From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
16th century begins with the
MDI) and ends with either the Julian or the
MDC) (depending on the reckoning used; the Gregorian calendar introduced a lapse of 10 days in October 1582).
The 16th century is regarded by historians as the century which saw the rise of
Western civilization and the
Islamic gunpowder empires. The
Renaissance in Italy and Europe saw the emergence of important artists, authors and scientists, and led to the foundation of important subjects which include
Copernicus proposed the
heliocentric universe, which was met with strong resistance, and
Tycho Brahe refuted the theory of
celestial spheres through observational measurement of the
1572 appearance of a
supernova. These events directly challenged the long-held notion of an immutable universe supported by
Aristotle, and led to major revolutions in
astronomy and science.
Galileo Galilei became a champion of the new sciences, invented the first thermometer and made substantial contributions in the fields of
astronomy, becoming a major figure in the
Spain and Portugal colonized large parts of
South America, followed by France and England in
Northern America and the
Lesser Antilles. The Portuguese became the masters of trade between
Brazil, the coasts of Africa, and their possessions in the
Indies, whereas the Spanish came to dominate the
Peru, and opened trade across the
Pacific Ocean, linking the Americas with the Indies. English and French
privateers began to practice persistent theft of Spanish and Portuguese treasures. This era of
mercantilism as the leading school of economic thought, where the economic system was viewed as a
zero-sum game in which any gain by one party required a loss by another. The mercantilist
doctrine encouraged the many intra-European wars of the period and arguably fueled European
imperialism throughout the world until the
19th century or early
Reformation in central and northern Europe gave a major blow to the authority of the
papacy and the
Catholic Church. In
England, the British-Italian
Alberico Gentili wrote the first book on public international law and divided
canon law and Catholic theology. European politics became dominated by religious conflicts, with the groundwork for the epochal
Thirty Years' War being laid towards the end of the century.
Middle East, the
Ottoman Empire continued to expand, with the
Sultan taking the title of
Caliph, while dealing with a resurgent Persia. Iran and Iraq were caught by a major popularity of the
Shia sect of
Islam under the rule of the
Safavid dynasty of warrior-mystics, providing grounds for a Persia independent of the majority-
Indian subcontinent, following the defeat of the
Delhi Sultanate and
Vijayanagara Empire, new powers emerged, the
Sur Empire founded by
Sher Shah Suri,
Deccan sultanates ,
rajput states, and the
 Babur, a direct descendant of
 Humayun and
Akbar, enlarged the empire to include most of
Japan suffered a severe civil war at this time, known as the
Sengoku period, and emerged from it as a unified nation. China was ruled by the Ming dynasty and came into conflict with Japan and Japanese piracy over the control of Korea.
Michelangelo returns to his native
Florence to begin work on the statue
Safavid dynasty reunifies
Iran and rules over it until
1736. Safavids adopt a
Shia branch of
First Battle of Cannanore between the
Third Portuguese Armada and
Kingdom of Cochin under
João da Nova and Zamorin of
Kozhikode's navy marks the beginning of Portuguese conflicts in the
1502: First reported
African slaves in the
Crimean Khanate sacks
Sarai in the
Golden Horde, ending its existence.
France at the
Battle of Cerignola. Considered to be the first battle in history won by gunpowder small arms.
Leonardo da Vinci begins painting the
and completes it three years later. Mona Lisa
Nostradamus is born on either December 14 or December 21.
1504: A period of
famine in all of Spain.
1504: Death of
Isabella I of Castile;
Joanna of Castile becomes the Queen.
1504: Foundation of the
Sultanate of Sennar by
Amara Dunqas, in what is modern
Zhengde Emperor ascends the throne of
Martin Luther enters
St. Augustine's Monastery at Erfurt, Germany, on 17 July and begins his journey to instigating the
Sultan Trenggono builds the first Muslim kingdom in Java, called
Demak, in Indonesia. Many other small kingdoms were established in other islands to fight against Portuguese. Each kingdom introduced local language as a way of communication and unity.
