Technology transfer in computer science

From Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Technology_transfer_in_computer_science

Technology transfer in computer science refers to the transfer of technology developed in computer science or applied computing research, from universities and governments to the private sector. These technologies may be abstract, such as algorithms and data structures, or concrete, such as open source software packages.

Examples

Notable examples of technology transfer in computer science include:

Year of transfer Technology

Field(s)

Originally developed at Transfer method(s) Commercialised at Patented Used by
c. 1964 BASIC Programming languages Dartmouth College Freeware Computer manufacturers and others No Numerous BASIC dialects
1974 (Internet Protocol published)

1992 (interconnection)

The Internet Computer networking

The Internet

Advanced Research Projects Agency RFC

1992 law permitting commercial interconnection

Numerous companies No Millions of web sites and other internet properties
1981 KMS Hypertext Carnegie Mellon University Spin-out Knowledge Systems No ?
1984 MATLAB Programming languages

Scientific computing

Numerical computing

University of New Mexico [1] Incorporation and rewrite [1] MathWorks No (original)

Yes (from 2001) [2]

Millions of users
c. 1985 HyperTIES Hypertext University of Maryland [3] Licensing [3] Cognetics Corporation ? Union Carbide, Hewlett-Packard, others [4]
1990 (initial software)

1994 (Netscape) [5]

World Wide Web Hypertext

World Wide Web

CERN Unfettered use (no patents)

Consortium (to create recommended standards)

Netscape and others No Millions of web sites
1991 Gopher Computer networking

The Internet

Information retrieval

University of Minnesota RFC

Freeware

Numerous companies No Numerous Gopher sites
1998 PageRank Information retrieval

World Wide Web

Algorithms

Stanford University Spin-out Google Yes Google Search
2004 (software)

2011 (incorporation)

Scala Programming languages

Object-oriented programming

École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne Open source Typesafe Inc. and others ? Play, Akka and others
2013 CRDTs Distributed computing INRIA and others ? Basho Technologies [6] No Riak [6]

References

  1. ^ a b Moler, Cleve (2004). "The Origins of MATLAB". Mathworks.com. Retrieved 19 November 2014. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter ( link)
  2. ^ "Patents". Mathworks.com. Retrieved 19 November 2014. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter ( link)
  3. ^ a b "Hypertext Research: The Development of HyperTIES". Human Computer Interaction Lab. University of Maryland. Retrieved 22 November 2014. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter ( link)
  4. ^ "Cognetics History". Cognetics Corporation. Retrieved 22 November 2014. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter ( link)
  5. ^ Lasar, Matthew (11 October 2011). "Before Netscape: the forgotten Web browsers of the early 1990s". Ars Technica. Retrieved 22 November 2014. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter ( link)
  6. ^ a b "Introducing Riak 2.0: Data Types, Strong Consistency, Full-Text Search, and Much More". Basho Technologies. 29 October 2013. Retrieved 29 November 2014. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter ( link)