Demographics of Madagascar Information

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Demographics of Madagascar
Madagascar single age population pyramid 2020.png
Population pyramid of Madagascar in 2020
Population28,172,462 (2022 est.)
Growth rate2.27% (2022 est.)
Birth rate28.68 births/1,000 population (2022 est.)
Death rate6 deaths/1,000 population (2022 est.)
Net migration rate0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2022 est.)
Age structure
0–14 years38.86%
65 and over3.47%
Nationality
NationalityMalagasy
Language
OfficialMalagasy, French

This article is about the demographic features of the population of Madagascar, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.

Madagascar's population is predominantly of mixed Austronesian and East African origin.

Population

Demographics of Madagascar, Data of Our World in Data, year 2022; number of inhabitants in millions.
Population density of Madagascar as of 2004

The problem with population estimation in Madagascar is that data is very old and limited. The last population census was carried out in 1993, after an initial 1975 census. There was an attempt at a census in 2009, but this attempt ultimately failed due to political instability. Therefore, the demographic situation is inferred but reliability of any estimates from any source has a large margin of error. According to the 2022 revision of the World Population Prospects [1] [2] the total population was 28,915,653 in 2021, compared to only 4,084,000 in 1950. The proportion of children below the age of 15 in 2010 was 43.1%, 53.8% was between 15 and 65 years of age, while 3.1% was 65 years or older . [3]

Total population Population aged 0–14 (%) Population aged 15–64 (%) Population aged 65+ (%)
1950 4 084 000 38.2 58.6 3.2
1955 4 548 000 40.2 56.6 3.2
1960 5 104 000 42.6 54.1 3.3
1965 5 764 000 44.6 52.0 3.4
1970 6 549 000 45.1 51.3 3.6
1975 7 502 000 45.6 50.6 3.8
1980 8 609 000 45.9 50.5 3.6
1985 9 785 000 45.1 51.6 3.3
1990 11 281 000 44.7 52.1 3.2
1995 13 129 000 44.5 52.4 3.1
2000 15 364 000 45.3 51.6 3.1
2005 17 886 000 44.6 52.3 3.1
2010 20 714 000 43.1 53.8 3.1

Population Estimates by Sex and Age Group (01.VII.2019): [4]

Age Group Male Female Total %
Total 12 668 593 12 919 924 25 588 517 100
0–4 2 140 990 2 208 330 4 349 320 17.00
5–9 2 046 090 2 055 178 4 101 267 16.03
10–14 1 787 232 1 715 544 3 502 776 13.69
15–19 1 395 251 1 354 185 2 749 436 10.74
20–24 894 670 1 035 834 1 930 504 7.54
25–29 791 824 871 146 1 662 969 6.50
30–34 723 266 769 648 1 492 914 5.83
35–39 657 405 701 492 1 358 897 5.31
40–44 529 353 577 400 1 106 753 4.33
45–49 499 305 520 776 1 020 081 3.99
50–54 446 371 379 375 825 746 3.23
55–59 292 937 246 664 539 601 2.11
60–64 163 388 178 418 341 806 1.34
65-69 111 931 108 062 219 993 0.86
70-74 91 962 89 849 181 811 0.71
75-79 53 430 56 044 109 474 0.43
80-84 29 565 33 412 62 977 0.25
85+ 13 625 18 568 32 193 0.13
Age group Male Female Total Percent
0–14 5 974 312 5 979 052 11 953 364 46.71
15–64 6 393 768 6 634 937 13 028 705 50.92
65+ 300 513 305 935 606 448 2.37

UN population projections

UN medium variant projections: [3]

Year Projected population (thousands)
2015 23,852
2020 27,365
2025 31,217
2030 35,333
2035 39,643
2040 44,132
2045 48,782
2050 53,561
2060 65,280

Vital statistics

Registration of vital events in Madagascar is not complete. The Population Department of the United Nations prepared the following estimates.