Leonardo da Vinci completes the
. Mona Lisa
Afonso I of Kongo wins the battle of Mbanza Kongo, resulting in Catholicism becoming
Kongo's state religion.
1506: At least two thousand
converted Jews are massacred in a
Lisbon riot, Portugal.
Christopher Columbus dies in
Poland is invaded by
Tatars from the
1507: The first recorded epidemic of
smallpox in the
New World on the island of
Hispaniola. It devastates the native
Afonso de Albuquerque conquered
Muscat, among other bases in the
Persian Gulf, taking control of the region at the entrance of the
Christian-Islamic power struggle in Europe and West Asia spills over into the Indian Ocean as
Battle of Chaul during the
Michelangelo paints the
Sistine Chapel ceiling.
1509: The defeat of joint fleet of the
Sultan of Gujarat, the
Mamlûk Burji Sultanate of Egypt, and the
Calicut with support of the
Republic of Venice and the
Ottoman Empire in
Battle of Diu marks the beginning of
Portuguese dominance of the
Spice trade and the
1509: The Portuguese king sends
Diogo Lopes de Sequeira to find
Malacca, the eastern terminus of Asian trade. After initially receiving Sequeira,
Sultan Mahmud Shah captures and/or kills several of his men and attempts an assault on the four Portuguese ships, which escape.
 Javanese fleet is also destroyed in Malacca.
Krishnadevaraya ascends the throne of
1510: The 'great
plague' in various parts of
Afonso de Albuquerque of Portugal
Goa in India.
Afonso de Albuquerque of Portugal
Malacca, the capital of the
Sultanate of Malacca in present-day Malaysia.
, and proclaims the sun the center of the solar system. Commentariolus
1512: The southern part (historical core) of the
Kingdom of Navarre is invaded by
Castile and Aragon.
Qutb Shahi dynasty, founded by
Quli Qutb Mulk, rules
Golconda Sultanate until
1512: The first Portuguese exploratory expedition was sent eastward from Malacca (in present-day Malaysia) to search for the '
Spice Islands' (
Maluku) led by
Francisco Serrão. Serrão is shipwrecked but struggles on to
Ambon) and wins the favour of the local rulers.
, a treatise about political philosophy The Prince
1513: The Portuguese
Jorge Álvares lands at
Macau, China, during the
Henry VIII defeats the French at the
Battle of the Spurs.
Battle of Flodden Field in which invading
Scots are defeated by
Henry VIII's forces.
Selim I ("The Grim") orders the massacre of
Shia Muslims in
Anatolia (present-day Turkey).
Vasco Núñez de Balboa, in service of Spain arrives at the
Pacific Ocean (which he called Mar del Sur) across the
Isthmus of Panama. He was the first European to do so.
Battle of Orsha halts
Muscovy's expansion into
Dózsa rebellion (peasant revolt) in
Battle of Chaldiran, the
Ottoman Empire gains decisive victory against
Ottoman Empire wrests Eastern
Anatolia from the Safavids after the
Battle of Chaldiran.
Ottomans conquers the last beyliks of Anatolia, the
Dulkadirs and the
Ottomans defeat the
Mamluks and gain control of
Arabia, and the
Sweating sickness epidemic in
Reformation begins when
Martin Luther posts his
Ninety-five Theses in
Treaty of London was a non-aggression pact between the major European nations. The signatories were Burgundy, France, England, the Holy Roman Empire, the Netherlands, the Papal States and Spain, all of whom agreed not to attack one another and to come to the aid of any that were under attack.
Mir Chakar Khan Rind leaves
Baluchistan and settles in
Leo Africanus, also known as al-Hasan ibn Muhammad al-Wazzan al-Fasi, an Andalusian Berber diplomat who is best known for his book
(Description of Africa), is captured by Spanish pirates; he is taken to Rome and presented to
Descrittione dell’Africa Pope Leo X.
dancing plague of 1518 begins in
Strasbourg, lasting for about one month.
Leonardo da Vinci dies of natural causes on May 2.
