Tail club Information

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Ankylosaurus and its characteristic club.

In zoology, a club is a bony mass at the end of the tail of some dinosaurs and of some mammals, most notably the ankylosaurids and the glyptodonts, as well as meiolaniid turtles. It is thought that this was a form of defensive armour or weapon that was used to defend against predators, much in the same way as a thagomizer, possessed by stegosaurids, though at least in glyptodonts it is hypothesized it was used in fighting for mating rights.[ citation needed] Among dinosaurs, the club was present mainly in ankylosaurids, although sauropods like Shunosaurus also possessed a tail club. The tail club is most often depicted on Ankylosaurus, especially in encounters with larger predators such as Tyrannosaurus. Victoria Arbour has established that ankylosaurid tails could generate enough force to break bone during impacts. [1] In a separate study, Arbour suggested tail clubs as well as large armoured herbivores as a whole evolve when animals are too large to hide and too small to avoid predation by size alone. [2]

See also


  1. ^ Arbour, V. M. (2009). "Estimating impact forces of tail club strikes by ankylosaurid dinosaurs". PLOS ONE. 4 (8): e6738. Bibcode: 2009PLoSO...4.6738A. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0006738. PMC  2726940. PMID  19707581.
  2. ^ Arbour, Zanno, Victoria M. and Lindsey E. (January 17, 2018). "The evolution of tail weaponization in amniotes". Proceedings of the Royal Society B. 285 2017229920172299 (1871). doi: 10.1098/rspb.2017.2299. PMC  5805935. PMID  29343599.