Steven Allan Spielberg
December 18, 1946
|Alma mater||California State University, Long Beach ( BA)|
|Children||7, including Sasha and Jessica Capshaw (stepdaughter)|
|Relatives||Anne Spielberg (sister)|
Steven Allan Spielberg ( //; born December 18, 1946) is an American film director, producer, and screenwriter. He began his career in the New Hollywood era and is currently the most commercially successful director. Spielberg is the recipient of various accolades, including three Academy Awards (with two for Best Director), a Kennedy Center honor, a Cecil B. DeMille Award, and an AFI Life Achievement Award.
Spielberg was born in Cincinnati, Ohio, and grew up in Phoenix, Arizona. He later moved to California and studied film in college. After directing television episodes and several minor films for Universal Studios, he became a household name for directing 1975's summer blockbuster Jaws. He then directed box office successes Close Encounters of the Third Kind (1977), E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial (1982), and the adventure films in the Indiana Jones series. Spielberg later explored drama in The Color Purple (1985) and Empire of the Sun (1987).
After a brief hiatus, he directed back to back box office successes with the acclaimed science fiction action film Jurassic Park and the holocaust drama Schindler's List (both 1993). In 1998, he directed the World War II epic Saving Private Ryan, which was both a critical and commercial success. Spielberg continued in the 2000s with science fiction, including A.I. Artificial Intelligence (2001), Minority Report (2002) and War of the Worlds (2005). He has since directed several fantasy films including The Adventures of Tintin (2011), and Ready Player One (2018), the historical dramas War Horse (2011), Lincoln (2012), and The Post (2017), and the musical film West Side Story (2021).
In addition to filmmaking, he co-founded Amblin Entertainment and DreamWorks, and has served as a producer for many television series and films. Spielberg is also known for his long time collaboration with composer John Williams, with whom he has worked for all but five of his feature films. Several of Spielberg's works are among the highest-grossing films of all time and have received acclaim; seven of his films have been inducted into the National Film Registry by the Library of Congress as being "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant".
Early life and background
Steven Allan Spielberg was born on December 18, 1946 in Cincinnati, Ohio.   His mother, Leah ( née Posner, later Adler; 1920–2017),  was a restaurateur and concert pianist, and his father, Arnold Spielberg (1917–2020),  was an electrical engineer involved in the development of computers. His family were Orthodox Jewish.   Spielberg's paternal grandparents were Ashkenazi Jews from Ukraine,   who settled in Cincinnati in the 1900s; his grandmother was from Sudylkiv, and his grandfather was from Kamianets-Podilskyi.   Spielberg has three younger sisters: Anne, Sue and Nancy.  In 1952, his family moved to Haddon Township, New Jersey after his father was hired by RCA.  Spielberg attended Hebrew school from 1953 to 1957, in classes taught by Rabbi Albert L. Lewis. 
In early 1957, the family moved to Phoenix, Arizona.   Spielberg had a bar mitzvah ceremony when he was thirteen.  His family was involved in the synagogue and had many Jewish friends.  Of the Holocaust, he said that his parents "talked about it all the time, and so it was always on my mind."  His father had lost between sixteen and twenty relatives in the Holocaust.  Spielberg found it difficult accepting his heritage; he said: "It isn't something I enjoy admitting [...] but when I was seven, eight, nine years old, God forgive me, I was embarrassed because we were Orthodox Jews. I was embarrassed by the outward perception of my parents' Jewish practices. I was never really ashamed to be Jewish, but I was uneasy at times."   Spielberg also suffered from anti-Semitism: "In high school, I got smacked and kicked around. Two bloody noses. It was horrible."    He grew away from Judaism during adolescence, after his family had moved to various neighborhoods and found themselves to be the only Jews.  
At age 12, he made his first home movie: a train wreck involving his toy Lionel trains.  In 1958, he became a Boy Scout and fulfilled a requirement for the photography merit badge by making a nine-minute, 8 mm film titled The Last Gunfight.   He eventually attained the rank of Eagle Scout.  Spielberg used his father's movie camera to make amateur features, and began taking the camera along on every Scout trip.  At age 13, Spielberg made a 40-minute war film, titled Escape to Nowhere, with a cast of school classmates. The film won first prize in a statewide competition.   Throughout his early teens, and after entering high school, Spielberg made about fifteen to twenty 8 mm "adventure" films.  
