Elementary arithmetic Information
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In arithmetic, the elementary operations are addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. Elementary arithmetic also includes operations on fractions and negative numbers, which can be represented on a number line.
The digits
Digits are the entire set of symbols used to represent numbers. In a particular numeral system, a single digit represents a different amount than any other digit, although the symbols in the same numeral system might vary between cultures.
In modern usage, the
Arabic numerals are the most common set of symbols, and the most frequently used form of these digits is the Western style. Each single digit, if used as a standalone number, matches the following amounts:
0,
zero. Used in the absence of objects to be counted. For example, a different way of saying "there are no sticks here", is to say, "there are zero sticks here".
1,
one. Applied to a single item. For example, here is one stick: I
2,
two. Applied to a pair of items. Here are two sticks: I I
3,
three. Applied to three items. Here are three sticks: I I I
4,
four. Applied to four items. Here are four sticks: I I I I
5,
five. Applied to five items. Here are five sticks: I I I I I
6,
six. Applied to six items. Here are six sticks: I I I I I I
7,
seven. Applied to seven items. Here are seven sticks: I I I I I I I
8,
eight. Applied to eight items. Here are eight sticks: I I I I I I I I
9,
nine. Applied to nine items. Here are nine sticks: I I I I I I I I I
Any numeral system defines the value of all numbers that contain more than one digit, most often by addition of the value for adjacent digits. The Hindu–Arabic numeral system includes positional notation to determine the value for any numeral. In this type of system, the increase in value for an additional digit includes one or more multiplications with the radix value and the result is added to the value of an adjacent digit. With Arabic numerals, the radix value of ten produces a value of twentyone (equal to 2×10 + 1) for the numeral "21". An additional multiplication with the radix value occurs for each additional digit, so the numeral "201" represents a value of twohundredandone (equal to 2×100 + 0×10 + 1).
The elementary level of study typically includes understanding the value of individual whole numbers using Arabic numerals with a maximum of seven digits, and performing the four elementary operations using Arabic numerals with a maximum of four digits each.
Addition
+  0  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9 

0  0  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9 
1  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10 
2  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11 
3  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12 
4  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12  13 
5  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12  13  14 
6  6  7  8  9  10  11  12  13  14  15 
7  7  8  9  10  11  12  13  14  15  16 
8  8  9  10  11  12  13  14  15  16  17 
9  9  10  11  12  13  14  15  16  17  18 
When two numbers are added together, the result is called a sum. The two numbers being added together are called addends.
Adding two natural numbers
Suppose you have two bags, one bag holding five apples and a second bag holding three apples. Grabbing a third, empty bag, move all the apples from the first and second bags into the third bag. The third bag now holds eight apples. This illustrates that the combination of three apples and five apples is eight apples, or more generally: "three plus five is eight" or "three plus five equals eight" or "eight is the sum of three and five". Numbers are abstract, and the addition of a group of three things to a group of five things will yield a group of eight things. Addition is a regrouping: two sets of objects that were counted separately are put into a single group and counted together: the count of the new group is the "sum" of the separate counts of the two original groups.
This operation of combining is only one of several possible meanings that the mathematical operation of addition can have. Other meanings for addition include:
 comparing ("Tom has 5 apples. Jane has 3 more apples than Tom. How many apples does Jane have?")
 joining ("Tom has 5 apples. Jane gives him 3 more apples. How many apples does Tom have now?")
 measuring ("Tom's desk is 3 feet (0.91 meters) wide. Jane's is also 3 feet (0.91 meters) wide. How wide will the desks be when put together?")
 separating ("Tom had some apples. He gave 3 to Jane. Now he has 5. How many did he start with?").
Symbolically, addition is represented by the " plus sign": +. So the statement "three plus five equals eight" can be written symbolically as 3 + 5 = 8. The order in which two numbers are added does not matter, so 3 + 5 = 5 + 3 = 8. This is the commutative property of addition.
To add a pair of digits using the table, find the intersection of the row of the first digit with the column of the second digit: the row and the column intersect at a square containing the sum of the two digits. Some pairs of digits add up to twodigit numbers, with the tensdigit always being a 1. In the addition algorithm, the tensdigit of the sum of a pair of digits is called the " carry digit".
