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In Euclidean geometry, an angle is the figure formed by two rays, called the sides of the angle, sharing a common endpoint, called the vertex of the angle.^{ [1]} Angles formed by two rays are also known as plane angles as they lie in the plane that contains the rays. Angles are also formed by the intersection of two planes; these are called dihedral angles. Two intersecting curves may also define an angle, which is the angle of the rays lying tangent to the respective curves at their point of intersection.
The magnitude of an angle is called an angular measure or simply "angle". Angle of rotation is a measure conventionally defined as the ratio of a circular arc length to its radius, and may be a negative number. In the case of a geometric angle, the arc is centered at the vertex and delimited by the sides. In the case of a rotation, the arc is centered at the center of the rotation and delimited by any other point and its image by the rotation.
The word angle comes from the Latin word angulus, meaning "corner." Cognate words include the Greek ἀγκύλος (ankylοs) meaning "crooked, curved" and the English word " ankle." Both are connected with the Proto-Indo-European root *ank-, meaning "to bend" or "bow."^{ [2]}
Euclid defines a plane angle as the inclination to each other, in a plane, of two lines which meet each other, and do not lie straight with respect to each other. According to the Neoplatonic metaphysician Proclus, an angle must be either a quality, a quantity, or a relationship. The first concept, angle as quality, was used by Eudemus of Rhodes, who regarded an angle as a deviation from a straight line; the second, angle as quality, by Carpus of Antioch, who regarded it as the interval or space between the intersecting lines; Euclid adopted the third: angle as relationship.^{ [3]}
In mathematical expressions, it is common to use Greek letters (α, β, γ, θ, φ, . . . ) as variables denoting the size of some angle (to avoid confusion with its other meaning, the symbol π is typically not used for this purpose). Lower case Roman letters (a, b, c, . . . ) are also used. In contexts where this is not confusing, an angle may be denoted by the upper case Roman letter denoting its vertex. See the figures in this article for examples.
In geometric figures, angles may also be identified by the three points that define them. For example, the angle with vertex A formed by the rays AB and AC (that is, the half-lines from point A through points B and C) is denoted ∠BAC or . Where there is no risk of confusion, the angle may sometimes be referred to by a single vertex alone (in this case "angle A").
Potentially, an angle denoted as, say, ∠BAC might refer to any of four angles: the clockwise angle from B to C about A, the anticlockwise angle from B to C about A, the clockwise angle from C to B about A, or the anticlockwise angle from C to B about A, where the direction in which the angle is measured determines its sign (see § Signed angles). However, in many geometrical situations it is obvious from context that the positive angle less than or equal to 180 degrees is meant, and in these cases no ambiguity arises. Otherwise, to avoid ambiguity specific conventions may be adopted so that for instance ∠BAC always refers to the anticlockwise (positive) angle from B to C about A and ∠CAB the anticlockwise (positive) angle from C to B about A.
There is some common terminology for angles, whose measure is always non-negative (see § Signed angles):^{ [4]}^{ [5]}
The names, intervals, and measuring units are shown in the table below:
Name | zero angle | acute angle | right angle | obtuse angle | straight angle | reflex angle | perigon | |||
Unit | Interval | |||||||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|
turn | 0 turn | (0, 1/4) turn | 1/4 turn | (1/4, 1/2) turn | 1/2 turn | (1/2, 1) turn | 1 turn | |||
radian | 0 rad | (0, 1/2π) rad | 1/2π rad | (1/2π, π) rad | π rad | (π, 2π) rad | 2π rad | |||
degree | 0° | (0, 90)° | 90° | (90, 180)° | 180° | (180, 360)° | 360° | |||
gon | 0^{g} | (0, 100)^{g} | 100^{g} | (100, 200)^{g} | 200^{g} | (200, 400)^{g} | 400^{g} |
When two straight lines intersect at a point, four angles are formed. Pairwise these angles are named according to their location relative to each other.
A transversal is a line that intersects a pair of (often parallel) lines, and is associated with alternate interior angles, corresponding angles, interior angles, and exterior angles.^{ [9]}
Three special angle pairs involve the summation of angles:
The size of a geometric angle is usually characterized by the magnitude of the smallest rotation that maps one of the rays into the other. Angles that have the same size are said to be equal or congruent or equal in measure.
In some contexts, such as identifying a point on a circle or describing the orientation of an object in two dimensions relative to a reference orientation, angles that differ by an exact multiple of a full turn are effectively equivalent. In other contexts, such as identifying a point on a spiral curve or describing the cumulative rotation of an object in two dimensions relative to a reference orientation, angles that differ by a non-zero multiple of a full turn are not equivalent.