In Phoenix, Spielberg watched films at the local theatre every Saturday.  Some of the films he cited as early influences include King of the Monsters (1956),  Captains Courageous (1937), Pinocchio (1940), and Lawrence of Arabia (1962), which he cited as "the film that set me on my journey".  He attended Arcadia High School in 1961 for three years.  He wrote and directed his first independent film in 1963, a 140-minute science fiction adventure called Firelight, which would later inspire Close Encounters of The Third Kind. The film was mainly funded by his father, which had a budget of under $600, and was shown in a local theatre for one evening.   In the summer of 1964, he worked as an unpaid assistant at Universal Studios' editorial department.   His family later moved to Saratoga, California where he attended Saratoga High School, graduating in 1965.  A year later, his parents divorced. Spielberg moved to Los Angeles to stay with his father,  while his three sisters and mother remained in Saratoga. He was not interested in academics; he aspired to be only a filmmaker.  He applied to the University of Southern California's film school but was turned down because of his mediocre grades.  He then applied and enrolled at California State University, Long Beach, where he became a brother of Theta Chi Fraternity.  
In 1968, Universal gave Spielberg the opportunity to write and direct a short film for theatrical release, the 26-minute, 35 mm Amblin'. Studio vice-president Sidney Sheinberg was impressed by the award-winning film, and offered Spielberg a seven-year directing contract.  A year later, he dropped out of college to begin directing television productions for Universal.  It made him the youngest director to be signed to a long-term plan with a major Hollywood studio.  Spielberg returned to Long Beach in 2002 to complete his Bachelor of Arts in Film and Electronic Media. 
1969–1974: Entering film and television
Spielberg's first professional job came when he was hired to direct one of the segments for the 1969 pilot episode of Night Gallery, written by Rod Serling and starring Joan Crawford.  Crawford was "speechless, and then horrified" at the thought of a young and inexperienced newcomer directing her. Spielberg attempted to impress his colleagues with fancy camerawork, but executives ordered him to shoot it quickly. His contributions were not well received, thus Spielberg took a short break from the studio.  However, Crawford said of the director:
When I began to work with Steven, I understood everything. It was immediately obvious to me, and probably everyone else, that here was a young genius. I thought maybe more experience was important, but then I thought of all of those experienced directors who didn't have Steven's intuitive inspiration and who just kept repeating the same old routine performances. That was called "experience." I knew then that Steven Spielberg had a brilliant future ahead of him. Hollywood doesn't always recognize talent, but Steven's was not going to be overlooked. I told him so in a note I wrote him. I wrote to Rod Serling, too. I was so grateful that he had approved Steven as the director. I told him he had been totally right. 
In the early 1970s, Spielberg unsuccessfully tried to raise finance for his own low-budget films. He turned to writing screenplays with other writers, and then directing television episodes. These included the series: Marcus Welby, M.D., The Name of the Game (" L.A. 2017"), Columbo, Owen Marshall, Counselor at Law and The Psychiatrist.  Although unsatisfied with this work,  Spielberg used the opportunity to experiment with his techniques and learn about filmmaking. The director earned good reviews and impressed producers; he was earning a steady income and relocated to Laurel Canyon, Los Angeles. 
Based on the strength of his work, Universal signed Spielberg to do four television films.  The first was Duel (1971), adapted from Richard Matheson's short story of the same name. It is about a psychotic tanker truck driver who chases a terrified salesman ( Dennis Weaver) down a highway. Impressed with the film, executives decided to promote the film on television. Reviews were mainly positive, and Universal asked Spielberg to shoot more scenes so that Duel could be released to international markets.  Several films followed soon after: Something Evil (1972), and Savage (1973). Both features gained mixed reviews. 
In 1974, Spielberg made his debut in a theatrical film, The Sugarland Express, about a married couple on the run, desperate to regain custody of their baby from foster parents. Based on a true story,  the film would mark the first of many collaborations with composer John Williams; the director was impressed with his previous soundtracks.  The film opened to four hundred theatres in the U.S. to positive reviews,  and The Hollywood Reporter wrote that "a major new director is on the horizon."  Although the film was honored for Best Screenplay at the 1974 Cannes Film Festival, it was not a commercial success.   Spielberg blamed Universal's inconsistent marketing for its poor box office results. 
