Technology acceptance model
The technology acceptance model (TAM) is an information systems theory that models how users come to accept and use a technology.
The actual system use is the end-point where people use the technology. Behavioral intention is a factor that leads people to use the technology. The behavioral intention (BI) is influenced by the attitude (A) which is the general impression of the technology.
The model suggests that when users are presented with a new technology, a number of factors influence their decision about how and when they will use it, notably:
- Perceived usefulness (PU) – This was defined by Fred Davis as "the degree to which a person believes that using a particular system would enhance their job performance". It means whether or not someone perceives that technology to be useful for what they want to do.
- Perceived ease-of-use (PEOU) – Davis defined this as "the degree to which a person believes that using a particular system would be free from effort" ( Davis 1989). If the technology is easy to use, then the barriers conquered. If it's not easy to use and the interface is complicated, no one has a positive attitude towards it.
Technology Acceptance Model
Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) is theory majorly in the information system. It focuses on modeling computer users and showing them on how they can accept and adopt a new technology. It was designed to predict the technology adoption decisions of users. Technology Acceptance Model is usually used to predict. It indicates that there are only two components that determine the users' acceptance of a computer system. The two components that determine computer acceptance are the perceived usefulness and the perceived ease of use of the system. The main aim of this model is that it emphasizes the potential of the users. In other words, it underscores, for example, when a developer of a given technology believes that his or her system is friendly to the users. Inversely, the system is not be accepted by the users not unless the developers share the benefits and advantages of the technology system, as stated by Ibrahim et al. (2017).
The perceived usefulness component in Technology Acceptance Model is the degree to which a computer system user believes that using a particular computer system will enhance his or her performance (Opoku, 2020). It usually refers to consumers' perceptions based on the outcome of their experience. The existence of perceived usefulness has significantly been recognized in many businesses, primarily in the banking sector. In other occurrences, it is regarded and taken as a determinant of actual behavior whereby a user is encouraged to use an innovative and user-friendly self-service technology to improve and establish greater autonomy in performing some banking activities such as transactions. However, in the banking industry, the perceived usefulness component is based. It depends on the services offered by the bank, such as applying for loans, checking balances, checking, and paying utility bills. For instance, it is a critical component in this sector since it determines the adaptation of innovation.
On the other hand, the perceived ease of use of the system is how a user accepts and agrees that using an existing model is not costly. Therefore, it is not hard or difficult to understand the perceived innovation. In this model, consumers perceive a new service better than its substitutes. This is because they can easily experiment with the latest innovation and evaluate its benefits. In the e-commerce industry, perceived ease of use is widespread. Many consumers believe that after online shopping, their performance will increase. Therefore, perceived ease of use is a practical aspect that has an impact on online shopping.
Tam impacts on educational settings
With the incorporation of the Technology Acceptance Model in schools, the main aim of the model is to change how students and teachers analyze, determine and organize information. It has democratized information in a school setting. It has also helped in differentiating instructions, especially for students with disabilities. Lubis et al. (2019) argue that many schools today are privileged to integrate Technology Acceptance Model into their systems. Technology Acceptance Model has been used in special needs children to maintain, increase and improve the capacity capabilities of the students. Thus, incorporating the Technology Acceptance Model has also benefited the students with disabilities, specifically those who are in a better position to interact with the lesson using this model. On the other hand, teachers are also in a better place to customize and change the learning process for students with special needs, as Louissaint et al. (2020) stated.
Also, with the widespread of databases in educational settings, Technology Acceptance Model is used to track individual progress. However, teachers and the staff are encouraged to identify and differentiate the learning objectives and instruction, respectively, based on the student's needs. Also, teachers and the team use TAM to attempt to present education. It makes it easy for them to learn new teaching styles. Students with special needs are educated alongside their non-disabled peers in their entire schooling activities through the Technology Acceptance Model. Therefore, it leads to increased knowledge, personal control, and flexibility among the students. It also impacts the teachers since it makes them have a clever use of information which leads to better productivity in the educational setting.
Overview and findings presented
The acceptance of the Technology Acceptance Model has wide-ranging applications in the educational setting. Applying a well-developed model, the Technology Acceptance Model, in the academic environment significantly influences the students and the teachers. Besides, much research between the students who are the consumers and the information systems is devoted to classification systems. Therefore, the development of a classification system is usually developed for domestic technologies to impact a valuable paradigm for future research positively. On the findings, it is clear that an emerging within the domain of assistive technologies such as the Technology Acceptance Model is usually designed to allow disabled and people with disabilities to gain knowledge and live independently. Thus, this critical aspect of increasing integration through TAM has increased complexity in an educational setting (Tan & Hsu, 2018).
The technology acceptance model (TAM) is a critical aspect in many sectors, including the education setting. When it is in place, people have the intention and attitude to use technology. However, they may have different perceptions regarding the model based on their age, gender, and other unique differences. For instance, in an education setting, the technology acceptance model (TAM) has been used by teachers to change their teaching styles. This has dramatically impacted the students. It has given students the critical knowledge they need to depend on themselves.