Addition algorithm
For simplicity, consider only numbers with three digits or less. To add a pair of numbers (written in Arabic numerals), write the second number under the first one so that the digits line up in columns: the rightmost column will contain the onesdigit of the second number under the onesdigit of the first number. This rightmost column is the onescolumn. The column immediately to its left is the tenscolumn. The tenscolumn will have the tensdigit of the second number (if it has one) under the tensdigit of the first number (if it has one). The column immediately to the left of the tenscolumn is the hundredscolumn. The hundredscolumn will line up the hundredsdigit of the second number (if there is one) under the hundredsdigit of the first number (if there is one).
After the second number has been written down under the first one so that digits line up in their correct columns, draw a line under the second (bottom) number. Start with the onescolumn: the onescolumn should contain a pair of digits: the onesdigit of the first number and, under it, the onesdigit of the second number. Find the sum of these two digits: write this sum under the line and in the onescolumn. If the sum has two digits, then write down only the onesdigit of the sum. Write the "carry digit" above the top digit of the next column: in this case, the next column is the tenscolumn, so write a 1 above the tensdigit of the first number.
If both the first and second numbers each have only one digit each then their sum is given in the addition table, and the addition algorithm is unnecessary.
Then comes the tenscolumn. The tenscolumn might contain two digits: the tensdigit of the first number and the tensdigit of the second number. If one of the numbers has a missing tensdigit then the tensdigit for this number can be considered to be a 0. Add the tensdigits of the two numbers. Then, if there is a carry digit, add it to this sum. If the sum was 18 then adding the carry digit to it will yield 19. If the sum of the tensdigits (plus carry digit, if there is one) is less than ten then write it in the tenscolumn under the line. If the sum has two digits, then write its last digit in the tenscolumn under the line, and carry its first digit (which should be a 1) over to the next column: in this case, the hundredscolumn.
If none of the two numbers has a hundredsdigit then if there is no carry digit then the addition algorithm has finished. If there is a carry digit (carried over from the tenscolumn) then write it in the hundredscolumn under the line, and the algorithm is finished. When the algorithm finishes, the number under the line is the sum of the two numbers.
If at least one of the numbers has a hundredsdigit then if one of the numbers has a missing hundredsdigit then write a 0 digit in its place. Add the two hundredsdigits, and to their sum add the carry digit if there is one. Then write the sum of the hundredscolumn under the line, also in the hundreds column. If the sum has two digits, then write down the last digit of the sum in the hundredscolumn and write the carry digit to its left: on the thousandscolumn.
Example
To find the sum of the numbers 653 and 274, write the second number under the first one, with the digits aligned in columns, as follows:
6  5  3 
2  7  4 
Next, draw a line under the second number and put a plus sign. The addition starts with the onescolumn. The onesdigit of the first number is 3 and of the second number is 4. The sum of three and four is seven, so write a 7 in the onescolumn under the line:
6  5  3  
+  2  7  4 
7 
Next, the tenscolumn. The tensdigit of the first number is 5, and the tensdigit of the second number is 7. 5 plus 7 is 12, which has two digits, so write its last digit, 2, in the tenscolumn under the line, and write the carry digit on the hundredscolumn above the first number:
1  
6  5  3  
+  2  7  4 
2  7 
Next, the hundredscolumn. The hundredsdigit of the first number is 6, while the hundredsdigit of the second number is 2. The sum of six and two is eight, but there is a carry digit, which added to eight is equal to nine. Write the 9 under the line in the hundredscolumn:
1  
6  5  3  
+  2  7  4 
9  2  7 
No digits (and no columns) have been left unadded, so the algorithm finishes, yielding the following equation as a result:
 653 + 274 = 927
Successorship and size
The result from adding a one to any whole number (i.e. the set of all natural numbers and zero) is the successor of that number, and the result from the subtraction of one from any whole number (excluding zero) is the predecessor of that number. For example, the successor of zero is one and the predecessor of eleven is ten. Every natural number has a successor, and all except zero has a predecessor.
The predecessor of the successor of a number is the number itself. For example, five is the successor of four therefore four is the predecessor of five.
If a number is the successor of another number, then the first number is said to be greater than the other number. If a number is greater than another number, and if the other number is greater than a third number, then the first number is also greater than the third number. For example, five is greater than four, and four is greater than three, therefore five is greater than three. But six is greater than five, therefore six is also greater than three, and so on.