Period Live births per year Deaths per year Natural change per year CBR [i] CDR [i] NC [i] TFR [i] IMR [i]
1950 192,000 96,000 96,000 48.6 24.4 24.2 7.30 140.1
1951 196,000 99,000 98,000 48.5 24.3 24.1 7.30 138.8
1952 201,000 100,000 101,000 48.4 24.2 24.3 7.30 137.4
1953 206,000 102,000 104,000 48.4 23.9 24.5 7.30 135.5
1954 211,000 103,000 108,000 48.4 23.7 24.7 7.30 133.4
1955 216,000 104,000 111,000 48.3 23.3 24.9 7.30 131.2
1956 221,000 106,000 115,000 48.2 23.1 25.1 7.30 130.0
1957 226,000 107,000 119,000 48.1 22.7 25.4 7.30 128.4
1958 231,000 108,000 123,000 47.9 22.3 25.6 7.30 126.7
1959 236,000 109,000 127,000 47.6 22.0 25.7 7.30 124.9
1960 240,000 109,000 131,000 47.3 21.5 25.8 7.30 122.9
1961   245,000   110,000   135,000 47.0 21.1 25.9 7.30 121.4
1962   250,000   111,000   139,000 46.7 20.7 26.0 7.30 119.5
1963   255,000   112,000   143,000 46.5 20.4 26.1 7.31 117.9
1964   261,000   112,000   148,000 46.3 20.0 26.4 7.31 116.4
1965   267,000   114,000   153,000 46.1 19.7 26.5 7.31 114.9
1966   275,000   115,000   160,000 46.4 19.4 27.0 7.31 113.8
1967   284,000   116,000   168,000 46.6 19.0 27.6 7.30 112.0
1968   294,000   117,000   177,000 46.9 18.6 28.2 7.30 109.8
1969   305,000   118,000   187,000 47.2 18.3 28.9 7.29 107.3
1970   317,000   119,000   197,000 47.6 18.0 29.7 7.27 105.8
1971   331,000   121,000   210,000 48.4 17.7 30.7 7.25 103.9
1972   341,000   123,000   218,000 48.3 17.4 30.9 7.22 101.6
1973   349,000   124,000   225,000 47.9 17.0 30.9 7.19 99.8
1974   356,000   125,000   231,000 47.5 16.7 30.8 7.15 98.8
1975   364,000   127,000   237,000 47.2 16.5 30.7 7.10 98.4
1976   373,000   131,000   243,000 46.9 16.4 30.5 7.04 99.7
1977   383,000   134,000   249,000 46.7 16.3 30.3 6.98 100.9
1978   392,000   137,000   255,000 46.4 16.3 30.1 6.90 102.0
1979   400,000   141,000   259,000 46.0 16.2 29.8 6.81 103.1
1980   406,000   145,000   262,000 45.4 16.2 29.2 6.73 104.2
1981   412,000   149,000   263,000 44.8 16.2 28.6 6.64 105.4
1982   422,000   153,000   269,000 44.5 16.2 28.4 6.55 106.5
1983   431,000   157,000   273,000 44.2 16.1 28.1 6.48 107.3
1984   442,000   161,000   280,000 44.1 16.1 28.0 6.41 107.4
1985   453,000   164,000   289,000 44.0 16.0 28.1 6.35 106.9
1986   463,000   167,000   296,000 43.8 15.8 28.0 6.31 105.7
1987   481,000   169,000   312,000 44.1 15.5 28.6 6.29 103.8
1988   495,000   171,000   325,000 44.2 15.2 29.0 6.21 101.4
1989   510,000   171,000   339,000 44.2 14.9 29.4 6.18 98.5
1990   529,000   172,000   357,000 44.5 14.5 30.0 6.16 95.5
1991   544,000   172,000   372,000 44.4 14.0 30.4 6.12 92.7
1992   560,000   172,000   388,000 44.3 13.6 30.7 6.08 90.0
1993   577,000   170,000   407,000 44.3 13.1 31.3 6.04 87.1
1994   595,000   171,000   424,000 44.3 12.7 31.6 5.99 84.5
1995   613,000   172,000   441,000 44.2 12.4 31.8 5.95 81.8
1996   627,000   172,000   455,000 43.8 12.0 31.7 5.89 79.0
1997   638.000   171.000   467.000 43.2 11.6 31.6 5.80 76.1
1998   645.000   169.000   476.000 42.3 11.1 31.2 5.68 73.1
1999   653,000   169,000   483,000 41.5 10.8 30.7 5.55 70.3
2000   655,000   168,000   487,000 40.4 10.4 30.0 5.40 67.8
2001   665,000   167,000   498,000 39.8 10.0 29.8 5.32 64.9
2002   673,000   168,000   505,000 39.1 9.7 29.3 5.23 62.6
2003   685,000   167,000   519,000 38.7 9.4 29.3 5.17 60.2
2004   699,000   165,000   533,000 38.3 9.1 29.2 5.13 58.0
2005   715,000   166,000   549,000 38.0 8.8 29.2 5.10 55.8
2006   731,000   164,000   567,000 37.8 8.5 29.3 5.06 53.9
2007   746,000   165,000   582,000 37.4 8.3 29.2 5.00 52.0
2008   760,000   165,000   595,000 37.1 8.1 29.0 4.93 50.2
2009   776,000   165,000   611,000 36.7 7.8 28.9 4.87 48.6
2010   783,000   168,000   616,000 36.0 7.7 28.3 4.76 47.1
2011   784,000   166,000   618,000 35.1 7.4 27.6 4.61 45.8
2012   787,000   170,000   618,000 34.3 7.4 26.9 4.47 44.6
2013   795,000   170,000   625,000 33.7 7.2 26.5 4.36 43.4
2014   801,000   171,000   630,000 33.1 7.1 26.0 4.25 42.3
2015   814,000   175,000   639,000 32.8 7.0 25.7 4.18 41.3
2016   836,000   174,000   662,000 32.8 6.8 25.9 4.16 40.3
2017   850,000   178,000   672,000 32.5 6.8 25.7 4.11 39.3
2018   862,000   181,000   681,000 32.1 6.7 25.4 4.04 38.2
2019   873,000   179,000   693,000 31.7 6.5 25.2 3.98 37.2
2020   885,000   192,000   693,000 31.3 6.8 24.5 3.92 36.3
2021   895,000   205,000   690,000 30.9 7.1 23.8 3.85 35.4
  1. ^ a b c d e CBR = crude birth rate (per 1000); CDR = crude death rate (per 1000); NC = natural change (per 1000); TFR = total fertility rate (number of children per woman); IMR = infant mortality rate per 1000 births