1975–1983: Film breakthrough
Producers Richard D. Zanuck and David Brown took a chance with Spielberg, and gave him the opportunity to direct Jaws (1975), a horror-thriller based on the Peter Benchley novel of the same name. In the film, a great white shark attacks beachgoers at a summer resort town, prompting police chief Martin Brody ( Roy Scheider) to hunt it with the help of a marine biologist ( Richard Dreyfuss). Filming proved to be challenging; Spielberg almost drowned and escaped being crushed from boats. The filming schedule overran by a hundred days, and Universal also threatened to cancel production.  Against expectations, the film was a critical success; Jaws won three Academy Awards, in Best Film Editing, Best Original Dramatic Score, and Best Sound, and grossed more than $470 million worldwide.  It also set the domestic box office record, leading to what the press described as "Jawsmania",  and making Spielberg a household name.  After watching the unconventional, off-center camera techniques of Jaws, Alfred Hitchcock praised "young Spielberg", for thinking outside of the visual dynamics of the theater, saying "He's the first one of us who doesn't see the proscenium arch". 
After the success of Jaws, the director turned down an offer to make its sequel, Jaws 2.  Spielberg and Richard Dreyfuss re-convened to work on a film about UFOs: Close Encounters of the Third Kind (1977). During filming, Spielberg used 65 mm film for the best picture quality, and a new live-action recording system so that the recordings could be duplicated later.   One of the rare films both written and directed by himself, Close Encounters was very popular with film-goers,  and Spielberg received his first Best Director nomination from the Academy Awards. It also earned six more nominations, winning Best Cinematography, and Best Sound Effects Editing.  A Special Edition version of the film, featuring both shortened and newly added scenes, was released theatrically in 1980. 
His next film was 1979's big-budget action-comedy 1941, about Californians preparing for a Japanese invasion after the attack on Pearl Harbor. Spielberg was self-conscious about doing comedy as he had no prior experience in it. However, he was keen on tackling a lighthearted genre.  Universal and Columbia agreed to co-finance the film. Upon release, it grossed over $92.4 million worldwide,  but most critics including the studio heads disliked the film.  Writing for the Los Angeles Times, Charles Champlin described 1941 as "the most conspicuous waste since the last major oil spill, which it somewhat resembles".  Another critic wrote "1941 isn't simply a silly slur against any particular race, sex, or generation—it makes war against all humanity." 
Next, Spielberg collaborated with Star Wars creator George Lucas on an action adventure, Raiders of the Lost Ark (1981), the first film in the Indiana Jones franchise. The title character was played by Harrison Ford (whom Lucas had previously cast in his Star Wars films as Han Solo). Ford was Spielberg's first choice for the role. Filmed in North Africa, the shoot was difficult but Spielberg said that the experience helped him with his business acumen.  The film was a success at the box office,  and won five Academy Awards; Spielberg received his second nomination for Best Director, and Best Picture.  Raiders of the Lost Ark was considered by Spielberg and Lucas as a homage to the serials of the 1930s and 1940s.  Spielberg started to co-produce films, including 1982's Poltergeist,  and directed the segment "Kick The Can" in The Twilight Zone.  In a previous segment, Vic Morrow and two child actors were killed in a stunt helicopter crash. Spielberg was not directing or present during the incident, and was cleared of any wrongdoing by the National Transportation Safety Board. 
A year later, Spielberg returned to science fiction with E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial (1982). It is the story of a young boy ( Henry Thomas) and the alien he befriends, who was accidentally left behind by his companions and is attempting to return home. Spielberg shot the film mostly in sequence to keep the children spontaneous towards the climax. E.T. premiered at the 1982 Cannes Film Festival to an ecstatic reaction; producer Kathleen Kennedy recalled, "You couldn't hear the end of the movie because people were on their feet stomping and yelling [...] It was one of the most amazing experiences."  A special screening was organized for President Reagan and his wife Nancy, who were emotional by the end of the film.  E.T. grossed $700 million worldwide, and spawned a range of merchandise which would eventually earn up to $1 billion.  The film was nominated for nine Academy Awards, winning Best Sound Effects, Best Special Effects, and Best Music. 