If two nonzero natural numbers are added together, then their sum is greater than either one of them. Example: three plus five equals eight, therefore eight is greater than three (8 > 3) and eight is greater than five (8 > 5). The symbol for "greater than" is >.
If a number is greater than another number, then the other is less than (<) the first one. Examples: three is less than eight (3 < 8) and five is less than eight (5 < 8). Given a pair of natural numbers, one and only one of the following cases must be true:
 the first number is greater than the second one,
 the first number is equal to the second one,
 the first number is less than the second one.
Counting
To count a group of objects means to assign a natural number to each one of the objects, as if it were a label for that object, such that a natural number is never assigned to an object unless its predecessor was already assigned to another object, with the exception that zero is not assigned to any object: the smallest natural number to be assigned is one, and the largest natural number assigned depends on the size of the group. It is called the count and it is equal to the number of objects in that group. Counting can also be seen as the process of tallying using tally marks.
The process of counting a group is the following:
 Let "the count" be equal to zero. "The count" is a variable quantity, which though beginning with a value of zero, will soon have its value changed several times.
 Find at least one object in the group which has not been labelled with a natural number. If no such object can be found (if they have all been labeled), then the counting is finished. Otherwise, choose one of the unlabeled objects.
 Increase the count by one. That is, replace the value of the count by its successor.
 Assign the new value of the count, as a label, to the unlabeled object chosen in Step 2.
 Go back to Step 2.
When the counting is finished, the last value of the count will be the final count. This count is equal to the number of objects in the group.
Often, when counting objects, one does not keep track of what numerical label corresponds to which object: one only keeps track of the subgroup of objects which have already been labelled, so as to be able to identify unlabeled objects necessary for Step 2. However, if one is counting persons, then one can ask the persons who are being counted to each keep track of the number which the person's self has been assigned. After the count has finished it is possible to ask the group of persons to file up in a line, in order of increasing numerical label. What the persons would do during the process of lining up would be something like this: each pair of persons who are unsure of their positions in the line ask each other what their numbers are: the person whose number is smaller should stand on the left side and the one with the larger number on the right side of the other person. Thus, pairs of persons compare their numbers and their positions, and commute their positions as necessary, and through repetition of such conditional commutations they become ordered.
In higher mathematics, the process of counting can be also likened to the construction of a onetoone correspondence (a.k.a. bijection) between the elements of a set and the set {1, ..., n} (where n is a natural number). Once such a correspondence is established, the first set is then said to be of size n.
Subtraction
Subtraction is the mathematical operation which describes a reduced quantity. The result of this operation is the difference between two numbers, the minuend and the subtrahend. As with addition, subtraction can have a number of interpretations, such as:
 separating ("Tom has 8 apples. He gives away 3 apples. How many does he have left?")
 comparing ("Tom has 8 apples. Jane has 3 fewer apples than Tom. How many does Jane have?")
 combining ("Tom has 8 apples. Three of the apples are green and the rest are red. How many are red?")
 and sometimes joining ("Tom had some apples. Jane gave him 3 more apples, so now he has 8 apples. How many did he start with?").
As with addition, there are other possible interpretations, such as motion.
Symbolically, the minus sign ("−") represents the subtraction operation. So the statement "five minus three equals two" is also written as 5 − 3 = 2. In elementary arithmetic, subtraction uses smaller positive numbers for all values to produce simpler solutions.
Unlike addition, subtraction is not commutative, so the order of numbers in the operation might change the result. Therefore, each number is provided with a different distinguishing name. The first number (5 in the previous example) is formally defined as the minuend and the second number (3 in the previous example) as the subtrahend. The value of the minuend is larger than the value of the subtrahend so that the result is a positive number, but a smaller value of the minuend will result in negative numbers.
There are several methods to accomplish subtraction. The method which in the United States is referred to as traditional mathematics teaches elementary school students to subtract using methods suitable for hand calculation.^{ [1]} The particular method used varies from country to country, and within a country, different methods are in fashion at different times. Reform mathematics is distinguished generally by the lack of preference for any specific technique, replaced by guiding 2ndgrade students to invent their own methods of computation, such as using properties of negative numbers in the case of TERC.