Source: UN DESA, World Population Prospects, 2022 [5]

Fertility and births

Many rural regions of Magagascar have high birthrates

Total Fertility Rate (TFR) and Crude Birth Rate (CBR): [6] [7]

Year CBR (Total) TFR (Total) CBR (Urban) TFR (Urban) CBR (Rural) TFR (Rural)
1992 43.3 6.13 (5.2) 34.2 3.84 (3.0) 45.1 6.69 (5.8)
1997 42.3 5.97 (5.2) 34.5 4.19 (3.8) 45.0 6.66 (5.8)
2003–04 35.3 5.2 (4.7) 28.7 3.7 (3.4) 37.2 5.7 (5.1)
2008–09 33.4 4.8 (4.2) 24.8 2.9 (2.5) 34.8 5.2 (4.5)
2011 34.9 5.2 23.7 3.0 36.0 5.4
2013 30.6 4.4 24.0 3.0 31.2 4.5
2016 30.9 4.1 23.8 2.7 31.7 4.3
2021 32.3 4.3 (3.8) 27.6 3.2 (2.8) 33.4 4.6 (4.1)

Fertility data as of 2008-2009 (DHS Program): [8]

Region Total fertility rate Percentage of women age 15–49 currently pregnant Mean number of children ever born to women age 40–49
Analamanga 3.4 5.7 4.3
Vakinankaratra 5.3 7.4 6.0
Itasy 5.5 6.7 6.9
Bongolava 3.8 6.9 5.4
Haute Matsiatra 6.4 7.5 6.8
Amoron'i Mania 6.1 5.3 6.7
Vatovavy Fitovinany 6.5 10.3 6.5
Ihorombe 5.9 10.6 5.5
Atsimo Atsinanana 6.3 11.4 6.0
Atsinanana 3.0 9.2 4.1
Analanjirofo 4.6 6.6 5.7
Alaotra Mangoro 5.0 9.1 5.5
Boeny 4.5 9.1 4.9
Sofia 4.4 10.7 5.9
Betsiboka 4.7 10.5 6.1
Melaky 4.7 12.2 5.5
Atsimo Andrefana 6.2 13.2 6.3
Androy 6.4 10.8 5.6
Anosy 5.5 8.6 5.7
Menabe 4.8 11.3 5.9
Diana 3.7 6.8 4.9
Sava 4.5 6.3 5.0