Europe at the time of the accession of
Wang Yangming, the Chinese philosopher and governor of
Jiangxi province, describes his intent to use the firepower of the fo-lang-ji, a
culverin, in order to suppress the rebellion of Prince
Barbary pirates led by
Hayreddin Barbarossa, a Turk appointed to ruling position in Algiers by the Ottoman Empire, raid
Toulon in southern
1519: Charles I of
Spain, and the
Low Countries becomes Emperor of
Holy Roman Empire as
Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor (ruled until 1556).
1522: Spanish expedition commanded by
Elcano are the first to
Circumnavigate the Earth.
Hernán Cortés leads the
Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire.
1566: The reign of
Suleiman the Magnificent marks the zenith of the
1520: The first European diplomatic mission to
Ethiopia, sent by the
Portuguese, arrives at
Massawa 9 April, and reaches the imperial encampment of Emperor
Dawit II in
Shewa 9 October.
Vijayanagara Empire forces under
Krishnadevaraya defeat the
Adil Shahi under at the
Battle of Raichur
Ali Mughayat Shah of
Aceh begins an expansionist campaign capturing Daya on the west
Sumatran coast (in present-day Indonesia), and the pepper and gold producing lands on the east coast.
Portuguese established a
trading post in the village of Lamakera on the eastern side of
Solor (in present-day Indonesia) as a transit harbour between
Belgrade (in present-day Serbia) is
captured by the Ottoman Empire.
1521: After building fortifications at
Tuen Mun, the Portuguese attempt to invade
Ming Dynasty China, but are expelled by Chinese naval forces.
Philippines encountered by
Ferdinand Magellan. He was later killed in the
Battle of Mactan in central Philippines in the same year.
Jiajing Emperor ascended the throne of
Ming Dynasty, China.
Ferdinand Magellan's expedition reaches
Maluku (in present-day Indonesia) and after trade with
Ternate returns to Europe with a load of
Pati Unus leads the invasion of
Malacca (in present-day Malaysia) against the Portuguese occupation. Pati Unus was killed in this battle, and was succeeded by his brother, sultan
falls to the Ottomans of
Suleiman the Magnificent.
1522: The Portuguese ally themselves with the rulers of
Ternate (in present-day Indonesia) and begin construction of a fort.
Luso-Sundanese Treaty signed between
Sunda Kingdom granted Portuguese permit to build fortress in
gains independence from the
Cacao bean is introduced to Spain by
German Peasants' War in the
Holy Roman Empire.
Giovanni da Verrazzano is the first European to explore the
Atlantic coast of
North America between
South Carolina and
Ismail I, the founder of
Safavid dynasty, dies and
Tahmasp I becomes king.
Timurid Empire forces under
Babur defeat the
Lodi dynasty at the
First Battle of Panipat, end of the
Spanish forces defeat France at the
Battle of Pavia,
Francis I of France is captured.
1526: The Ottomans defeat the
Kingdom of Hungary at the
Battle of Mohács.
Mughal Empire, founded by Babur.
Sack of Rome with
Pope Clement VII escaping and the Swiss Guards defending the
Vatican being killed. The sack of the city of Rome considered the end of the
Protestant Reformation begins in
1527: The last ruler of
Majapahit falls from power. This state (located in present-day Indonesia) was finally extinguished at the hands of the
Demak. A large number of courtiers, artisans, priests, and members of the royalty moved east to the island of Bali; however, the power and the seat of government transferred to Demak under the leadership of Pangeran, later
1527: June 22, The Javanese Prince
Fatahillah of the
Cirebon Sultanate successfully defeated the Portuguese armed forces at the site of the
Sunda Kelapa Harbor. The city was then renamed
Jayakarta, meaning "a glorious victory." This eventful day came to be acknowledged as Jakarta's Founding Anniversary.
Mughal Empire forces defeat the
Rajput led by
Rana Sanga of
Mewar at the
Battle of Khanwa
Austrians defeat the
Ottoman Empire at the
siege of Vienna.
Treaty of Zaragoza defined the
Tordesillas attributing the
Moluccas to Portugal and
Philippines to Spain.
Ahmad Gragn defeats the
Dawit II in the
Battle of Shimbra Kure, the opening clash of the
Church of England breaks away from the
Catholic Church and recognizes
King Henry VIII as the head of the Church.
