Thrones of Astarte

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The Thrones of Astarte are approximately a dozen ex-voto " cherubim" thrones found in ancient Phoenician temples in Lebanon, in particular in areas around Sidon, Tyre and Umm al-Amad. [1] Many of the thrones have a similar style, with cherubim heads on winged lion bodies on either side. [2] Images of the thrones are found in Phoenician sites around the Mediterranean, including an ivory plaque from Tel Megiddo (Israel), a relief from Hadrumetum (Tunisia) and a scarab from Tharros (Italy). [2]

List of Thrones

Image Period Location found Current location Inscription Description First published
Thrones of Astarte from Byblos (Hellenistic period).jpg Hellenistic Byblos National Museum of Beirut none On the front, two figures pouring a libation into a flower. On the seat, rectangular anathyrosis for placing an object. [3] Dunand [4]
Throne of Astarte from Sidon (Hellenistic period).jpg Hellenistic Sidon National Museum of Beirut none On the front, a Phoenician palmette. On the seat, a large rectangular mortise used to fix an object. Backrest without decoration. [3] 1941 Dunand [5]
Throne of Astarte from Sidon (Roman period).jpg Roman Sidon National Museum of Beirut Greek inscription Seat very tilted, unable to hold an object. The back shows a globe inside a crescent. [3] 1924 [6]
Phoenician Naiskos with a Throne of Astarte from Sidon at the Louvre AO 2060.jpg Sidon Louvre none Naiskos in which is a throne with two sphinxes. Above the seat, U-shaped cavity, intended to receive an object rounded at the bottom: perhaps a round baetylus and its crowns. On the side faces, officiating priests. [3] 1933 [7]
Phoenician Naiskos with a Throne of Astarte from Sidon at the Istanbul Archaeology Museums.jpg Sidon Istanbul Archaeology Museums none Naiskos analogous to the previous one. At the back is a small cavity, intended to hold an object. On the sides, winged goddesses of Egyptian style. [3] [8]
Throne of Astare-AO 4565-IMG 7808-white.jpg 2nd century BCE Khirbet et-Tayibeh, near Ras al-Ain near Tyre Louvre Phoenician dedication to Astarte, known as KAI 17 On the throne, two stelae with reliefs, depicting two standing officiants. [3] 1907 Ronzevalle [9] [10] [11]
Thrones of Astarte from 'Ayn B'aal near Tyre (Hellenistic period).jpg Hellenistic Ain Baal near Tyre National Museum of Beirut none Seat contains a stele or baetylus [3]
Throne of Astarte from the region of Tyre (Hellenistic period).jpg Hellenistic Region of Tyre National Museum of Beirut none Seat contains a stele or baetylus [3]
Votive throne-AO 4812-IMG 4658.JPG 4th century BCE Umm al-Amad Louvre none On the front, a Phoenician palmette [3] 1860, Renan [12]
National Museum of Beirut – Thrones of Astarte 3.jpg Umm al-Amad National Museum of Beirut none The front is broken. Horizontal seat, rounded front. Backrest without decoration. Large throne which could fit a person. [3] Dunand
Astarte's throne.jpg Temple of Eshmun Temple of Eshmun none Dunand
Marble Throne.jpg Temple of Eshmun National Museum of Beirut none Dunand
Throne of Astarte from unknown location in Lebanon (Hellenistic period).jpg Hellenistic Unknown National Museum of Beirut none

Gallery

References

  1. ^ Milik, 1967
  2. ^ a b Davila and Zuckerman (1993), p.77: "Compare the votive throne discovered at Umm el-'Amed (Dunand and Duru 1962: 168 pl. 67). The lower part of the throne is badly damaged, but the heads are preserved. The heads are human, and each bears a head-dress or coiffure that reaches down to the shoulders. They also have stylized beards. On our throne, what remains of the headdresses/coiffures and beards of the cherubs stylistically parallels those of the Umm el-'Amed cherubs. In fact, it seems quite probable that they stem from the same artistic and iconographic milieu. We may further note the cherub thrones depicted on a Late Bronze/ Iron I ivory from Megiddo, the sarcophagus of Ahiram (cf. Pritchard 1969: figs. 332, 456-59, respectively), a relief from Hadrumetum/Sousse (Cintas 1947: pls. 48-49), and a scarab from Sardinia (Bisi 1967: fig. 57). In each of those exemplars the cherubs have a feline body with wings, a tail, and styled hair, but no beard."
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Henri Seyrig's original list of 10 known thrones in 1959: Seyrig, 1959, page 51-52
  4. ^ M. Dunand, Excavations of Byblos, II, p. 79, no.7225, p. 152
  5. ^ Dunand, Bulletin du Musée de Beyrouth, V, 1941, p. 93, where the origin is given as unknown.
  6. ^ Ch. Virolleaud, Syria, V, 1924, p. 119, pi. 32, where the origin is given as unknown. The throne had been received in Sidon by L. Brossé: cf. Noel Aimé-Giron, Bulletin de l'Institut Français d'Archéologie Orientale, XXV, 1925, p. 206
  7. ^ Noel Aimé-Giron, Bulletin de l'Institut Français d'Archéologie Orientale, XXXIV, 1933, pp. 31-; R. Dussaud, Syria, XIV, 1933, pp. 335-
  8. ^ G. Mendel, Catal. of sculpt. (Museums imper. Ottom.), I, n ° 92 (attribution in the 5th century); Noel Aimé-Giron, Bulletin de l'Institut Français d'Archéologie Orientale, XXV, 1924, pp. 191-; cf. R. Dussaud, Syria, VI, 1925, pp. 95-
  9. ^ Sébastien Ronzevalle, Note sur un monument phénicien de la région de Tyr; In: Comptes rendus des séances de l'Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres, 51ᵉ année, N. 10, 1907. pp. 589-598; DOI : https://doi.org/10.3406/crai.1907.71970
  10. ^ Ronzevalle, 1909, p.755-
  11. ^ Clermont-Ganneau, in Repert. epigr. sémit., n ° 800.
  12. ^ E. Renan, Mission de Phénicie (1865–1874), p.707 and plate LIII: "Le petit fauteuil représenté planche LIII est une restitution en partie hypothétique de l’ensemble formé par deux fragments que nous avons rapportés (au Louvre, Catal. n° 75 et 76). Le globe ailé, les bras en forme d’aile, les sculptures fines, quoique très-frustes, du devant sont certains. Les figures des angles sont très-difficiles à agencer." [translated: "The small armchair shown on Plate LIII is a partly hypothetical restitution of the whole formed by two fragments that we have brought back (to the Louvre, Catal. N ° 75 and 76). The winged globe, the wing-shaped arms, the fine, though very rough, carvings on the front are certain. The angle figures are very difficult to arrange."
  13. ^ Noël Aimé-Giron, Un ex-voto à Astarté, BIFAO 25 (1925), p. 191-211

Bibliography

External links