American schools currently teach a method of subtraction using borrowing and a system of markings called crutches. Although a method of borrowing had been known and published in textbooks prior, apparently the crutches are the invention of William A. Browell, who used them in a study in November 1937 [1]. This system caught on rapidly, displacing the other methods of subtraction in use in America at that time.
Students in some European countries are taught, and some older Americans employ, a method of subtraction called the Austrian method, also known as the additions method. There is no borrowing in this method. There are also crutches (markings to aid the memory) which vary according to country^{[ citation needed]}.
In the method of borrowing, a subtraction such as 86 − 39 will accomplish the onesplace subtraction of 9 from 6 by borrowing a 10 from 80 and adding it to the 6. The problem is thus transformed into (70 + 16) − 39, effectively. This is indicated by striking through the 8, writing a small 7 above it, and writing a small 1 above the 6. These markings are called crutches. The 9 is then subtracted from 16, leaving 7, and the 30 from the 70, leaving 40, or 47 as the result.
In the additions method, a 10 is borrowed to make the 6 into 16, in preparation for the subtraction of 9, just as in the borrowing method. However, the 10 is not taken by reducing the minuend, rather one augments the subtrahend. Effectively, the problem is transformed into (80 + 16) − (39 + 10). Typically a crutch of a small one is marked just below the subtrahend digit as a reminder. Then the operations proceed: 9 from 16 is 7; and 40 (that is, 30 + 10) from 80 is 40, or 47 as the result.
The additions method seem to be taught in two variations, which differ only in psychology. Continuing the example of 86 − 39, the first variation attempts to subtract 9 from 6, and then 9 from 16, borrowing a 10 by marking near the digit of the subtrahend in the next column. The second variation attempts to find a digit which, when added to 9, gives 6, and recognizing that is not possible, gives 16, and carrying the 10 of the 16 as a one marking near the same digit as in the first method. The markings are the same; it is just a matter of preference as to how one explains its appearance.
As a final caution, the borrowing method can become complicated in cases such as 100 − 87, where a borrow cannot be made immediately, and must be obtained by reaching across several columns. In this case, the minuend is effectively rewritten as 90 + 10, by taking a 100 from the hundreds, making ten 10s from it, and immediately borrowing that down to nine 10s in the tens column and finally placing a 10 in the ones column.
Multiplication
×  0  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9 

0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0 
1  0  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9 
2  0  2  4  6  8  10  12  14  16  18 
3  0  3  6  9  12  15  18  21  24  27 
4  0  4  8  12  16  20  24  28  32  36 
5  0  5  10  15  20  25  30  35  40  45 
6  0  6  12  18  24  30  36  42  48  54 
7  0  7  14  21  28  35  42  49  56  63 
8  0  8  16  24  32  40  48  56  64  72 
9  0  9  18  27  36  45  54  63  72  81 
When two numbers are multiplied together, the result is called a product. The two numbers being multiplied together are called factors, with multiplicand and multiplier also used.
What does it mean to multiply two natural numbers?
Suppose there are five red bags, each one containing three apples. Now grabbing an empty green bag, move all the apples from all five red bags into the green bag. Now the green bag will have fifteen apples.
Thus the product of five and three is fifteen.
This can also be stated as "five times three is fifteen" or "five times three equals fifteen" or "fifteen is the product of five and three". Multiplication can be seen to be a form of
repeated addition: the first factor indicates how many times the second factor occurs in repeated addition; the final sum being the product.
Symbolically, multiplication is represented by the multiplication sign: ×. So the statement "five times three equals fifteen" can be written symbolically as
In some countries, and in more advanced arithmetic, other multiplication signs are used, e.g. 5 ⋅ 3. In some situations, especially in algebra, where numbers can be symbolized with letters, the multiplication symbol may be omitted; e.g. xy means x × y. The order in which two numbers are multiplied does not matter, so that, for example, three times four equals four times three. This is the commutative property of multiplication.
To multiply a pair of digits using the table, find the intersection of the row of the first digit with the column of the second digit: the row and the column intersect at a square containing the product of the two digits. Most pairs of digits produce twodigit numbers. In the multiplication algorithm the tensdigit of the product of a pair of digits is called the " carry digit".