His next directorial feature was the Raiders of the Lost Ark prequel, Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom (1984). Working once again with George Lucas and Harrison Ford, the film was shot in the United States, Sri Lanka and China.  This film and Gremlins led to the creation of the PG-13 rating because some of the material was not suitable for children under 13.  Temple of Doom was rated PG-13 by the MPAA; some scenes depicted children working in the mines.  The director later said that he was unhappy with the Temple of Doom because it did not have his "personal touches and love".  Nonetheless, the film was a blockbuster hit,  and won an Academy Award for Best Special Effects.  It was on this project that Spielberg also met his future wife, actress Kate Capshaw, who played Willie Scott in the film. 
1984–1990: From producing to directing
In 1984, Spielberg, Frank Marshall, and Kathleen Kennedy founded production company Amblin Entertainment.  Between 1984 and 1990, Spielberg served as either producer or executive producer on nineteen feature films;  these include: The Goonies, The Money Pit, Joe Versus the Volcano, *batteries not included, Back to the Future, Cape Fear, and Who Framed Roger Rabbit.    In some films, such as Harry and the Hendersons and Young Sherlock Holmes, the title "Steven Spielberg Presents" would be shown in the opening credits.  Much of Spielberg's producing work was aimed at children and teens, including cartoons such as Tiny Toon Adventures, Animaniacs, Pinky and the Brain, and Freakazoid!, and Family Dog.  Spielberg also produced the Don Bluth animations, An American Tail and The Land Before Time. 
Beginning in 1985, NBC offered Spielberg a two-year contract on a television series, Amazing Stories; the show was marketed as a blend of The Twilight Zone and Alfred Hitchcock Presents. NBC gave the director complete creative control, and a budget of $1 million for each episode.  After two seasons and disappointing ratings, the show was not renewed.  Although Spielberg's involvement as a producer would vary widely from project to project,  director Robert Zemeckis said that Spielberg would always "respect the filmmaker's vision".  Over the years, Spielberg's record as a producer brought mixed critical and commercial performance.  In 1992, Spielberg began to scale back producing, saying "Producing has been the least fulfilling aspect of what I've done in the last decade."  In 1994, he found success for producing the successful medical drama ER. 
In the early 1980s, Spielberg befriended WarnerMedia CEO Steve Ross, which eventually resulted in the director making films for Warner Bros.  In 1985, Spielberg directed The Color Purple, an adaptation of Alice Walker's Pulitzer Prize-winning novel of the same name, about a generation of empowered African-American women during depression-era America. It was the director's first film on a serious topic; he expressed reservations about tackling the project: "It's the risk of being judged-and accused of not having the sensibility to do character studies."  Starring Whoopi Goldberg and Oprah Winfrey, the film was a box office hit and critics started to take Spielberg's foray into the dramatic genre seriously.  Roger Ebert rated it as the best film of the year.  The film also received eleven Academy Award nominations, and Spielberg won Best Director from the Director's Guild of America. 
As China underwent economic reform and opened up to the American film industry, Spielberg managed to shoot the first American film in Shanghai since the 1930s.  Empire of the Sun (1987), an adaptation of J. G. Ballard's autobiographical novel of the same name, starred John Malkovich and a young Christian Bale.  The film tells the story of Jamie Graham (Bale), a young boy who goes from living in a wealthy British family in Shanghai, to becoming a prisoner of war in a Japanese internment camp during World War II. Critical consensus was mixed at the time of release; criticism ranged from the "overwrought" plot, to Spielberg's downplaying of "disease and starvation".   However, critic Andrew Sarris called it the best film of the year and later included it among the best of the decade.  The film was nominated for six Academy Awards,  but was a commercial disappointment at the box office.  The New York Times thought it was overlooked by audiences;  Spielberg recalled that Empire of the Sun was one of his most enjoyable films to make. 
After those two serious films, Spielberg intended to direct the comedy Rain Man, but instead directed the third Indiana Jones film to meet his contractual obligations: Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade (1989).  Producer George Lucas, and Harrison Ford returned for the film. Spielberg cast Sean Connery in a supporting role as Henry Jones, Sr.  As a result of the mixed reaction to 1984's Temple of Doom, the director toned down the darkness and violence in the third installment.  Last Crusade gained mostly respectful reviews and was a box office success, earning $474 million; it was his biggest hit since 1982's E.T.  Biographer Joseph McBride wrote that it was a comeback for Spielberg, and the director acknowledged the amount he has learned from making all three Indiana Jones films. 