Inca Civil War is fought between the two brothers,
Francisco Pizarro leads the
Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire.
1532: Foundation of
São Vicente, the first permanent Portuguese settlement in the Americas.
Anne Boleyn becomes Queen of England.
Elizabeth Tudor is born.
Jacques Cartier claims Canada for France.
1534: The Ottomans
Baghdad from the
Affair of the Placards, where King
Francis I becomes more active in repression of French Protestants.
Münster Rebellion, an attempt of radical,
Anabaptists to establish a
theocracy, ends in bloodshed.
1535: The Portuguese in Ternate depose Sultan
Tabariji (or Tabarija) and send him to Portuguese Goa where he converts to Christianity and bequeaths his Portuguese godfather
Jordao de Freitas the island of
 Hairun becomes the next sultan.
Katherine of Aragon dies in
Kimbolton Castle, in England.
1536: In England,
Anne Boleyn is beheaded for adultery and treason.
1536: Establishment of the
Inquisition in Portugal.
1536: Foundation of
Buenos Aires (in present-day Argentina) by
Pedro de Mendoza.
Pernambuco, north-east of
William Tyndale's partial translation of the
Bible into English is published, which would eventually be incorporated into the
King James Bible.
Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada founds
Venetian fleet is defeated by the Ottoman Turks at the
Battle of Preveza.
Hernando de Soto explores inland North America.
Society of Jesus, or the Jesuits, is founded by
Ignatius of Loyola and six companions with the approval of
Pope Paul III.
Sher Shah Suri founds the
Suri dynasty in
South Asia, an ethnic
Pathan) of the house of
Sur, who supplanted the
Mughal dynasty as rulers of North
India during the reign of the relatively ineffectual second Mughal emperor
Humayun. Sher Shah Suri decisively defeats Humayun in the Battle of Bilgram (May 17, 1540).
Pedro de Valdivia founds
Santiago de Chile.
Algerian military campaign by
Charles V of Spain (
Habsburg) is unsuccessful.
Amazon River is encountered and explored by
Francisco de Orellana.
Capture of Buda and the absorption of the major part of
Hungary by the
Sahib I Giray of
Italian War of 1542–1546 War resumes between
Francis I of France and
Emperor Charles V. This time
Henry VIII is allied with the Emperor, while
James V of Scotland and Sultan
Suleiman I are allied with the
Akbar The Great is born in the
1542: Spanish explorer
Ruy López de Villalobos named the island of
Las Islas Filipinas Philip II of Spain and became the official name of the
Portuguese troops decisively defeat the Adal-Ottoman Muslim army led by Imam
Ahmad Gragn at the
Battle of Wayna Daga; Imam
Ahmad Gragn is killed at this battle.
Copernicus publishes his theory that the Earth and the other planets revolve around the Sun
Nanban trade period begins after Portuguese traders make contact with
French defeat an
Spanish army at the
Battle of Ceresole.
Battle of the Shirts in
Frasers and Macdonalds of
Clan Ranald fight over a disputed chiefship; reportedly, 5 Frasers and 8 Macdonalds survive.
Songhai forces sack the
Malian capital of
Council of Trent meets for the first time in Trent (in northern Italy).
Michelangelo Buonarroti is made chief architect of
St. Peter's Basilica.
Francis Xavier works among the peoples of Ambon, Ternate and
Morotai (Moro) laying the foundations for a permanent mission. (to 1547)
Henry VIII dies in the
Palace of Whitehall on 28 January at the age of 55.
Francis I dies in the
Château de Rambouillet on 31 March at the age of 52.
Edward VI becomes King of England and Ireland on 28 January and is crowned on 20 February at the age of 9.
Charles V decisively dismantles the
Schmalkaldic League at the
Battle of Mühlberg.
Ivan the Terrible is crowned tsar of (All) Russia, thenceforth becoming the
first Russian tsar.
Battle of Uedahara: Firearms are used for the first time on the battlefield in
Takeda Shingen is defeated by
Askia Daoud, who reigned from 1548 to 1583, establishes public libraries in
Timbuktu (in present-day Mali).