Multiplication algorithm for a singledigit factor
Consider a multiplication where one of the factors has multiple digits, whereas the other factor has only one digit. Write down the multidigit factor, then write the singledigit factor under the rightmost digit of the multidigit factor. Draw a horizontal line under the singledigit factor. Henceforth, the multidigit factor will be called the multiplicand, and the singledigit factor will be called the multiplier.
Suppose that the multiplicand has three digits. The leftmost digit is the hundredsdigit, the middle digit is the tensdigit, and the rightmost digit is the onesdigit. The multiplier only has a onesdigit. The onesdigits of the multiplicand and multiplier form a column: the onescolumn.
Example
To find the product of the numbers 3 and 729, write the singledigit multiplier under the multidigit multiplicand, with the multiplier under the onesdigit of the multiplicand, as follows:
7  2  9 
3 
Then, draw a line under the multiplier and put a multiplication symbol. Multiplication starts with the onescolumn. The onesdigit of the multiplicand is 9 and the multiplier is 3. The product of 3 and 9 is 27, so write a 7 in the onescolumn under the line, and write the carrydigit 2 as a superscript of the yetunwritten tensdigit of the product under the line:
7  2  9  
×  3  
^{2}  7 
Next, the tenscolumn. The tensdigit of the multiplicand is 2, the multiplier is 3, and three times two is six. Add the carrydigit, 2, to the product, 6, to obtain 8. Eight has only one digit: no carrydigit, so write in the tenscolumn under the line. You can erase the two now.
7  2  9  
×  3  
8  7 
Next, the hundredscolumn. The hundredsdigit of the multiplicand is 7, while the multiplier is 3. The product of 3 and 7 is 21, and there is no previous carrydigit (carried over from the tenscolumn). The product 21 has two digits: write its last digit in the hundredscolumn under the line, then carry its first digit over to the thousandscolumn. Since the multiplicand has no thousandsdigit, then write this carrydigit in the thousandscolumn under the line (not super scripted):
7  2  9  
×  3  
2  1  8  7 
No digits of the multiplicand have been left unmultiplied, so the algorithm finishes, yielding the following equation as a result:
Multiplication algorithm for multidigit factors
Given a pair of factors, each one having two or more digits, write both factors down, one under the other one, so that digits line up in columns.
Consider a pair of threedigits numbers. Write the last digit of the second number under the last digit of the first number, forming the onescolumn. Immediately to the left of the onescolumn will be the tenscolumn: the top of this column will have the second digit of the first number, and below it will be the second digit of the second number. Immediately to the left of the tenscolumn will be the hundredscolumn: the top of this column will have the first digit of the first number and below it will be the first digit of the second number. After having written down both factors, draw a line under the second factor.
Example
Let our objective be to find the product of 789 and 345. Write the 345 under the 789 in three columns, and draw a horizontal line under them:
7  8  9 
3  4  5 
First part. Start with the onescolumn. The multiplicand is 789 and the onesmultiplier is 5. Perform the multiplication in a row under the line:
7  8  9  
×  3  4  5 
3  9^{4}  4^{4}  5 
Then the tenscolumn. The multiplicand is 789 and the tensmultiplier is 4. Perform the multiplication in the tensrow, under the previous subproduct in the onesrow, but shifted one column to the left:
7  8  9  
×  3  4  5  
3  9^{4}  4^{4}  5  
3  1^{3}  5^{3}  6 
Next, the hundredscolumn. The multiplicand is once again 789, and the hundredsmultiplier is 3. Perform the multiplication in the hundredsrow, under the previous subproduct in the tensrow, but shifted one (more) column to the left. Then draw a horizontal line under the hundredsrow:
7  8  9  
×  3  4  5  
3  9^{4}  4^{4}  5  
3  1^{3}  5^{3}  6  
+  2  3^{2}  6^{2}  7 
Second part. Now add the subproducts between the first and second lines, but ignoring any superscripted carrydigits located between the first and second lines.
7  8  9  
×  3  4  5  
3  9^{4}  4^{4}  5  
3  1^{3}  5^{3}  6  
+  2  3^{2}  6^{2}  7  
2  7^{1}  2^{2}  2^{1}  0  5 
The answer is
 .
