stephen G. Wheatcroft, and others, insist that the opening of the Soviet archives has vindicated the lower estimates put forth by the revisionist school. [69] [70] In 2011, after assessing twenty years of historical research in Eastern European archives, American historian Timothy D. Snyder stated that Stalin deliberately killed about 6 million, which rise to 9 million if foreseeable deaths arising from policies are taken into account. [71] [72]

Some historians believe that the official archival figures of the categories that were recorded by Soviet authorities are unreliable and incomplete. [1] In addition to failures regarding comprehensive recordings, as one additional example, Canadian historian Robert Gellately and Montefiore argue that the many suspects beaten and tortured to death while in "investigative custody" were likely not to have been counted amongst the executed. [73] [74] Conversely, Wheatcroft states that prior to the opening of the archives for historical research, "our understanding of the scale and the nature of Soviet repression has been extremely poor" and that some specialists who wish to maintain earlier high estimates of the Stalinist death toll are "finding it difficult to adapt to the new circumstances when the archives are open and when there are plenty of irrefutable data" and instead "hang on to their old Sovietological methods with round-about calculations based on odd statements from emigres and other informants who are supposed to have superior knowledge." [75] [3] British historian Michael Ellman argues that mass deaths from famines should be placed in a different category than the repression victims, mentioning that throughout Russian history famines and droughts have been a common occurrence, including the Russian famine of 1921–22, which occurred before Stalin came to power. He also states that famines were widespread throughout the world in the 19th and 20th centuries in countries such as China, India, Ireland, and Russia. [15] Ellman compared the behaviour of the Stalinist regime vis-à-vis the Holodomor to that of the British government (towards Ireland and India) and the G8 in contemporary times. According to Ellman, the G8 "are guilty of mass manslaughter or mass deaths from criminal negligence because of their not taking obvious measures to reduce mass deaths" and Stalin's "behaviour was no worse than that of many rulers in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries." [15] Ben Kiernan, an American academic and historian, described Stalin's era as "by far the bloodiest of Soviet or even Russian history". [76]

Number of deaths of people by Stalinism, 1924–1953 (*excluding killings outside of Soviet borders)
Event Est. number of deaths References
Dekulakization 530,000–600,000 [77]
Great Purge 700,000–1,200,000 [45] [9] [46]
Gulag 1,500,000–1,713,000 [15] [22]
Soviet deportations 450,000–566,000 [78] [79]
Katyn massacre 22,000 [80]
Holodomor 2,500,000–4,000,000 [81]
Kazakh famine of 1931–33 1,450,000 [82]
Total ~7,231,000–9,551,000

Genocide allegations

Stalin has also been accused of genocide in the cases of forced population transfer in the Soviet Union. Raphael Lemkin, a lawyer of Polish- Jewish descent who initiated the Genocide Convention and coined the term genocide himself, assumed that genocide was perpetrated in the context of the mass deportation of the Chechens, Ingush, Volga Germans, Crimean Tatars, Kalmyks and Karachay. [83] Some academics disagree with the classification of deportation as genocide. Professor Alexander Statiev argues that Stalin's administration did not have a conscious genocidal intent to exterminate the various deported peoples, but that Soviet "political culture, poor planning, haste, and wartime shortages were responsible for the genocidal death rate among them." He rather considers these deportations an example of Soviet assimilation of "unwanted nations." [84] According to Professor Amir Weiner, "...It was their territorial identity and not their physical existence or even their distinct ethnic identity that the regime sought to eradicate." [85] According to Professor Francine Hirsch, "although the Soviet regime practiced politics of discrimination and exclusion, it did not practice what contemporaries thought of as racial politics." To her, these mass deportations were based on the concept that nationalities were "sociohistorical groups with a shared consciousness and not racial-biological groups". [86] In contrast to this view, Jon K. Chang contends that the deportations had been in fact based on ethnicity and that "social historians" in the West have failed to champion the rights of marginalised ethnicities in the Soviet Union. [87]