Ming Dynasty government of
China issues a decree banning all foreign trade and closes down all seaports along the coast; these
Hai jin laws came during the
Wokou wars with
Tomé de Sousa establishes
Bahia, north-east of
Arya Penangsang with the support of his teacher, Sunan Kudus, avenges the death of Raden Kikin by sending an envoy named Rangkud to kill Sunan Prawoto by
Keris Kyai Satan Kober (in present-day Indonesia).
1550: The architect
Mimar Sinan builds the
Süleymaniye Mosque in
Mongols led by
Altan Khan invade
China and besiege
Valladolid debate concerning the human rights of the
Indigenous people of the Americas.
1551: Fifth outbreak of
sweating sickness in
John Caius of
Shrewsbury writes the first full contemporary account of the symptoms of the disease.
1551: North African
pirates enslave the entire population of the Maltese island
Gozo, between 5,000 and 6,000, sending them to
1552: Russia conquers the
Khanate of Kazan in central Asia.
1552: Jesuit China Mission,
Francis Xavier dies.
Mary Tudor becomes the first queen regnant of England and restores the Church of England under Papal authority.
Portuguese found a settlement at
José de Anchieta and
Manuel da Nóbrega establishes
São Paulo, southeast
Princess Elizabeth is imprisoned in the
Tower of London upon the orders of
Mary I for suspicion of being involved in the
Muscovy Company is the first major English
joint stock trading company.
1556: Publication in
Venice of Delle Navigiationi et Viaggi (terzo volume) by
Giovanni Battista Ramusio, secretary of Council of Ten, with plan La Terra de Hochelaga, an illustration of the
Shaanxi earthquake in China is history's deadliest known earthquake during the
Georgius Agricola, the "Father of
Mineralogy", publishes his
. De re metallica
Hemu at the
Second battle of Panipat.
1556: Russia conquers the
1605: During his reign,
Akbar expands the Mughal Empire in a series of conquests (in the Indian subcontinent).
Political map of the world in 1556
Mir Chakar Khan Rind captures
Pomponio Algerio, radical theologian, is executed by boiling in oil as part of the
Habsburg Spain declares bankruptcy.
Philip II of Spain had to declare four
state bankruptcies in 1557, 1560, 1575 and 1596.
Portuguese settle in
Macau (on the western side of the Pearl River Delta across from present-day Hong Kong).
Massawa, all but isolating
Ethiopia from the rest of the world.
Elizabeth Tudor becomes Queen Elizabeth I at age 25.
Elizabethan era is considered the height of the
Livonian War between Poland, Grand Principality of Lithuania, Sweden, Denmark and Russia.
1558: After 200 years, the
Kingdom of England loses
Calais to France.
1559: With the
Peace of Cateau Cambrésis, the
Italian Wars conclude.
Hairun of Ternate (in present-day Indonesia) protests the Portuguese's
Christianisation activities in his lands. Hostilities between
Ternate and the Portuguese.
Ottoman navy defeats the
Spanish fleet at the
Battle of Djerba.
Elizabeth Bathory is born in Nyirbator, Hungary.
1560: By winning the
Battle of Okehazama,
Oda Nobunaga becomes one of the pre-eminent warlords of
Jeanne d'Albret declares
Calvinism the official religion of
Lazarus Church, Macau
Francis Bacon is born in
fourth battle of Kawanakajima between the Uesugi and Takeda at Hachimanbara takes place.
Guido de Bres draws up the
Belgic Confession of Protestant faith.
Akbar reconciles the Muslim and Hindu factions by marrying into the powerful
Rajput Hindu caste.
French Wars of Religion between
Massacre of Wassy and
Battle of Dreux in the
French Wars of Religion.
Dominican priests build a palm-trunk fortress which
Muslims burned down the following year. The fort was rebuilt from more durable materials and the Dominicans commenced the
Christianisation of the local population.
Plague outbreak claimed 80,000 people in
London alone, over 20,000 people died of the disease.