Life expectancy

Period Life expectancy in
Years
Period Life expectancy in
Years
1950–1955 36.3 1985–1990 49.9
1955–1960 38.8 1990–1995 52.7
1960–1965 41.2 1995–2000 56.7
1965–1970 43.5 2000–2005 60.0
1970–1975 46.0 2005–2010 62.2
1975–1980 48.1 2010–2015 64.5
1980–1985 49.7

Source: UN World Population Prospects [9]

Ethnicity

Distribution of Malagasy ethnicities

The island of Madagascar is predominantly populated by people broadly classified as belonging to the Malagasy ethno-linguistic group. This group is further subdivided a number of ethnic groups, often into the standard eighteen. In addition, communities of Indians in Madagascar and Arabs and Somalis have long been established on the island and have assimilated into local communities to varying degrees, in some places having long since become identified "Malagasy" ethnic groups, and in others maintaining distinct identities and cultural separation. More recent arrivals include Europeans and Chinese immigrants.

Madagascar was probably uninhabited prior to Austronesian settlement in the early centuries AD. Austronesian features are most predominant in the central highlands peoples and coastal peoples are phenotypically East African with various Malay, Arab, Somali, European and Indian admixtures. The largest coastal groups are the Betsimisaraka (1,500,000) and the Tsimihety and Sakalava (700,000 each). Malagasy society has long been polarized between the politically and economically advantaged highlanders of the central plateaux and the people along the coast. For example, in the 1970s there was widespread opposition among coastal ethnics against the policy of "Malagasization" which intended to phase out the use of the French language in public life in favour of a more prominent position for the Malagasy language, whose orthography is based on the Merina dialect. Identity politics were also at the core of the brief civil unrest during 2002.

Indians in Madagascar descend mostly from traders who arrived in the newly independent nation looking for better opportunities. The majority of them came from the west coast of India known as Karana (Muslim) and Banian (Hindu). The majority speak Hindi or Gujarati, although some other Indian dialects are also spoken. Nowadays the younger generations speak at least three languages, including French, Gujarati and Malagasy. A large number of the Indians in Madagascar have a high level of education, particularly the younger generation.[ citation needed]

A sizeable number of Europeans also reside in Madagascar, mostly of French descent.

Religion

Roman Catholic cathedral in Antsirabe.

Religion in Madagascar (2020) according to the Pew Research Center [10]

   Christian (85%)
   Folk religions (4.5%)
   Muslim (3%)
  Unaffiliated/Other (7.5%)

According to the 1993 national census, 41% of Madagascans practise Christianity and 52% practise traditional religion, [11] which tends to emphasize links between the living and the razana (ancestors). But according to the Pew Research Center in 2020, only 4.5% of Madagascans practise folk religions and 85% are Christian. According to the Association of Religion Data Archives, 58.1% of the population is Christian, 2.1% is Muslim, 39.2% practices traditional faiths, while 0.6% of the population is non-religious or adheres to other faiths as of 2020. [12]

Madagascar's traditional religions tend to emphasize links between the living and the dead. They believe that the dead join their ancestors in the ranks of divinity and that ancestors are intensely concerned with the fate of their living descendants. This spiritual communion is celebrated by the Merina and Betsileo reburial practice of famadihana, or "turning over the dead". In this ritual, relatives' remains are removed from the family tomb, rewrapped in new silk shrouds, and returned to the tomb following festive ceremonies in their honor. In the festivities, they eat, drink, and literally dance with the dead. After one or two days of celebrating, they shower the body with gifts and rebury it.