Contemporary historians classify these deportations as a crime against humanity and ethnic persecution. Two of these cases of mass deportation with the highest mortality rates, the deportation of the Crimean Tatars and the deportation of the Chechens and Ingush, were recognized as genocides by Ukraine ( plus 3 other countries) and the European Parliament respectively. [88] [89] On 26 April 1991 the Supreme Soviet of the Russian Socialist Federal Soviet Republic, under its chairman Boris Yeltsin, passed the law On the Rehabilitation of Repressed Peoples with Article 2 denouncing all mass deportations as "Stalin's policy of defamation and genocide." [90]

Historians continue to debate whether or not the 1932–33 Ukrainian famine, known in Ukraine as the Holodomor, should be called a genocide. [91] Twenty six countries officially recognise it under the legal definition of genocide. In 2006, the Ukrainian Parliament declared it to be such, [92] and in 2010 a Ukrainian court posthumously convicted Stalin, Lazar Kaganovich, Stanislav Kosior, and other Soviet leaders of genocide. [93] Popular among some Ukrainian nationalists is the idea that Stalin consciously organised the famine to suppress national desires among the Ukrainian people. This interpretation has been disputed by more recent historical studies. [44] These have articulated the view that while Stalin's policies contributed significantly to the high mortality rate, there is no evidence that Stalin or the Soviet government consciously engineered the famine. [94] [38] [40] The idea that this was a targeted attack on the Ukrainians is complicated by the widespread suffering that also affected other Soviet peoples in the famine, including the Russians. [95] [96] Within Ukraine, ethnic Poles and Bulgarians died in similar proportions to ethnic Ukrainians. [96] Despite any lack of clear intent on Stalin's part, the historian Norman Naimark noted that although there may not be sufficient "evidence to convict him in an international court of justice as a genocidaire [...] that does not mean that the event itself cannot be judged as genocide." [97]

See also


  1. ^ a b c "Soviet Studies". See also: Gellately (2007) p. 584: "Anne Applebaum is right to insist that the statistics 'can never fully describe what happened.' They do suggest, however, the massive scope of the repression and killing."
  2. ^ a b c Wheatcroft, Stephen (1996). "The Scale and Nature of German and Soviet Repression and Mass Killings, 1930–45" (PDF). Europe-Asia Studies. 48 (8): 1334, 1348. doi: 10.1080/09668139608412415. JSTOR  152781. The Stalinist regime was consequently responsible for about a million purposive killings, and through its criminal neglect and irresponsibility it was probably responsible for the premature deaths of about another two million more victims amongst the repressed population, i.e. in the camps, colonies, prisons, exile, in transit and in the POW camps for Germans. These are clearly much lower figures than those for whom Hitler's regime was responsible.
  3. ^ a b Wheatcroft, S. G. (2000). "The Scale and Nature of Stalinist Repression and its Demographic Significance: On Comments by Keep and Conquest" (PDF). Europe-Asia Studies. 52 (6): 1143–59. doi: 10.1080/09668130050143860. PMID  19326595. S2CID  205667754.
  4. ^ Healey, Dan (1 June 2018). "Golfo Alexopoulos. Illness and Inhumanity in Stalin's Gulag". The American Historical Review. 123 (3): 1049–1051. doi: 10.1093/ahr/123.3.1049. ISSN  0002-8762. New studies using declassified Gulag archives have provisionally established a consensus on mortality and “inhumanity.”
  5. ^ Robert Conquest. The Great Terror. NY Macmillan, 1968 p. 533 (20 million)
  6. ^ Anton Antonov-Ovseyenko, The Time of Stalin, NY Harper & Row 1981. p. 126 (30–40 million)
  7. ^ Elliot, Gill. Twentieth Century Book of the Dead. Penguin Press 1972. pp. 223–24 (20 million)
  8. ^ Seumas Milne: "The battle for history", The Guardian. (12 September 2002). Retrieved 14 July 2013.
  9. ^ a b c Haynes, Michael (2003). A Century of State Murder?: Death and Policy in Twentieth Century Russia. Pluto Press. pp. 214–15. ISBN  978-0745319308.
  10. ^ Applebaum, Anne (2003) Gulag: A History. Doubleday. ISBN  0767900561 pp. 582–583.