Division
In mathematics, especially in elementary arithmetic, division is an arithmetic operation which is the inverse of multiplication.
Specifically, given a number a and a nonzero number b, if another number c times b equals a, that is:
then a divided by b equals c. That is:
For instance,
since
 .
In the above expression, a is called the dividend, b the divisor and c the quotient. Division by zero — where the divisor is zero — is usually left undefined in elementary arithmetic.
Division notation
Division is most often shown by placing the dividend over the divisor with a horizontal line, also called a vinculum, between them. For example, a divided by b is written as:
This can be read out loud as "a divided by b" or "a over b". A way to express division all on one line is to write the dividend, then a slash, then the divisor, as follows:
This is the usual way to specify division in most computer programming languages since it can easily be typed as a simple sequence of characters.
A handwritten or typographical variation — which is halfway between these two forms — uses a solidus (fraction slash) but elevates the dividend and lowers the divisor, as follows:
 a⁄b
Any of these forms can be used to display a fraction. A common fraction is a division expression where both dividend and divisor are numbers (although typically called the numerator and denominator), and there is no implication that the division needs to be evaluated further.
A more basic way to show division is to use the obelus (or division sign) in this manner:
This form is infrequent except in basic arithmetic. The obelus is also used alone to represent the division operation itself, for instance, as a label on a key of a calculator.
In some non Englishspeaking cultures, "a divided by b" is written a : b. However, in English usage the colon is restricted to expressing the related concept of ratios (then "a is to b").
With a knowledge of multiplication tables, two numbers can be divided on paper using the method of long division. An abbreviated version of long division, short division, can be used for smaller divisors as well.
A less systematic method — but which leads to a more holistic understanding of division in general — involves the concept of chunking. By allowing one to subtract more multiples from the partial remainder at each stage, more freeform methods can be developed as well.
Alternatively, if the dividend has a fractional part (expressed as a decimal fraction), one can continue the algorithm past the ones' place as far as desired. If the divisor has a decimal fractional part, one can restate the problem by moving the decimal to the right in both numbers until the divisor has no fraction.
To divide by a fraction, one can simply multiply by the reciprocal (reversing the position of the top and bottom parts) of that fraction, For example:
Educational standards
Local standards usually define the educational methods and content included in the elementary level of instruction. In the United States and Canada, controversial subjects include the amount of calculator usage compared to manual computation and the broader debate between traditional mathematics and reform mathematics.^{ [2]}
In the United States, the 1989 NCTM standards led to curricula which deemphasized or omitted much of what was considered to be elementary arithmetic in elementary school, and replaced it with emphasis on topics traditionally studied in college such as algebra, statistics and problem solving, and nonstandard computation methods unfamiliar to most adults.
Tools
The abacus is an early mechanical device for performing elementary arithmetic, which is still used in many parts of Asia. Modern calculating tools that perform elementary arithmetic operations include cash registers, electronic calculators, and computers.
Generalizations
Elementary arithmetic usually deals with the real numbers; the set of numbers is given algebraic structure by the two operations (addition and multiplication) and their inverses (subtraction and division). In general, a set of objects together with notions of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division which behave in expected ways (obeying associativity and distributivity for example) is called a field (mathematics). In general, fields can look and behave quite differently from the real numbers, but the basic laws of arithmetic still hold. For example, modular integer arithmetic modulo a prime number is a field. Relaxing one or another of the rules of arithmetic allows the creation of numerous other algebraic objects such as division rings and integral domains.
See also
 0
 Binary arithmetic
 Early numeracy
 Equals sign
 Elementary mathematics
 Number line
 Long division
 Short division
 Chunking (division)
 Plus and minus signs
 Subtraction
 Subtraction without borrowing
 Unary numeral system
References
 ^ "U.S. Traditional Subtraction (Standard)" (PDF). Everyday Mathematics Online. Retrieved June 25, 2019.
 ^ Star, Jon R.; Smith, John P.; Jansen, Amanda (2008). "What Students Notice as Different between Reform and Traditional Mathematics Programs". Journal for Research in Mathematics Education. 39 (1): 9–32. doi: 10.2307/30034886. ISSN 00218251. JSTOR 30034886.
External links
 "A Friendly Gift on the Science of Arithmetic" is an Arabic document from the 15th century that talks about basic arithmetic.