External variables such as social influence is an important factor to determine the attitude. When these things (TAM) are in place, people will have the attitude and intention to use the technology. However, the perception may change depending on age and gender because everyone is different.
The TAM has been continuously studied and expanded—the two major upgrades being the TAM 2 ( Venkatesh & Davis 2000 & Venkatesh 2000) and the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (or UTAUT, Venkatesh et al. 2003). A TAM 3 has also been proposed in the context of e-commerce with an inclusion of the effects of trust and perceived risk on system use ( Venkatesh & Bala 2008).
TAM is one of the most influential extensions of Ajzen and Fishbein's theory of reasoned action (TRA) in the literature. Davis's technology acceptance model (Davis, 1989; Davis, Bagozzi, & Warshaw, 1989) is the most widely applied model of users' acceptance and usage of technology (Venkatesh, 2000). It was developed by Fred Davis and Richard Bagozzi ( Davis 1989, Bagozzi, Davis & Warshaw 1992 ). TAM replaces many of TRA's attitude measures with the two technology acceptance measures—ease of use, and usefulness. TRA and TAM, both of which have strong behavioural elements, assume that when someone forms an intention to act, that they will be free to act without limitation. In the real world there will be many constraints, such as limited freedom to act ( Bagozzi, Davis & Warshaw 1992).
Bagozzi, Davis and Warshaw say:
Because new technologies such as personal computers are complex and an element of uncertainty exists in the minds of decision makers with respect to the successful adoption of them, people form attitudes and intentions toward trying to learn to use the new technology prior to initiating efforts directed at using. Attitudes towards usage and intentions to use may be ill-formed or lacking in conviction or else may occur only after preliminary strivings to learn to use the technology evolve. Thus, actual usage may not be a direct or immediate consequence of such attitudes and intentions. ( Bagozzi, Davis & Warshaw 1992)
Earlier research on the diffusion of innovations also suggested a prominent role for perceived ease of use. Tornatzky and Klein ( Tornatzky & Klein 1982) analysed the adoption, finding that compatibility, relative advantage, and complexity had the most significant relationships with adoption across a broad range of innovation types. Eason studied perceived usefulness in terms of a fit between systems, tasks and job profiles, using the terms "task fit" to describe the metric (quoted in Stewart 1986) Legris, Ingham & Collerette 2003 suggest that TAM must be extended to include variables that account for change processes and that this could be achieved through adoption of the innovation model into TAM.
Several researchers have replicated Davis's original study ( Davis 1989) to provide empirical evidence on the relationships that exist between usefulness, ease of use and system use ( Adams, Nelson & Todd 1992; Davis 1989; Hendrickson, Massey & Cronan 1993; Segars & Grover 1993; Subramanian 1994; Szajna 1994). Much attention has focused on testing the robustness and validity of the questionnaire instrument used by Davis. Adams et al. ( Adams 1992 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFAdams1992 ( help)) replicated the work of Davis ( Davis 1989) to demonstrate the validity and reliability of his instrument and his measurement scales. They also extended it to different settings and, using two different samples, they demonstrated the internal consistency and replication reliability of the two scales. Hendrickson et al. ( Hendrickson, Massey & Cronan 1993) found high reliability and good test-retest reliability. Szajna ( Szajna 1994) found that the instrument had predictive validity for intent to use, self-reported usage and attitude toward use. The sum of this research has confirmed the validity of the Davis instrument, and to support its use with different populations of users and different software choices.
Segars and Grover ( Segars & Grover 1993) re-examined Adams et al.'s ( Adams, Nelson & Todd 1992) replication of the Davis work. They were critical of the measurement model used, and postulated a different model based on three constructs: usefulness, effectiveness, and ease-of-use. These findings do not yet seem to have been replicated. However, some aspects of these findings were tested and supported by Workman ( Workman 2007) by separating the dependent variable into information use versus technology use.
Mark Keil and his colleagues have developed (or, perhaps rendered more popularisable) Davis's model into what they call the Usefulness/ EOU Grid, which is a 2×2 grid where each quadrant represents a different combination of the two attributes. In the context of software use, this provides a mechanism for discussing the current mix of usefulness and EOU for particular software packages, and for plotting a different course if a different mix is desired, such as the introduction of even more powerful software ( Keil, Beranek & Konsynski 1995). The TAM model has been used in most technological and geographic contexts. One of these contexts is health care, which is growing rapidly 
Venkatesh and Davis extended the original TAM model to explain perceived usefulness and usage intentions in terms of social influence (subjective norms, voluntariness, image) and cognitive instrumental processes (job relevance, output quality, result demonstrability, perceived ease of use). The extended model, referred to as TAM2, was tested in both voluntary and mandatory settings. The results strongly supported TAM2 ( Venkatesh & Davis 2000).