In order to measure an angle θ, a circular arc centered at the vertex of the angle is drawn, e.g. with a pair of compasses. The ratio of the length s of the arc by the radius r of the circle is the number of radians in the angle. Conventionally, in mathematics and in the SI, the radian is treated as being equal to the dimensionless value 1.
The angle expressed another angular unit may then be obtained by multiplying the angle by a suitable conversion constant of the form k/2π, where k is the measure of a complete turn expressed in the chosen unit (for example, k = 360° for degrees or 400 grad for gradians):
The value of θ thus defined is independent of the size of the circle: if the length of the radius is changed then the arc length changes in the same proportion, so the ratio s/r is unaltered.^{ [nb 1]}
The angle addition postulate states that if B is in the interior of angle AOC, then
The measure of the angle AOC is the sum of the measure of angle AOB and the measure of angle BOC.
Throughout history, angles have been measured in various units. These are known as angular units, with the most contemporary units being the degree ( ° ), the radian (rad), and the gradian (grad), though many others have been used throughout history.^{ [18]} Most units of angular measurement are defined such that one turn (i.e. the angle subtended by the circumference of a circle at its centre) is equal to n units, for some whole number n. Two exceptions are the radian (and its decimal submultiples) and the diameter part.
In the International System of Quantities, angle is defined as a dimensionless quantity, and in particular the radian unit is dimensionless. This convention impacts how angles are treated in dimensional analysis. For a discussion see Radian § Dimensional analysis.
The following table list some units used to represent angles.
name | number in one turn | in degrees | description |
---|---|---|---|
radian | 2π | ≈57°17′ | The radian is determined by the circumference of a circle that is equal in length to the radius of the circle (n = 2π = 6.283...). It is the angle subtended by an arc of a circle that has the same length as the circle's radius. The symbol for radian is rad. One turn is 2π radians, and one radian is 180°/π, or about 57.2958 degrees. Often, particularly in mathematical texts, one radian is assumed to equal one, resulting in the unit rad being omitted. The radian is used in virtually all mathematical work beyond simple practical geometry, due, for example, to the pleasing and "natural" properties that the trigonometric functions display when their arguments are in radians. The radian is the (derived) unit of angular measurement in the SI. |
degree | 360 | 1° | The degree, denoted by a small superscript circle (°), is 1/360 of a turn, so one turn is 360°. One advantage of this old sexagesimal subunit is that many angles common in simple geometry are measured as a whole number of degrees. Fractions of a degree may be written in normal decimal notation (e.g. 3.5° for three and a half degrees), but the "minute" and "second" sexagesimal subunits of the "degree–minute–second" system (discussed next) are also in use, especially for geographical coordinates and in astronomy and ballistics (n = 360) |
arcminute | 21,600 | 0°1′ | The minute of arc (or MOA, arcminute, or just minute) is 1/60 of a degree = 1/21,600 turn. It is denoted by a single prime ( ′ ). For example, 3° 30′ is equal to 3 × 60 + 30 = 210 minutes or 3 + 30/60 = 3.5 degrees. A mixed format with decimal fractions is also sometimes used, e.g. 3° 5.72′ = 3 + 5.72/60 degrees. A nautical mile was historically defined as an arcminute along a great circle of the Earth. (n = 21,600). |
arcsecond | 1,296,000 | 0°0′1″ | The second of arc (or arcsecond, or just second) is 1/60 of a minute of arc and 1/3600 of a degree (n = 1,296,000). It is denoted by a double prime ( ″ ). For example, 3° 7′ 30″ is equal to 3 + 7/60 + 30/3600 degrees, or 3.125 degrees. |
grad | 400 | 0°54′ | The grad, also called grade, gradian, or gon. It is a decimal subunit of the quadrant. A right angle is 100 grads. A kilometre was historically defined as a centi-grad of arc along a meridian of the Earth, so the kilometer is the decimal analog to the sexagesimal nautical mile (n = 400). The grad is used mostly in triangulation and continental surveying. |
turn | 1 | 360° | The turn is the angle subtended by the circumference of a circle at its centre. A turn is equal to 2π or tau radians. |
hour angle | 24 | 15° | The astronomical hour angle is 1/24 turn. As this system is amenable to measuring objects that cycle once per day (such as the relative position of stars), the sexagesimal subunits are called minute of time and second of time. These are distinct from, and 15 times larger than, minutes and seconds of arc. 1 hour = 15° = π/12 rad = 1/6 quad = 1/24 turn = 16+2/3 grad. |