Galileo Galilei born on February 15
William Shakespeare baptized 26 April
Deccan sultanates defeat the
Vijayanagara Empireat the
Battle of Talikota.
Mir Chakar Khan Rind dies at aged 97.
Estácio de Sá establishes
Rio de Janeiro in
Hospitallers, a Crusading Order, defeat the
Ottoman Empire at the
siege of Malta (1565).
Miguel López de Legazpi establishes in
Cebu the first Spanish settlement in the
Philippines starting a period of Spanish colonization that would last over three hundred years.
1565: Spanish navigator
Andres de Urdaneta discovers the maritime route from Asia to the Americas across the
Pacific Ocean, also known as the tornaviaje.
Royal Exchange is founded by
Suleiman the Magnificent, ruler of the
Ottoman Empire, dies on September 7, during the
battle of Szigetvar.
Eighty Years' War between Spain and the
1566: Da le Balle Contrade d'Oriente, composed by
Cipriano de Rore.
1567: After 45 years' reign,
Jiajing Emperor died in the
Longqing Emperor ascended the throne of
Mary, Queen of Scots, is imprisoned by
Diet, under the patronage of the prince
John Sigismund Zápolya, the former
king of Hungary, inspired by the teachings of
Ferenc Dávid, the founder of the
Unitarian Church of Transylvania, promulgates the
Edict of Torda, the first law of
freedom of religion and of conscience in the World.
Morisco Revolt in Spain.
Azuchi-Momoyama period in Japan.
1568: Hadiwijaya sent his adopted son and son in-law
Sutawijaya, who would later become the first ruler of the
Mataram dynasty of Indonesia, to kill
Rising of the North in England.
Mercator 1569 world map published by
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth is created with the
Union of Lublin which lasts until
1569: Peace treaty signed by Sultan Hairun of Ternate and Governor Lopez De Mesquita of Portugal.
Ivan the Terrible, tsar of Russia, orders the massacre of inhabitants of
Pope Pius V issues
, a papal bull excommunicating all who obeyed
Regnans in Excelsis Elizabeth I and calling on all Catholics to rebel against her.
Hairun of Ternate (in present-day Indonesia) is killed by the Portuguese.
 Babullah becomes the next Sultan.
Pope Pius V completes the
Holy League as a united front against the
1571: The Spanish-led Holy League navy destroys the
Ottoman Empire navy at the
Battle of Lepanto.
Crimean Tatars attack and
sack Moscow, burning everything but the
American Indians kill Spanish missionaries in what would later be
1571: Spanish conquistador
Miguel López de Legazpi establishes
Manila, Philippines as the capital of the
Spanish East Indies.
Brielle is taken from
Habsburg Spain by Protestant
Watergeuzen in the
Capture of Brielle, in the
Eighty Years' War.
Spanish conquistadores apprehend the last
Tupak Amaru at
Vilcabamba, Peru, and execute him in
Jeanne d'Albret dies aged 43 and is succeeded by
Henry of Navarre.
Catherine de' Medici instigates the
St. Bartholomew's Day massacre which takes the lives of Protestant leader
Gaspard de Coligny and thousands of
Huguenots. The violence spreads from Paris to other cities and the countryside.
1572: First edition of the epic
The Lusiads of
Luís Vaz de Camões, three years after the author returned from the East.
1572: The 9 years old
Zhu Yijun ascended the throne of Ming Dynasty, known as
1573: After heavy losses on both sides the
siege of Haarlem ends in a
1574: in the
Eighty Years' War the capital of
Middelburg declares for the Protestants.
1574: After a siege of 4 months the
siege of Leiden ends in a comprehensive
Dutch rebel victory.
Oda Nobunaga finally captures
1575: Following a five-year war, the Ternateans under Sultan
Babullah defeated the Portuguese.
Safavid shah, dies.
Battle of Haldighati is fought between the ruler of
Maharana Pratap and the
Mughal Empire's forces under Emperor
Akbar led by
Sack of Antwerp by badly paid
circles the world.
1577: Ki Ageng Pemanahan built his palace in Pasargede or Kotagede.