Malagasy Christians are mostly Protestant (mainly Reformed Protestant Church of Jesus Christ in Madagascar (FJKM), Lutheran, and Anglican) or Roman Catholic, but there are also smaller groups such as members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons), Jehovah's Witnesses, Seventh-day Adventists, [13] and Eastern Orthodox Christians. Many incorporate the cult of the dead with their other religious beliefs and bless their dead at church before proceeding with the traditional burial rites. They also may invite a pastor to attend a famadihana. A historical rivalry exists between the predominantly Catholic masses, considered to be underprivileged, and the predominantly Protestant Merina aristocrats, who tend to prevail in the civil service, business, and professions.

Followers of Islam constitute approximately 7% of the population, according to the US Department of State in 2011, [11] (down from their earlier estimate of 10 to 15% in 2009 [13]), or 3% according to the Pew Research Center in 2010. [14] They are mostly concentrated in the north, northwest, and southeast. [13] There are also a small number of Hindus. [13]

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints has more than 13,000 members in 42 congregations in Madagascar. [15]

A small community started practicing Judaism in 2012, and formally converted in 2016 with the assistance of Kulanu, a nonprofit organization focusing on remote Jewish communities. [16] [17]

Other demographic statistics

Demographic statistics according to the World Population Review in 2022. [18]

  • One birth every 35 seconds
  • One death every 3 minutes
  • One net migrant every 360 minutes
  • Net gain of one person every 42 seconds

The following demographic are from the CIA World Factbook [19] unless otherwise indicated.

Population

28,172,462 (2022 est.)
25,683,610 (July 2018 est.)

Age structure

Population pyramid of Madagascar in 2020
0-14 years: 38.86% (male 5,278,838/female 5,196,036)
15-24 years: 20.06% (male 2,717,399/female 2,689,874)
25-54 years: 33.02% (male 4,443,147/female 4,456,691
55-64 years: 4.6% (male 611,364/female 627,315)
65 years and over: 3.47% (male 425,122/female 509,951) (2020 est.)
0-14 years: 39.55% (male 5,119,804 /female 5,037,438)
15-24 years: 20.23% (male 2,608,996 /female 2,587,745)
25-54 years: 32.42% (male 4,160,278 /female 4,166,538)
55-64 years: 4.45% (male 560,072 /female 581,963)
65 years and over: 3.35% (male 390,094 /female 470,682) (2018 est.)

Median age

total: 20.3 years. Country comparison to the world: 193rd male: 20.1 years female: 20.5 years (2020 est.)

total: 19.9 years. Country comparison to the world: 195th
male: 19.7 years
female: 20.1 years (2018 est.)

Birth rate

28.68 births/1,000 population (2022 est.) Country comparison to the world: 33rd
31 births/1,000 population (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 33rd

Death rate

6 deaths/1,000 population (2022 est.) Country comparison to the world: 159th
6.4 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 147th

Total fertility rate

3.62 children born/woman (2022 est.) Country comparison to the world: 34
3.95 children born/woman (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 35th

Population growth rate

2.27% (2022 est.) Country comparison to the world: 34th
2.46% (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 24th

Mother's mean age at first birth

19.5 years (2008/09 est.)
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29

Contraceptive prevalence rate

44.4% (2018)
39.8% (2012/13)

Net migration rate

0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2022 est.) Country comparison to the world: 90th

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 80.1 (2015 est.)
youth dependency ratio: 75 (2015 est.)
elderly dependency ratio: 5.1 (2015 est.)
potential support ratio: 19.6 (2015 est.)

Urbanization

urban population: 39.9% of total population (2022)
rate of urbanization: 4.26% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)
urban population: 37.2% of total population (2018)
rate of urbanization: 4.48% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)

The largest city in Madagascar is Antananarivo. The next largest cities are Toamasina, Antsirabe, Fianarantsoa, Mahajanga, Toliara, Antsiranana and Ambovombe.