(compass) point | 32 | 11.25° | The point or wind, used in navigation, is 1/32 of a turn. 1 point = 1/8 of a right angle = 11.25° = 12.5 grad. Each point is subdivided in four quarter-points so that 1 turn equals 128 quarter-points. |
milliradian | 2000π | ≈0.057° | The true milliradian is defined as a thousandth of a radian, which means that a rotation of one turn would equal exactly 2000π mrad (or approximately 6283.185 mrad). Almost all scope sights for firearms are calibrated to this definition. In addition there are three other related definitions used for artillery and navigation, often called a 'mil', which are approximately equal to a milliradian. Under these three other definitions one turn makes up for exactly 6000, 6300 or 6400 mils, which equals spanning the range from 0.05625 to 0.06 degrees (3.375 to 3.6 minutes). In comparison, the milliradian is approximately 0.05729578 degrees (3.43775 minutes). One " NATO mil" is defined as 1/6400 of a turn. Just like with the milliradian, each of the other definitions approximates the milliradian's useful property of subtensions, i.e. that the value of one milliradian approximately equals the angle subtended by a width of 1 meter as seen from 1 km away (2π/6400 = 0.0009817... ≈ 1/1000). |
binary degree | 256 | 1°33'45" | The binary degree, also known as the
binary radian or brad or binary angular measurement (BAM).^{
[19]} The binary degree is used in computing so that an angle can be efficiently represented in a single
byte (albeit to limited precision). Other measures of angle used in computing may be based on dividing one whole turn into 2^{n} equal parts for other values of n.
^{ [20]} It is 1/256 of a turn.^{ [19]} |
π radian | 2 | 180° | The multiples of π radians (MULπ) unit is implemented in the RPN scientific calculator WP 43S.^{ [21]}^{ [22]}^{ [23]} See also: IEEE 754 recommended operations |
quadrant | 4 | 90° | One quadrant is a 1/4 turn and also known as a right angle. The quadrant is the unit used in Euclid's Elements. In German, the symbol ^{∟} has been used to denote a quadrant. 1 quad = 90° = π/2 rad = 1/4 turn = 100 grad. |
sextant | 6 | 60° | The sextant was the unit used by the Babylonians,^{ [24]}^{ [25]} The degree, minute of arc and second of arc are sexagesimal subunits of the Babylonian unit. It is especially easy to construct with ruler and compasses. It is the angle of the equilateral triangle or is 1/6 turn. 1 Babylonian unit = 60° = π/3 rad ≈ 1.047197551 rad. |
hexacontade | 60 | 6° | The hexacontade is a unit used by Eratosthenes. It is equal to 6°, so that a whole turn was divided into 60 hexacontades. |
pechus | 144 to 180 | 2° to 2+1/2° | The pechus was a Babylonian unit equal to about 2° or 2+1/2°. |
diameter part | ≈376.991 | ≈0.95493° | The diameter part (occasionally used in Islamic mathematics) is 1/60 radian. One "diameter part" is approximately 0.95493°. There are about 376.991 diameter parts per turn. |
zam | 224 | ≈1.607° | In old Arabia a turn was subdivided in 32 Akhnam and each akhnam was subdivided in 7 zam, so that a turn is 224 zam. |
Although the definition of the measurement of an angle does not support the concept of a negative angle, it is frequently useful to impose a convention that allows positive and negative angular values to represent orientations and/or rotations in opposite directions relative to some reference.
In a two-dimensional Cartesian coordinate system, an angle is typically defined by its two sides, with its vertex at the origin. The initial side is on the positive x-axis, while the other side or terminal side is defined by the measure from the initial side in radians, degrees, or turns. With positive angles representing rotations toward the positive y-axis and negative angles representing rotations toward the negative y-axis. When Cartesian coordinates are represented by standard position, defined by the x-axis rightward and the y-axis upward, positive rotations are anticlockwise and negative rotations are clockwise.
In many contexts, an angle of −θ is effectively equivalent to an angle of "one full turn minus θ". For example, an orientation represented as −45° is effectively equivalent to an orientation represented as 360° − 45° or 315°. Although the final position is the same, a physical rotation (movement) of −45° is not the same as a rotation of 315° (for example, the rotation of a person holding a broom resting on a dusty floor would leave visually different traces of swept regions on the floor).
In three-dimensional geometry, "clockwise" and "anticlockwise" have no absolute meaning, so the direction of positive and negative angles must be defined in terms of an orientation, which is typically defined by a normal vector passing through the angle's vertex and perpendicular to the plane in which the rays of the angle lie.