  11. ^ a b Pohl, J. Otto (1997). The Stalinist Penal System. McFarland. p. 58. ISBN  0786403365.
  12. ^ Pohl, J. Otto (1997). The Stalinist Penal System. McFarland. p. 148. ISBN  0786403365. Pohl cites Russian archival sources for the death toll in the special settlements from 1941–49
  13. ^ Wheatcroft, Stephen G. (1999). "Victims of Stalinism and the Soviet Secret Police: The Comparability and Reliability of the Archival Data. Not the Last Word" (PDF). Europe-Asia Studies. 51 (2): 315–45. doi: 10.1080/09668139999056. During 1921–53, the number of sentences was (political convictions): sentences, 4,060,306; death penalties, 799,473; camps and prisons, 2,634397; exile, 413,512; other, 215,942. In addition, during 1937–52 there were 14,269,753 non-political sentences, among them 34,228 death penalties, 2,066,637 sentences for 0–1 year, 4,362,973 for 2–5 years, 1,611,293 for 6–10 years, and 286,795 for more than 10 years. Other sentences were non-custodial
  14. ^ Davies,; Wheatcroft (2009). The Industrialisation of Soviet Russia Volume 5: The Years of Hunger: Soviet Agriculture 1931–1933. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 401. ISBN  978-0230238558.{{ cite book}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list ( link)
  15. ^ a b c d e Ellman, Michael (2002). "Soviet Repression Statistics: Some Comments" (PDF). Europe-Asia Studies. 54 (7): 1172. doi: 10.1080/0966813022000017177. S2CID  43510161.
  16. ^ Conquest, Robert (1997). "Victims of Stalinism: A Comment" (PDF). Europe-Asia Studies. 49 (7): 1317–19. doi: 10.1080/09668139708412501. We are all inclined to accept the Zemskov totals (even if not as complete) with their 14 million intake to Gulag 'camps' alone, to which must be added 4–5 million going to Gulag 'colonies', to say nothing of the 3.5 million already in, or sent to, 'labour settlements'. However taken, these are surely 'high' figures.
  17. ^ Getty, J. Arch; Rittersporn, Gábor; Zemskov, Viktor (1993). "Victims of the Soviet penal system in the pre-war years: a first approach on the basis of archival evidence" (PDF). American Historical Review. 98 (4): 1017–49. doi: 10.2307/2166597. JSTOR  2166597.
  18. ^ Ellman, Michael (2002). "Soviet Repression Statistics: Some Comments" (PDF). Europe-Asia Studies. 54 (7): 1153. doi: 10.1080/0966813022000017177. S2CID  43510161.
  19. ^ Applebaum, Anne (2003) Gulag: A History. Doubleday. ISBN  0767900561. p. 583: "... both archives and memoirs indicate that it was common practice in many camps to release prisoners who were on the point of dying, thereby lowering camp death statistics."
  20. ^ Alexopoulos, Golfo (2017). Illness and Inhumanity in Stalin's Gulag. Yale University Press. ISBN  978-0300179415.
  21. ^ Hardy, J. (2018). "Review": Illness and Inhumanity in Stalin's Gulag. By Golfo Alexopoulos. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2007. xi, 308 pp. Notes. Index. Maps. $65.00, hard bound. Slavic Review, 77(1), 269–70. doi: 10.1017/slr.2018.57
  22. ^ a b c Healey, Dan (1 June 2018). "GOLFO ALEXOPOULOS. Illness and Inhumanity in Stalin's Gulag". The American Historical Review. 123 (3): 1049–51. doi: 10.1093/ahr/123.3.1049. New studies using declassified Gulag archives have provisionally established a consensus on mortality and 'inhumanity.' The tentative consensus says that once secret records of the Gulag administration in Moscow show a lower death toll than expected from memoir sources, generally between 1.5 and 1.7 million (out of 18 million who passed through) for the years from 1930 to 1953.
  23. ^ John G, Heidenrich, (2001). How to Prevent Genocide: A Guide for Policymakers, Scholars, and the Concerned Citizen. Hardcover: Praeger. p. 7. ISBN  978-0275969875. "Another 12 million Soviet citizens died in a network of forced labor camps collectively known by the Russian acronym Gulag, many of them from the physical toil of satisfying Stalins’s relentless drive to rapidly industrialize the Soviet Union."
