Thomson Viper FilmStream Camera
The Thomson Viper FilmStream Camera is a digital movie camera produced by Thomson Multimedia (now Technicolor SA) that was first introduced in the early 2000s,  during the rise in popularity of digital cinematography in feature films. The subsequent developments in HD, UHD, and HDR cameras were influenced by the Viper and its contemporaries. 
The Viper FilmStream was announced in 2002  by Thomson after being developed by its Grass Valley subsidiary  which it had purchased earlier that year.  It followed on the tails of the early Sony CineAlta cameras and preceded the Panavision Genesis  by less than a year. One feature of the Viper was that it could replay takes immediately after they were shot, which certain cameras of the era (such as early versions of the Genesis)  could not.
Films shot on the Viper include Michael Mann's Collateral, Miami Vice, and Public Enemies and David Fincher's Zodiac and The Curious Case of Benjamin Button. Cinematographer Dion Beebe described the Viper as the "primary camera" on Collateral;  on both Zodiac  and Collateral 35mm film was used only for overcranking.   Zodiac was the first digital feature film made by a major studio without using videotape or compression in its capture or editing.   Fincher became interested in using the camera on a feature film after shooting commercials for Nike and Xelibri with it. 
- Sensors: : 3 x 2/3" HD-DPM 9.2 million pixel CCDs 
- Effective pixels: 1920 (vertical) x 4320 (horizontal sub-pixels); aspect ratio 16:9 (1.77:1) in 1080 and 720 line modes, or 2.37:1 in 1080p mode
- Bit depth: 12-bit linear A-D conversion, mapped to 10-bit logarithmic signals for downstream processing
- Power: 12V DC nominal (11.5 – 17V); ~44W (including 2" viewfinder and FilmStream adapter)
- Mount: Standard B4 lens mount for popular digital cinematography prime and zoom lenses
- Weight: 4.3 kg including 2" viewfinder and FilmStream adapter
- Overall dimensions: 197mm x 117mm x 349mm
- Optical filters: f1.4 prism system; first filter wheel clear, 2-stop, 4-stop, 6-stop ND; second filter wheel clear, 4-point star, 6-point star, soft focus
- Formats and Frames per second:
- 1080p at 23.98, 24, 25, and 29.97 fps
- 1080i at 50 and 59.94 Hz
- 720p at 23.98, 24, 25, 29.97, 50, and 59.94 fps.
- Multiple field recording options:
- Solid-state, on-camera RAM recorder for cable-free operation
- High-capacity field recorder with exchangeable disk packs
- Third-party field recording support
- April 2002, TVTechnology 04. "Thomson to Unveil Viper FilmStream Camera". TVTechnology. Retrieved 2020-06-13.
- February 2017, Michael Balderston 02. "Grass Valley's Viper FilmStream Camera Earns Technical Oscar". TVTechnology. Retrieved 2020-06-13.
- "Viper FilmStream Camera System" (PDF).
- "Thomson completes acquisition of Grass Valley Group". www.bizjournals.com. Retrieved 2020-06-13.
- "PANAVISION'S GENESIS CAMERA HONORED WITH AN ENGINEERING EMMY". Panavision. Retrieved 2020-06-13.
- "Side by Side - David Fincher on Digital Cameras".
- "Thomson's Grass Valley Viper Digital Cinematography Camera Debuts in First Major Motion Picture - 'Collateral' from DreamWorks". www.businesswire.com. 2004-08-10. Retrieved 2020-06-13.
- "Zodiac: Cold Case File - The American Society of Cinematographers". ascmag.com. Retrieved 2020-06-13.
- "How DP Dion Beebe adapted to HD for Michael Mann's Collateral". Studio Daily. 2004-08-01. Retrieved 2020-06-13.
- "Zodiac and the Ends of Cinema • Senses of Cinema". sensesofcinema.com. Retrieved 2020-06-13.
- "David Fincher's "Zodiac" Shot With Grass Valley Viper FilmStream Camera System – Creative Planet Network". creativeplanetnetwork.com. Retrieved 2020-06-13.
- "Director David Fincher Goes Tapeless for "Zodiac" – Creative Planet Network". creativeplanetnetwork.com. Retrieved 2020-06-13.