|Died||12 May 1910 (aged 86)|
|Known for||astronomical spectroscopy|
|Spouse(s)||Margaret Lindsay Huggins|
Royal Medal (1866)|
Gold Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society (1867)
Lalande Prize (1870)
Rumford Medal (1880)
Valz Prize (1882)
Janssen Medal (1888)
Copley Medal (1898)
Henry Draper Medal (1901)
Bruce Medal (1904)
William Huggins was born at Cornhill, Middlesex, in 1824. In 1875, he married Margaret Lindsay, daughter of John Murray of Dublin, who also had an interest in astronomy and scientific research.  She encouraged her husband's photography and helped to put their research on a systematic footing.
Huggins built a private observatory at 90 Upper Tulse Hill, London, from where he and his wife carried out extensive observations of the spectral emission lines and absorption lines of various celestial objects. On 29 August 1864, Huggins was the first to take the spectrum of a planetary nebula when he analysed NGC 6543.   He was also the first to distinguish between nebulae and galaxies by showing that some (like the Orion Nebula) had pure emission spectra characteristic of gas, while others like the Andromeda Galaxy had the spectral characteristics of stars. Huggins was assisted in the analysis of spectra by his neighbour, the chemist William Allen Miller. Huggins was also the first to adopt dry plate photography in imaging astronomical objects. 
Huggins won the Gold Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society in 1867, jointly with William Allen Miller. He later served as President of the Royal Astronomical Society from 1876 to 1878, and received the Gold Medal again (this time alone) in 1885. He served as an officer of the Royal Astronomical Society for a total of 37 years, more than any other person. 
Huggins was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in June 1865, was awarded their Royal Medal (1866), Rumford Medal (1880) and Copley Medal (1898) and delivered their Bakerian Lecture in 1885. He then served as President of the Royal Society from 1900 to 1905. For example, his Presidential Address in 1904 praised the fallen Fellows and distributed the prizes of that year. 
- Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath (KCB) in the 1897 Diamond Jubilee Honours list on 22 June 1897. 
- Huggins was among the original recipients of the Order of Merit (OM) in the 1902 Coronation Honours list published on 26 June 1902,  and received the order from King Edward VII at Buckingham Palace on 8 August 1902.  
- Royal Medal (1866)
- Lalande Prize (1870)
- Gold Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society (jointly with William Allen Miller in 1867, solo in 1885)
- Rumford Medal (1880)
- Valz Prize (1882) 
- Member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences (1883)
- Janssen Medal (1888)
- Copley Medal (1898)
- Henry Draper Medal from the National Academy of Sciences (1901) 
- Bruce Medal (1904)
Named after him
- 1870: Spectrum analysis in its application to the heavenly bodies. Manchester, (Science lectures for the people; series 2, no. 3)
- 1872: (editor) Spectrum analysis in its application to terrestrial substances and the physical constitution of heavenly bodies by H. Schellen, translated by Jane and Caroline Lassell, link from HathiTrust.
- 1899: (with Lady Huggins): An Atlas of Representative Stellar Spectra from 4870 to 3300, together with a discussion of the evolution order of the stars, and the interpretation of their spectra; preceded by a short history of the observatory. London, (Publications of Sir William Huggins's Observatory; v. 1)
- 1906: The Royal Society, or, Science in the state and in the schools. London.
- 1909: The Scientific Papers of Sir William Huggins; edited by Sir William and Lady Huggins. London, (Publications of Sir William Huggins's Observatory; v. 2)
- Henry Park Hollis (1912). Dictionary of National Biography (2nd supplement). London: Smith, Elder & Co. .
- Becker, Barbara J., "Ch 4—1 – Margaret Huggins: The Myth of the 'able assistant'", Eclecticism, Opportunism, and the Evolution of a New Research Agenda: William and Margaret Huggins and the Origins of Astrophysics
- Huggins, William; Miller, W.A. (1864). "On the spectra of some of the nebulae". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. 154: 437–444. Bibcode: 1864RSPT..154..437H. doi: 10.1098/rstl.1864.0013. See p. 438, "No. 4373".
- Kwok, Sun (2000), "Chapter1: History and overview", The origin and evolution of planetary nebulae, Cambridge University Press, pp. 1–7, ISBN 0-521-62313-8
- Huggins, W. (1868). "Further observations on the spectra of some of the stars and nebulae, with an attempt to determine therefrom whether these bodies are moving towards or from the Earth, also observations on the spectra of the Sun and of Comet II". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. 158: 529–564. Bibcode: 1868RSPT..158..529H. doi: 10.1098/rstl.1868.0022.
- Dreyer, John L. E.; Turner, Herbert H. (1923). History of the Royal Astronomical Society, 1820–1920. 1. London: Royal Astronomical Society. p. 250.
- Wm Huggins (30 November 1904) Huggins Presidential Address, link from Internet Archive
- Sciences (U.S.), National Academy of (1902). Report of the National Academy of Sciences for the Year ... U.S. Government Printing Office.
- "1913ApJ....37..145H Page 145".
1913ApJ....37..145H. Cite journal requires
- Addison, Henry Robert; Lawson, William John; Oakes, Charles Henry; Sladen, Douglas Brooke Wheelton (1907). "HUGGINS, Sir Wm., K.C.B. cr. 1897". Who's Who. 59: 889–890.
- "The Coronation Honours". The Times (36804). London. 26 June 1902. p. 5.
- "Court Circular". The Times (36842). London. 9 August 1902. p. 6.
- "No. 27470". The London Gazette. 2 September 1902. p. 5679.
- "The Valz Prize". Popular Astronomy. 21: 384. 1913.
- "Henry Draper Medal". National Academy of Sciences. Retrieved 19 February 2011.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to William Huggins.|
Wikisource has original works written by or about:|
- Huggins, Sir William (1824–1910) Barbara J. Becker, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, 2004 (subscription required)
- Audio description of Huggins' work
- Eclecticism, Opportunism, and the Evolution of a New Research Agenda: William and Margaret Huggins and the Origins of Astrophysics Barbara J. Becker
- William Wallace Campbell Sir William Huggins, K.C.B.,O.M., Astronomical Society of the Pacific link from Internet Archive.
|Professional and academic associations|
President of the Royal Society