Also in 1989, he reunited with Richard Dreyfuss in the romantic drama Always, about a daredevil pilot who extinguishes forest fires. It is a modern remake of one of Spielberg's childhood favorite films, 1943's A Guy Named Joe. The story was personal to him, and he said "As a child I was very frustrated, and maybe I saw my own parents [in A Guy Named Joe]. I was also short of girlfriends. And it stuck with me."  Spielberg had discussed the film with Dreyfuss back in 1975, with up to twelve drafts being written before filming commenced.  Always was not commercially successful and received mixed reviews.   Janet Maslin of the New York Times wrote, "Always is filled with big, sentimental moments, it lacks the intimacy to make any of this very moving." 
1991–1998: Critical and commercial success
After a brief setback in which the director felt "artistically stalled",  he returned in 1991 with Hook, about a middle-aged Peter Pan, played by Robin Williams, who returns to Neverland. During filming, Williams, co-stars Dustin Hoffman and Julia Roberts clashed on set due to their personalities; Spielberg told the 60 Minutes program that he would never work with Roberts again.  Nominated for five Academy Awards, the studio enjoyed the film but most critics did not, calling it "bloated".  Writing for The Washington Post, Hal Hinson described the film as "too industrially organized", and thought it was mundane.  At the box office, it earned over $300 million worldwide from a $70 million budget.  In 1993, Spielberg served as an executive producer for the NBC science fiction series seaQuest DSV;  the show was not a hit. 
In 1993, Spielberg returned to the adventure genre with Jurassic Park, based on the 1990 novel of the same name by Michael Crichton, and a screenplay by the latter and David Koepp. Jurassic Park is set on a fictional island near Costa Rica, where a team of genetic scientists have created a wildlife park of de-extinct dinosaurs. In a departure from his usual order of planning, Spielberg and the designers storyboarded certain sequences from the novel early on.  The film also used computer-generated imagery provided by Industrial Light & Magic; Jurassic Park was completed on time and became the highest-grossing film at the time, and won three Academy Awards.  The film's dominance during its theatrical run, as well as Spielberg's $250 million salary, caused the director to be self-conscious of his own success. 
Also in 1993, Spielberg directed Schindler's List, about Oskar Schindler, a man who risked his life to save 1,100 Jews from the Holocaust.  Based on Schindler's Ark by Australian novelist Thomas Keneally, Spielberg waited ten years to make the film as he did not feel "mature" enough.  He wanted to embrace his heritage,   and after the birth of his son, Max, he said that "it greatly affected me [...] A spirit began to ignite in me, and I became a Jewish dad".  Filming commenced on March 1, 1993 in Poland, while Spielberg was still editing Jurassic Park in the evenings.  To make filming "bearable", the director brought his wife and children with him.  While Schindler's List was praised by most critics, some reviewers, including filmmaker Claude Lanzmann, criticized the film for its weak representation of the Holocaust.  Imre Kertész, a Hungarian author and concentration camp survivor, called Schindler's List kitsch, saying "I regard as kitsch any representation of the Holocaust that is incapable of understanding or unwilling to understand the organic connection between our own deformed mode of life and the very possibility of the Holocaust."  Against expectations, the film was a commercial success, and Spielberg used his percentage of profits to start the Shoah Foundation, a non-profit organization that archives testimonies of Holocaust survivors.  Schindler's List won seven Academy Awards, including Best Picture, and Spielberg's first as Best Director.  It also won seven BAFTAs, and three Golden Globes.   According to the American Film Institute, Schindler's List is one of the 100 best American films ever made. 
In 1994, Spielberg took a break from directing to spend more time with his family, and setup his new film studio, DreamWorks, with Jeffrey Katzenberg and David Geffen.   Spielberg cited more creative control and distribution improvements as the main reasons for founding his own studio;  he and his partners compared themselves to the founders of United Artists back in 1919.  DreamWorks' investors included Microsoft founders Paul Allen and Bill Gates.  After founding DreamWorks, Spielberg continued to operate Amblin Entertainment and direct films for other studios.  Besides film, the director helped design a Jurassic Park-themed attraction at Universal Orlando in Florida.  The workload of filmmaking and operating a studio raised questions about his commitments, but Spielberg maintained that "this is all fitting nicely into my life and I'm still home by six and I'm still home on the weekends." 