  24. ^ Wheatcroft, Stephen (1996). "The Scale and Nature of German and Soviet Repression and Mass Killings, 1930–45" (PDF). Europe-Asia Studies. 48 (8): 1330. doi: 10.1080/09668139608412415. JSTOR  152781. When Solzhenitsyn wrote and distributed his Gulag Archipelago it had enormous political significance and greatly increased popular understanding of part of the repression system. But this was a literary and political work; it never claimed to place the camps in a historical or social-scientific quantitative perspective, Solzhenitsyn cited a figure of 12–15 million in the camps. But this was a figure that he hurled at the authorities as a challenge for them to show that the scale of the camps was less than this.
  25. ^ Steven Rosefielde. Red Holocaust. Routledge, 2009. ISBN  0415777577. p. 67. "... more complete archival data increases camp deaths by 19.4 percent to 1,258,537"; p. 77. "The best archivally based estimate of Gulag excess deaths at present is 1.6 million from 1929 to 1953."
  26. ^ Davies,; Wheatcroft (2009). The Industrialisation of Soviet Russia Volume 5: The Years of Hunger: Soviet Agriculture 1931–1933. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 415. ISBN  978-0230238558.{{ cite book}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list ( link) This is the estimate of Wheatcroft and Davies.
  27. ^ Andreev EM; Darsky LE; Kharkova TL, Population dynamics: consequences of regular and irregular changes. in Demographic Trends and Patterns in the Soviet Union Before 1991. Routledge. 1993; ISBN  0415101948 p. 431. "This indicates general collectivization and repressions connected with it, as well as the 1933 famine, may be responsible for 7 million deaths."
  28. ^ Conquest, Robert (1886). Harvest of Sorrow. Oxford. p.  304. ISBN  0195051807.
  29. ^ Snyder, Timothy (2010). Bloodlands. Basic Books. p.  21–58. ISBN  978-0465002399.
  30. ^ Naimark, Norman M. Stalin's Genocides (Human Rights and Crimes against Humanity). Princeton University Press, 2010. pp. 51–79. ISBN  0691147841
  31. ^ Ellman, Michael (2005). "The Role of Leadership Perceptions and of Intent in the Soviet Famine of 1931–1934" (PDF). Europe-Asia Studies. Routledge. 57 (6): 823–41. doi: 10.1080/09668130500199392. S2CID  13880089. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 February 2009. Retrieved 4 July 2008.
  32. ^ Naimark, Norman M. Stalin's Genocides (Human Rights and Crimes against Humanity). Princeton University Press, 2010. pp. 134–35. ISBN  0691147841
  33. ^ Rosefielde, Steven. Red Holocaust. Routledge, 2009. ISBN  0415777577 p. 259
  34. ^ Snyder, Timothy. Bloodlands: Europe Between Hitler and Stalin. Basic Books, 2010. ISBN  0465002390 pp. vii, 413
  35. ^ Rosefielde, Steven (1983). "Excess Mortality in the Soviet Union: A Reconsideration of the Demographic Consequences of Forced Industrialization, 1929–1949". Soviet Studies. 35 (3): 385–409. doi: 10.1080/09668138308411488. JSTOR  151363.
  36. ^ "The Industrialisation of Soviet Russia" (PDF). 5 – The Years of Hunger: Soviet Agriculture, 1931–1933. Palgrave Macmillan. 2004. Retrieved 28 December 2008. {{ cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= ( help)
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  41. ^ Ganson, N. (2009). The Soviet Famine of 1946–47 in Global and Historical Perspective. Springer. p. 194. ISBN  978-0230620964.
  42. ^ Raleigh, Donald J. (2001). Provincial Landscapes: Local Dimensions of Soviet Power, 1917–1953. University of Pittsburgh Press. p. 167. ISBN  978-0822970613.
  43. ^ Magocsi, Paul R. (2010). A History of Ukraine: The Land and Its Peoples. University of Toronto Press. p. 799. ISBN  978-1442610217. Retrieved 6 August 2017.