In navigation, bearings or azimuth are measured relative to north. By convention, viewed from above, bearing angles are positive clockwise, so a bearing of 45° corresponds to a north-east orientation. Negative bearings are not used in navigation, so a north-west orientation corresponds to a bearing of 315°.
For an angular unit, it is definitional that the angle addition postulate holds. Some quantities related to angles where the angle addition postulate does not hold include:
The angle between a line and a curve (mixed angle) or between two intersecting curves (curvilinear angle) is defined to be the angle between the tangents at the point of intersection. Various names (now rarely, if ever, used) have been given to particular cases:—amphicyrtic (Gr. ἀμφί, on both sides, κυρτός, convex) or cissoidal (Gr. κισσός, ivy), biconvex; xystroidal or sistroidal (Gr. ξυστρίς, a tool for scraping), concavo-convex; amphicoelic (Gr. κοίλη, a hollow) or angulus lunularis, biconcave.^{ [28]}
The ancient Greek mathematicians knew how to bisect an angle (divide it into two angles of equal measure) using only a compass and straightedge, but could only trisect certain angles. In 1837, Pierre Wantzel showed that for most angles this construction cannot be performed.
In the Euclidean space, the angle θ between two Euclidean vectors u and v is related to their dot product and their lengths by the formula
This formula supplies an easy method to find the angle between two planes (or curved surfaces) from their normal vectors and between skew lines from their vector equations.
To define angles in an abstract real inner product space, we replace the Euclidean dot product ( · ) by the inner product , i.e.
In a complex inner product space, the expression for the cosine above may give non-real values, so it is replaced with
or, more commonly, using the absolute value, with
The latter definition ignores the direction of the vectors and thus describes the angle between one-dimensional subspaces and spanned by the vectors and correspondingly.
The definition of the angle between one-dimensional subspaces and given by
in a Hilbert space can be extended to subspaces of any finite dimensions. Given two subspaces , with , this leads to a definition of angles called canonical or principal angles between subspaces.
In Riemannian geometry, the metric tensor is used to define the angle between two tangents. Where U and V are tangent vectors and g_{ij} are the components of the metric tensor G,
A hyperbolic angle is an argument of a hyperbolic function just as the circular angle is the argument of a circular function. The comparison can be visualized as the size of the openings of a hyperbolic sector and a circular sector since the areas of these sectors correspond to the angle magnitudes in each case. Unlike the circular angle, the hyperbolic angle is unbounded. When the circular and hyperbolic functions are viewed as infinite series in their angle argument, the circular ones are just alternating series forms of the hyperbolic functions. This weaving of the two types of angle and function was explained by Leonhard Euler in Introduction to the Analysis of the Infinite.
In geography, the location of any point on the Earth can be identified using a geographic coordinate system. This system specifies the latitude and longitude of any location in terms of angles subtended at the center of the Earth, using the equator and (usually) the Greenwich meridian as references.
In astronomy, a given point on the celestial sphere (that is, the apparent position of an astronomical object) can be identified using any of several astronomical coordinate systems, where the references vary according to the particular system. Astronomers measure the angular separation of two stars by imagining two lines through the center of the Earth, each intersecting one of the stars. The angle between those lines can be measured and is the angular separation between the two stars.
In both geography and astronomy, a sighting direction can be specified in terms of a vertical angle such as altitude / elevation with respect to the horizon as well as the azimuth with respect to north.
Astronomers also measure the apparent size of objects as an angular diameter. For example, the full moon has an angular diameter of approximately 0.5°, when viewed from Earth. One could say, "The Moon's diameter subtends an angle of half a degree." The small-angle formula can be used to convert such an angular measurement into a distance/size ratio.
Other astronomical approximations include:
These measurements clearly depend on the individual subject, and the above should be treated as rough rule of thumb approximations only.
In astronomy, right ascension and declination are usually measured in angular units, expressed in terms of time, based on a 24-hour day.
Unit | Symbol | Degrees | Radians | Turns | Other |
---|---|---|---|---|---|
Hour | h | 15° | π⁄12 rad | 1⁄24 turn | |
Minute | m | 0°15′ | π⁄720 rad | 1⁄1,440 turn | 1⁄60 hour |
Second | s | 0°0′15″ | π⁄43200 rad | 1⁄86,400 turn | 1⁄60 minute |
public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911), " Angle", Encyclopædia Britannica, vol. 2 (11th ed.), Cambridge University Press, p. 14
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