After his hiatus, he returned to directing with a sequel to Jurassic Park: The Lost World: Jurassic Park (1997). A loose adaptation of Michael Crichton's novel, The Lost World, the plot follows mathematician Ian Malcolm ( Jeff Goldblum) and his researchers who study dinosaurs at a Jurassic Park island, and are confronted by another team with a different agenda. This time, Spielberg wanted the onscreen creatures to be more realistic than in the first film; he used 3D storyboards, computer imagery and robotic puppets.  Budgeted at $73 million,  The Lost World: Jurassic Park opened in May 1997 and was one of the highest grossing films of the year.  The Village Voice critic opined that The Lost World was "better crafted but less fun" that the first film, while The Guardian wrote "It looks like a director on autopilot [...] The special effects brook no argument." 
His 1997 feature, Amistad, his first released under DreamWorks, was based on the true story of the events in 1839 aboard the slave ship La Amistad. Producer Debbie Allen, who had read the book Amistad I in 1978, thought Spielberg would be perfect to direct.  Spielberg was hesitant taking on the project, afraid that it would be compared to Schindler's List, but he said, "I've never planned my career [...] In the end I do what I think I gotta do."  Starring Morgan Freeman, Anthony Hopkins, Djimon Hounsou and Matthew McConaughey, the director used Allen's ten years worth of research to reenact the difficult historical scenes.   The film struggled to find an audience, and underperformed at the box office;  Spielberg admitted that "[Amistad] became too much of a history lesson." 
The director's 1998 release was World War II epic Saving Private Ryan, about a group of U.S. soldiers led by Captain Miller ( Tom Hanks) sent to bring home a paratrooper whose three older brothers were killed in the same twenty-four hours of the Normandy landing. Filming took place in England, and U.S. Marine Dale Dye was hired to train the actors and keep them in character during the combat scenes. Halfway through filming, Spielberg reminded the cast that they were making a tribute to thank "your grandparents and my dad, who fought in [the war]".  Upon release, critics praised the direction and its realistic portrayal of war.  The film grossed a successful $481 million worldwide,  and Spielberg won a second Academy Award for Best Director.  In August 1999, Spielberg and Hanks were awarded the Distinguished Public Service Medal from Secretary of Defense William S. Cohen.  
1999–2007: Further directorial work
In 2001, Spielberg and Tom Hanks produced Band of Brothers, a miniseries based on Stephen Ambrose's book of the same name.  The ten-part HBO series follows Easy Company of the 101st Airborne Division's 506th Parachute Infantry Regiment. The series won a Golden Globe for Best Miniseries.  Also in that year, Spielberg returned to film with A.I. Artificial Intelligence, a loose adaptation of the 1969 short story " Supertoys Last All Summer Long" by Brian Aldiss. Filmmaker Stanley Kubrick had first asked Spielberg to direct the feature in 1979. Spielberg tried to make it in the style that Kubrick would have done,  with mixed results according to some reviewers.  The plot revolves around an android called David ( Haley Joel Osment) who wants to be a real boy. Critics thought Spielberg directed with "sentimentality",  and Roger Ebert wrote, "Here is one of the most ambitious films of recent years [...] but it miscalculates in asking us to invest our emotions in a character, a machine."  The film won five Saturn Awards,  and grossed $236 million worldwide. 
Spielberg and Tom Cruise collaborated for the futuristic neo-noir Minority Report (2002), based on the short story by Philip K. Dick, about a group of investigators who try to prevent crimes before they are committed. The film received critical acclaim. Roger Ebert named Minority Report as the best film of 2002, and praised its vision of the future.  However, critic Todd McCarthy thought there was not enough action.  The film earned over $358 million worldwide.  The director's next 2002 feature, Catch Me If You Can is about the adventures of a young con artist (played by Leonardo DiCaprio). Christopher Walken and Tom Hanks also star. It is set in the 1960s; Spielberg said, "I have always loves movies about sensational rogues—they break the law, but you just have to love them for the moxie."  At the 75th Academy Awards, Walken and John Williams were nominated for Best Supporting Actor and Best Original Score, respectively.  The film was a critical and commercial success. 