  44. ^ a b Tauger, Mark B. (2001). "Natural Disaster and Human Actions in the Soviet Famine of 1931–1933". The Carl Beck Papers in Russian and East European Studies (1506): 1–65. doi: 10.5195/CBP.2001.89. ISSN  2163-839X. Archived from the original on 12 June 2017.
  45. ^ a b Kuhr, Corinna (1998). "Children of "Enemies of The People" as Victims of the Great Purges". Cahiers du Monde russe. 39 (1/2): 209–220. doi: 10.3406/cmr.1998.2520. ISSN  1252-6576. JSTOR  20171081 – via JSTOR. According to latest estimates 2,5 million people were arrested and 700,000 of them shot. These figures are based on reliable archival materials [...]
  46. ^ a b Ellman, Michael (2002). "Soviet Repression Statistics: Some Comments" (PDF). Europe-Asia Studies. 54 (7): 1151–72. doi: 10.1080/0966813022000017177. S2CID  43510161. The best estimate that can currently be made of the number of repression deaths in 1937–38 is the range 950,000–1.2 million, i.e . about a million. This is the estimate which should be used by historians, teachers and journalists concerned with twentieth century Russian—and world—history
  47. ^ a b Michael Ellman Archived 14 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine, The 1947 Soviet Famine and the Entitlement Approach to Famines Archived 25 March 2009 at the Wayback Machine Cambridge Journal of Economics 24 (2000): 603–30.
  48. ^ a b Polian, Polian (2004). Against Their Will. Hungary: Central European Press. p. 313. ISBN  9639241687.
  49. ^ Archived 14 January 2009 at the Wayback Machine.
  50. ^ Sebag Montefiore, Simon (2014). Stalin: The Court of the Red Tsar. W&N. p. 84. ISBN  978-1780228358. "By 1937, 18,5 million were collevtivized but there were now only 19.9 million households: 5.7 million households, perhaps 15 million persons, had been deported, many of them dead"
  51. ^ Pohl, J. Otto (1997). The Stalinist Penal System. McFarland. p. 148. ISBN  0786403365.
  52. ^ Human Rights Watch (1991). "Punished Peoples" of the Soviet Union: The Continuing Legacy of Stalin's Deportations" (PDF). p. 9. OCLC  25705762.
  53. ^ Kużniar-Plota, Małgorzata (30 November 2004). "Decision to commence investigation into Katyn Massacre" Archived 30 September 2012 at the Wayback Machine. Departmental Commission for the Prosecution of Crimes against the Polish Nation. Retrieved 4 August 2011.
  54. ^ a b Anderson, Barbara; Silver, Brian (Autumn 1985). "Demographic Analysis and Population Catastrophes in the USSR". Slavic Review. 44 (3): 517–19. doi: 10.2307/2498020. JSTOR  2498020. S2CID  163761404.
  55. ^ Montefiore 2004, p. 649: "Perhaps 20 million had been killed; 28 million deported, of whom 18 million had slaved in the Gulags".
  56. ^ Volkogonov, Dmitri (1998). Autopsy for an Empire: The Seven Leaders Who Built the Soviet Regime. p.  139. ISBN  0684834200. Between 1929 and 1953 the state created by Lenin and set in motion by Stalin deprived 21.5 million Soviet citizens of their lives.
  57. ^ Yakovlev, Alexander N.; Austin, Anthony; Hollander, Paul (2004). A Century of Violence in Soviet Russia. Yale University Press. p. 234. ISBN  978-0300103229. My own many years and experience in the rehabilitation of victims of political terror allow me to assert that the number of people in the USSR who were killed for political motives or who died in prisons and camps during the entire period of Soviet power totaled 20 to 25 million. And unquestionably one must add those who died of famine – more than 5.5 million during the civil war and more than 5 million during the 1930s.
  58. ^ Gellately (2007) p. 584: "More recent estimations of the Soviet-on-Soviet killing have been more 'modest' and range between ten and twenty million." and Stéphane Courtois. The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror Repression. Harvard University Press, 1999. p. 4: "U.S.S.R.: 20 million deaths."
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