Two-dimensional YangâMills theory
In mathematical physics, two-dimensional YangâMills theory is the special case of YangâMills theory in which the dimension of spacetime is taken to be two. This special case allows for a rigorously defined YangâMills measure, meaning that the (Euclidean) path integral can be interpreted as a measure on the set of connections modulo gauge transformations. This situation contrasts with the four-dimensional case, where a rigorous construction of the theory as a measure is currently unknown.
On aspect of the subject of particular interest is the large-N limit, in which one takes the structure group to be the unitary group and then one lets tend to infinity. The large-N limit of two-dimensional YangâMills theory has connections to string theory.
Interest in the YangâMills measure comes from a statistical mechanical or constructive quantum field theoretic approach to formulating a quantum theory for the YangâMills field. A gauge field is described mathematically by a 1-form on a principal -bundle over a manifold taking values in the Lie algebra of the Lie group . We assume that the structure group , which describes the physical symmetries of the gauge field, is a compact Lie group with a bi-invariant metric on the Lie algebra , and we also assume given a Riemannian metric on the manifold . The YangâMills action functional is given by
The measure is given formally by
Study of YangâMills theory in two dimensions dates back at least to work of A. A. Migdal in 1975.  Some formulas appearing in Migdal's work can, in retrospect, be seen to be connected to the heat kernel on the structure group of the theory. The role of the heat kernel was made more explicit in various works in the late 1970s, culminating in the introduction of the heat kernel action in work of Menotti and Onofri in 1981. 
In the continuum theory, the YangâMills measure was rigorously defined for the case where by Bruce Driver  and by Leonard Gross, Christopher King, and Ambar Sengupta.  For compact manifolds, both oriented and non-oriented, with or without boundary, with specified bundle topology, the YangâMills measure was constructed by Sengupta     In this approach the 2-dimensional Yang-Mills measure is constructed by using a Gaussian measure on an infinite-dimensional space conditioned to satisfy relations implied by the topologies of the surface and of the bundle. Wilson loop variables (certain important variables on the space) were defined using stochastic differential equations and their expected values computed explicitly and found to agree with the results of the heat kernel action.
Dana S. Fine    used the formal YangâMills functional integral to compute loop expectation values. Other approaches include that of Klimek and Kondracki  and Ashtekar et al.  Thierry LĂ©vy   constructed the 2-dimensional YangâMills measure in a very general framework, starting with the loop-expectation value formulas and constructing the measure, somewhat analogously to Brownian motion measure being constructed from transition probabilities. Unlike other works that also aimed to construct the measure from loop expectation values, LĂ©vy's construction makes it possible to consider a very wide family of loop observables.
The discrete YangâMills measure is a term that has been used for the lattice gauge theory version of the Yang-Mills measure, especially for compact surfaces. The lattice in this case is a triangulation of the surface. Notable facts   are: (i) the discrete YangâMills measure can encode the topology of the bundle over the continuum surface even if only the triangulation is used to define the measure; (ii) when two surfaces are sewn along a common boundary loop, the corresponding discrete YangâMills measures convolve to yield the measure for the combined surface.
For a piecewise smooth loop on the base manifold and a point on the fiber in the principal -bundle over the base point of the loop, there is the holonomy of any connection on the bundle. For regular loops , all based at and any function on the function is called a Wilson loop variable, of interest mostly when is a product of traces of the holonomies in representations of the group . With being a two-dimensional Riemannian manifold the loop expectation values
were computed in the above-mentioned works.
If is the plane then
If is the 2-sphere then
where now is the area of the region "outside" the loop , and is the total area of the sphere. This formula was proved by Sengupta  using the conditioned Gaussian measure construction of the YangâMills measure and the result agrees with what one gets by using the heat kernel action of Menotti and Onofri. 
As an example for higher genus surfaces, if is a torus, then
with being the total area of the torus, and a contractible loop on the torus enclosing an area . This, and counterparts in higher genus as well as for surfaces with boundary and for bundles with nontrivial topology, were proved by Sengupta.  