- Subjective norm – An individual's perception that other individuals who are important to him/she consider if he/she could perform a behavior. This was consistent with the theory of reasoned action (TRA).
- Voluntariness – This was defined by Venkatesh & Davis as "extent to which potential adopters perceive the adoption decision to be non-mandatory" ( Venkatesh & Davis 2000).
- Image – This was defined by Moore & Benbasat as "the degree to which use of an innovation perceived to enhance one's status in one's social system" ( Moore & Benbasat 1991 ).
- Job relevance – Venkatesh & Davis defined this as personal perspective on the extent to which the target system is suitable for the job ( Venkatesh & Davis 2000).
- Output quality – Venkatesh & Davis defined this as personal perception of the system's ability to perform specific tasks ( Venkatesh & Davis 2000).
- Result demonstrability – The production of tangible results will directly influence the system's usefulness ( Moore & Benbasat 1991).
In an attempt to integrate the main competing user acceptance models, Venkatesh et al. formulated the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT). This model was found to outperform each of the individual models (Adjusted R square of 69 percent) ( Venkatesh et al. 2003). UTAUT has been adopted by some recent studies in healthcare. 
- The MPT model: Independent of TAM, Scherer ( Scherer 1986 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFScherer1986 ( help)) developed the matching person and technology model in 1986 as part of her National Science Foundation-funded dissertation research. The MPT model is fully described in her 1993 text ( Scherer 2005, 1st ed. 1993), "Living in the State of Stuck", now in its 4th edition. The MPT model has accompanying assessment measures used in technology selection and decision-making, as well as outcomes research on differences among technology users, non-users, avoiders, and reluctant users.
- The HMSAM: TAM has been effective for explaining many kinds of systems use (i.e. e-learning, learning management systems, webportals, etc.) (Fathema, Shannon, Ross, 2015; Fathema, Ross, Witte, 2014). However, TAM is not ideally suited to explain adoption of purely intrinsic or hedonic systems (e.g., online games, music, learning for pleasure). Thus, an alternative model to TAM, called the hedonic-motivation system adoption model (HMSAM) was proposed for these kinds of systems by Lowry et al. ( Lowry et al. 2013). HMSAM is designed to improve the understanding of hedonic-motivation systems (HMS) adoption. HMS are systems used primarily to fulfill users' intrinsic motivations, such for online gaming, virtual worlds, online shopping, learning/education, online dating, digital music repositories, social networking, only pornography, gamified systems, and for general gamification. Instead of a minor TAM extension, HMSAM is an HMS-specific system acceptance model based on an alternative theoretical perspective, which is in turn grounded in flow-based cognitive absorption (CA). HMSAM may be especially useful in understanding gamification elements of systems use.
- Extended TAM: Several studies proposed extension of original TAM (Davis, 1989) by adding external variables in it with an aim of exploring the effects of external factors on users' attitude, behavioral intention and actual use of technology. Several factors have been examined so far. For example, perceived self-efficacy, facilitating conditions, and systems quality (Fathema, Shannon, Ross, 2015, Fathema, Ross, Witte, 2014). This model has also been applied in the acceptance of health care technologies. 
TAM has been widely criticised, despite its frequent use, leading the original proposers to attempt to redefine it several times. Criticisms of TAM as a "theory" include its questionable heuristic value, limited explanatory and predictive power, triviality, and lack of any practical value ( Chuttur 2009). Benbasat and Barki suggest that TAM "has diverted researchers' attention away from other important research issues and has created an illusion of progress in knowledge accumulation. Furthermore, the independent attempts by several researchers to expand TAM in order to adapt it to the constantly changing IT environments has lead [ sic] to a state of theoretical chaos and confusion" ( Benbasat & Barki 2007). In general, TAM focuses on the individual 'user' of a computer, with the concept of 'perceived usefulness', with extension to bring in more and more factors to explain how a user 'perceives' 'usefulness', and ignores the essentially social processes of IS development and implementation, without question where more technology is actually better, and the social consequences of IS use. Lunceford argues that the framework of perceived usefulness and ease of use overlooks other issues, such as cost and structural imperatives that force users into adopting the technology.  For a recent analysis and critique of TAM, see Bagozzi ( Bagozzi 2007).
Legris et al.  claim that, together, TAM and TAM2 account for only 40% of a technological system's use.
Perceived ease of use is less likely to be a determinant of attitude and usage intention according to studies of telemedicine ( Hu et al. 1999 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFHuChauShengTam1999 ( help)) mobile commerce ( Wu & Wang 2005, and online banking ( Pikkarainen 2004 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFPikkarainen2004 ( help))
- Diffusion (business)
- Diffusion of innovations
- Domestication theory
- Lazy user model
- List of marketing topics
- New product development
- Product life cycle management
- Research and development
- Technology adoption lifecycle
- Technology lifecycle
- Theory of planned behavior
- Technology–organization–environment framework
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