Sebastian of Portugal is killed at the
Battle of Alcazarquivir.
1578: The Portuguese establish a fort on
Tidore but the main centre for Portuguese activities in Maluku becomes Ambon.
Sonam Gyatso is conferred the title of
Dalai Lama by Tumed Mongol ruler,
Altan Khan. Recognised as the reincarnation of two previous Lamas, Sonam Gyatso becomes the third Dalai Lama in the lineage.
Union of Utrecht unifies the northern Netherlands, a foundation for the later
Union of Arras unifies the southern Netherlands, a foundation for the later states of the
Spanish Netherlands, the
Austrian Netherlands and
1579: The British navigator
Sir Francis Drake passes through Maluku and transit in
Ternate on his circumnavigation of the world. The Portuguese establish a fort on
Tidore but the main centre for Portuguese activities in Maluku becomes Ambon.
Drake's royal reception after his attacks on Spanish possessions influences
Philip II of Spain to build up the
Spanish Armada. English ships in Spanish harbours are impounded.
1580: Spain unifies with Portugal under
Philip II. The
struggle for the throne of Portugal ends the
Portuguese Empire. The Spanish and Portuguese crowns are
united for 60 years, i.e. until 1640.
Nagasaki comes under control of the
Act of Abjuration, declaring abjuring allegiance to Philip II of Spain.
Bayinnaung dies at the age of 65.
Oda Nobunaga commits
seppuku during the
Honnō-ji Incident coup by his general,
Pope Gregory XIII issues the
Gregorian calendar. The last day of the Julian calendar was Thursday, 4 October 1582 and this was followed by the first day of the Gregorian calendar, Friday, 15 October 1582
Yermak Timofeyevich conquers the
Siberia Khanate on behalf of the
1583: Denmark builds the world's first theme park,
1583: Death of Sultan
Babullah of Ternate.
1585: After the
siege of Antwerp, many of its merchants flee to
Amsterdam. According to Luc-Normand Tellier, "At its peak, between 1510 and 1557,
Antwerp concentrated about 40% of the world trade...It is estimated that the port of Antwerp was earning the Spanish crown seven times more revenues than the
Ki Ageng Pemanahan died. Sultan Pajang raised Sutawijaya, son of Ki Ageng Pemanahan as the new ruler in
Mataram, titled "Loring Ngabehi Market" (because of his home in the north of the market).
1585: Akbar annexes
Kashmir and adds it to the
1585: Colony at
Roanoke founded in North America.
Anglo-Spanish War is fought on both sides of the Atlantic.
Mary, Queen of Scots is executed by
1587: The reign of
Abbas I marks the zenith of the
1587: Troops that would invade Pajang
Mataram Sultanate storm ravaged the eruption of Mount Merapi. Sutawijaya and his men survived.
1588: Mataram into the kingdom with Sutawijaya as Sultan, titled "Senapati Ingalaga Sayidin Panatagama" means the warlord and cleric Manager Religious Life.
1588: England repulses the
1589: Spain repulses the
Catherine de' Medici dies at aged 69.
Siege of Odawara: the
Go-Hojo clan surrender to Toyotomi Hideyoshi, and Japan is unified.
Gazi Giray leads a huge Tatar expedition against
Moroccan forces of the Sultan
Ahmad al-Mansur led by Judar Pasha defeat the
Songhai Empire at the
Battle of Tondibi.
John Stow reports 10,675
plague deaths in
London, a city of approximately 200,000 people.
1598: Korea, with the help of
Ming Dynasty China, repels
two Japanese invasions.
Long War between the
Habsburg monarchy and the
St. Paul's College, Macau, founded by
1595: First Dutch expedition to Indonesia sets sail for the East Indies with two hundred and forty-nine men and sixty-four cannons led by
Cornelis de Houtman.
1596: Birth of
1596: June, de Houtman's expedition reaches
Banten the main pepper port of West Java where they clash with both the Portuguese and Indonesians. It then sails east along the north coast of
Java losing twelve crew to a Javanese attack at
Sidayu and killing a local ruler in
is published. Romeo and Juliet
1597: Cornelis de Houtman's expedition returns to the Netherlands with enough spices to make a considerable profit.