There is an extensive physics literature on loop expectation values in two-dimensional YangâMills theory.         Many of the above formulas were known in the physics literature form the 1970s, with the results initially expressed in terms of a sum over the characters of the gauge group rather than the heat kernel and with the function being the trace in some representation of the group. Expressions involving the heat kernel then appeared explicitly in the form of the "heat kernel action" in work of Menotti and Onofri.  The role of the convolution property of the heat kernel was used in works of Sergio Albeverio et al.   in constructing stochastic cosurface processes inspired by YangâMills theory and, indirectly, by Makeenko and Migdal  in the physics literature.
The YangâMills partition function is, formally,
In the two-dimensional case we can view this as being (proportional to) the denominator that appears in the loop expectation values. Thus, for example, the partition function for the torus would be
where is the area of the torus. In two of the most impactful works   in the field, Edward Witten showed that as the partition function yields the volume of the moduli space of flat connections with respect to a natural volume measure on the moduli space. This volume measure is associated to a natural symplectic structure on the moduli space when the surface is orientable, and is the torsion of a certain complex in the case where the surface is not orientable. Witten's discovery has been studied in different ways by several researchers.    Let denote the moduli space of flat connections on a trivial bundle, with structure group being a compact connected semi-simple Lie group whose Lie algebra is equipped with an Ad-invariant metric, over a compact two-dimensional orientable manifold of genus . Witten showed  that the symplectic volume of this moduli space is given by
where the sum is over all irreducible representations of . This was proved rigorous by Sengupta  (see also the works by Lisa Jeffrey and by Kefeng Liu ). There is a large literature      on the symplectic structure on the moduli space of flat connections, and more generally on the moduli space itself, the major early work being that of Michael Atiyah and Raoul Bott. 
Returning to the YangâMills measure, Sengupta  proved that the measure itself converges in a weak sense to a suitably scaled multiple of the symplectic volume measure for orientable surfaces of genus . Thierry LĂ©vy and James R. Norris  established a large deviations principle for this convergence, showing that the YangâMills measure encodes the YangâMills action functional even though this functional does not explicitly appear in the rigorous formulation of the measure.
The large-N limit of gauge theories refers to the behavior of the theory for gauge groups of the form , , , , and other such families, as goes to . There is a large physics literature on this subject, including major early works by Gerardus 't Hooft. A key tool in this analysis is the MakeenkoâMigdal equation.
In two dimensions, the MakeenkoâMigdal equation takes a special form developed by Kazakov and Kostov. In the large-N limit, the 2-D form of the MakeenkoâMigdal equation relates the Wilson loop functional for a complicated curve with multiple crossings to the product of Wilson loop functionals for a pair of simpler curves with at least one less crossing. In the case of the sphere or the plane, it was the proposed that the MakeenkoâMigdal equation could (in principle) reduce the computation of Wilson loop functionals for arbitrary curves to the Wilson loop functional for a simple closed curve.
In dimension 2, some of the major ideas were proposed by I. M. Singer,  who named this limit the master field (a general notion in some areas of physics). Xu  studied the large- limit of 2-dimensional YangâMills loop expectation values using ideas from random matrix theory. Sengupta  computed the large-N limit of loop expectation values in the plane and commented on the connection with free probability. Confirming one proposal of Singer,  Michael Anshelevich and Sengupta  showed that the large-N limit of the YangâMills measure over the plane for the groups is given by a free probability theoretic counterpart of the Yang-Mills measure. An extensive study of the master field in the plane was made by Thierry LĂ©vy.   Several major contributions have been made by Bruce K. Driver, Brian C. Hall, and Todd Kemp,  Franck Gabriel,  and Antoine Dahlqvist.  Dahlqvist and Norris  have constructed the master field on the two-dimensional sphere.
In spacetime dimension larger than 2, there is very little in terms of rigorous mathematical results. Sourav Chatterjee has proved several results in large-N gauge theory theory for dimension larger than 2. Chatterjee  established an explicit formula for the leading term of the free energy of three-dimensional lattice gauge theory for any N, as the lattice spacing tends to zero. Let be the partition function of -dimensional lattice gauge theory with coupling strength in the box with lattice spacing and size being n spacings in each direction. Chatterjee showed that in dimensions d=2 and 3, is
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