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 68.17 years. Country comparison to the world: 184th
male: 66.8 years
female: 69.57 years (2022 est.)
total population: 66.6 years (2018 est.)
male: 65.1 years (2018 est.)
female: 68.2 years (2018 est.)
total population:: 66.3 years (2017 est.)
male: 64.7 years
female: 67.8 years

Major infectious diseases

degree of risk: very high (2020)
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever
water contact diseases: schistosomiasis
animal contact diseases: rabies

note: on 21 March 2022, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) issued a Travel Alert for polio in Africa; Madagascar is currently considered a high risk to travelers for circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPV); vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV) is a strain of the weakened poliovirus that was initially included in oral polio vaccine (OPV) and that has changed over time and behaves more like the wild or naturally occurring virus; this means it can be spread more easily to people who are unvaccinated against polio and who come in contact with the stool or respiratory secretions, such as from a sneeze, of an “infected” person who received oral polio vaccine; the CDC recommends that before any international travel, anyone unvaccinated, incompletely vaccinated, or with an unknown polio vaccination status should complete the routine polio vaccine series; before travel to any high-risk destination, CDC recommends that adults who previously completed the full, routine polio vaccine series receive a single, lifetime booster dose of polio vaccine

Religions

Protestant (45.8%)

Roman Catholic (38.1%)

Other Christian (1.1%)

Muslim (3%)

Folk religions (4.5%)

Unaffiliated (6.9%)

Sex ratio


at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15–64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.89 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Nationality

noun: Malagasy (singular and plural)
adjective: Malagasy

Ethnic groups

Malayo-Indonesian ( Merina and related Betsileo), coastal ethnics (mixed African, Malayo- Indonesian, and Arab ancestry – Betsimisaraka, Tsimihety, Antaisaka, Sakalava), French, Indian, Creole, Comorian, Chinese

Languages

Malagasy (official, and national language), French (official).

Education expenditures

2.9% of GDP (2019) Country comparison to the world: 158th

Literacy

definition: age 15 and over can read and write (2018 est.)

total population: 76.7% (2018 est.)
male: 78.4% (2018 est.)
female: 75.1% (2018 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 10 years
male: 10 years
female: 10 years (2018)

References

  1. ^ "World Population Prospects 2022". population.un.org. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved July 17, 2022.
  2. ^ "World Population Prospects 2022: Demographic indicators by region, subregion and country, annually for 1950-2100" (XSLX). population.un.org ("Total Population, as of 1 July (thousands)"). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved July 17, 2022.
  3. ^ a b Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat, World Population Prospects: The 2010 Revision Archived May 6, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
  4. ^ "UNSD — Demographic and Social Statistics".
  5. ^ United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs Population Division (2022). "World Population Prospects 2022 Demographic indicators by region, subregion and country, annually for 1950-2100" (XLS (91MB)). United Nations Population Division. 27 (Online ed.). New York: United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. rows 2165:2236, cols X,AE,S,AH,S,AA,AV. Archived from the original on 2022-08-09.
  6. ^ "MEASURE DHS: Demographic and Health Surveys". microdata.worldbank.org.
  7. ^ "The DHS Program - Country Madagascar". dhsprogram.com. Retrieved 2019-12-17.
  8. ^ "Madagascar Health and Demographic Survey 2008-2009" (PDF). Madagascar Health and Demographic Survey. 2009.
  9. ^ "World Population Prospects – Population Division – United Nations". Retrieved 2017-07-15.
  10. ^ "Religions in Madagascar | PEW-GRF".
  11. ^ a b Bureau of African Affairs (3 May 2011). "Background Note: Madagascar". U.S. Department of State. Retrieved 24 August 2011.
  12. ^ "National Profiles".
  13. ^ a b c d "Madagascar". US Department of State. 2009. Archived from the original on 2009-11-30.
  14. ^ "Religions in Madagascar | PEW-GRF". Globalreligiousfutures.org. Retrieved 20 September 2017.
  15. ^ "Madagascar", Facts and Statistics, Newsroom, LDS Church, retrieved 2013-03-10
  16. ^ "In Madagascar, 'world's newest Jewish community' seeks to establish itself". Jewish Telegraphic Agency. 2016-11-25. Retrieved 2019-04-29.
  17. ^ "In remote Madagascar, a new community chooses to be Jewish". Jewish Telegraphic Agency. 2016-06-05. Retrieved 2019-04-29.
  18. ^ "Madagascar Population 2022", World Population Review
  19. ^ "The World FactBook - Liberia", The World Factbook, 2022Public Domain This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.

See also

  • Matthew E. Hules, et al. (2005). The Dual Origin of the Malagasy in Island Southeast Asia and East Africa: Evidence from Maternal and Paternal Lineages. American Journal of Human Genetics, 76:894-901, 2005.