Edict of Nantes ends the
French Wars of Religion.
Abbas I moves
Safavids capital from
Isfahan in 1598.
1613: Russia descends into anarchy during the
Time of Troubles.
1598: The Portuguese require an armada of 90 ships to put down a Solorese uprising.
(to 1599) 
1598: More Dutch fleets leave for Indonesia and most are profitable.
1598: The province of
Santa Fe de Nuevo México is established in Northern
New Spain. The region would later become a territory of Mexico, the
New Mexico Territory in the United States, and the US State of
1598: Death of
Toyotomi Hideyoshi, known as the unifier of Japan.
Mali Empire is defeated at the
Battle of Jenné.
1599: The van Neck expedition returns to Europe. The expedition makes a 400 per cent profit.
(to 1600) 
1599: March, Leaving Europe the previous year, a
fleet of eight ships under
Jacob van Neck was the first Dutch fleet to reach the ‘Spice Islands’ of Maluku.
Giordano Bruno is burned at the stake for
Battle of Sekigahara in
Japan. End of the
Warring States period and beginning of the
1600: The Portuguese win a major naval battle in the bay of Ambon.
Later in the year, the Dutch join forces with the local Hituese in an anti-Portuguese alliance, in return for which the Dutch would have the sole right to purchase spices from Hitu. 
Elizabeth I grants a charter to the
British East India Company beginning the English advance in Asia.
Michael the Brave unifies the three
Transylvania after the
Battle of Șelimbăr from 1599.
Inventions, discoveries, introductions
List of 16th century inventions.
Modern reference works on the period tend to follow the introduction of the Gregorian calendar for the sake of clarity; thus
NASA's lunar eclipse catalogue states "The Gregorian calendar is used for all dates from 1582 Oct 15 onwards. Before that date, the Julian calendar is used." For dates after 15 October 1582, care must be taken to avoid confusion of the two styles.
de Vries, Jan (14 September 2009). "The limits of globalization in the early modern world". The Economic History Review. 63 (3): 710–733.
Singh, Sarina; Lindsay Brown; Paul Clammer; Rodney Cocks; John Mock (2008).
. Vol. 7, illustrated. Lonely Planet. p. 137.
Pakistan & the Karakoram Highway ISBN
978-1-74104-542-0 . Retrieved . 23 August 2010
Babur (2006). Babur Nama. Penguin Books. p. vii.
"16th Century Timeline (1501 to 1600)". fsmitha.com. Archived from
the original on February 3, 2009.
"History of Smallpox – Smallpox Through the Ages". Texas Department of State Health Services.
^ Ricklefs (1991), p.23
"A LIST OF NATIONAL EPIDEMICS OF PLAGUE IN ENGLAND 1348–1665". Archived from
the original on 2009-05-08 . Retrieved . 2009-04-25
a b Ricklefs (1991), page 24
The Sweating Sickness. Story of London.. Accessed 2009-04-25.
"Life Span of Suleiman the Magnificent 1494–1566". Personal.umich.edu . Retrieved . 2013-05-05
d e Ricklefs (1991), page 25
"La Terra De Hochelaga – Jaques Cartier a Hochelaga". jacquescarter.org. Archived from
the original on December 23, 2008.
. 1800–1882 World Digital Library . Retrieved . 2013-08-31
Schwieger, Peter (2014).
. New York: Columbia University Press.
The Dalai Lama and the Emperor of China: a political history of the Tibetan institution of reincarnation ISBN
Miller, George, ed. (1996). To The Spice Islands and Beyond: Travels in Eastern Indonesia. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. xv.
^ Luc-Normand Tellier (2009). "
". PUQ. p.308. Urban world history: an economic and geographical perspective
e f Ricklefs (1991), page 27
a b Ricklefs (1991), page 28
^ Polybius: "The Rise Of The Roman Empire", Page 36, Penguin, 1979.
Langer, William. An Encyclopedia of World History (5th ed. 1973); highly detailed outline of events
Millennia Centuries Decades Years