The director worked with Tom Hanks again, along with Catherine Zeta-Jones and Stanley Tucci in 2004's The Terminal, a lighthearted comedy about an Eastern European man stranded in an airport. Although The Terminal was praised for its production design, the film received mixed reviews, but it was a commercial success.  In 2005, Spielberg directed a modern adaptation of War of the Worlds, a co-production of Paramount and DreamWorks, based on H. G. Wells' book of the same name; Spielberg had been a fan of the book and the 1953 film.  Starring Tom Cruise and Dakota Fanning, the film follows an American dock worker who is forced to look after his children, from whom he lives separately, as he struggles to protect and reunite them with their mother when extraterrestrials invade Earth. The director used storyboards to help the actors react to computer imagery that they could not see, and used natural lighting and camerawork to avoid an "over stylized" science fiction picture.  Upon release, the film was box office hit, grossing over $600 million worldwide. 
Spielberg's Munich (2005), is about eleven Israeli athletes who were kidnapped and murdered in the 1972 Munich massacre. The film is based on Vengeance, a book by Canadian journalist George Jonas.  It was previously adapted for the screen in the 1986 television film Sword of Gideon. Spielberg, who personally remembers the incident, sought advice from former President Bill Clinton, among others, before making the film because he did not want to cause further problems in the Middle East.  Although the film garnered mostly positive reviews, some critics perceived it as anti-Semitic;  it is one of Spielberg's most controversial films to date.  Munich received five Academy Awards nominations: Best Picture, Best Film Editing, Best Score, Best Adapted Screenplay, and Best Director for Spielberg. It was his sixth Best Director nomination, and fifth Best Picture nomination.  
In the mid-2000s, Spielberg scaled down his directing career and became selective about film projects to undertake.  In December 2005, Spielberg and his partners sold DreamWorks to media conglomerate Viacom (now known as ViacomCBS). The sale was finalized in February 2006.  In June 2006, Spielberg planned to make Interstellar, but abandoned the project, which was eventually directed by Christopher Nolan.  During this time, Spielberg remained active as a producer; he produced 2005's Memoirs of a Geisha, an adaptation of the novel by Arthur Golden.  Spielberg and Robert Zemeckis co-produced Monster House (2006), marking their eighth collaboration. He also worked with Clint Eastwood for the first time, co-producing 2006's Flags of Our Fathers, and Letters from Iwo Jima, with Robert Lorenz. Spielberg served as executive producer for 2007's Disturbia, and the Transformers film series.  In that same year, Spielberg and Mark Burnett co-produced On the Lot, a reality and competition show about filmmaking. 
2008–2015: Return to film
Spielberg returned to the Indiana Jones series in 2008 with the fourth installment titled Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull. Released nineteen years after Last Crusade, the film is set in 1957, pitting Indiana Jones ( Harrison Ford) against Soviet agents led by Irina Spalko ( Cate Blanchett), searching for a telepathic crystal skull. Principal photography was complete in October 2007, and the film was released on May 22, 2008.   This was his first film not released by DreamWorks since 1997.  The film received generally favorable reviews from critics, but some fans were disappointed by the introduction of alien life which was uncharacteristic of the previous films.   Writing for The Age, Tom Ryan praised Spielberg and George Lucas for their realistic 1950s setting—"The energy on display is impressive".  It was a box office success, grossing $790 million worldwide. 
In early 2009, Spielberg shot the first film in a planned trilogy of motion capture films based on The Adventures of Tintin, written by Belgian artist Hergé.  The Adventures of Tintin: The Secret of the Unicorn, was co-produced by Peter Jackson, and released in 2011; it was entirely computer animated.  It premiered on October 22 in Brussels, Belgium.  The film was released in North American theaters on December 21, in Digital 3D and IMAX.  It received generally positive reviews from critics,  and grossed over $373 million worldwide.  The Adventures of Tintin won Best Animated Feature at the 69th Golden Globe Awards.  It was the first non- Pixar film to win the award since the category was introduced.  
Spielberg followed up with War Horse, shot in England in the summer of 2010.  It was released four days after The Adventures of Tintin, on December 25, 2011. The film is based on the novel of the same name by Michael Morpurgo, published in 1982, and follows the long friendship between a British boy and his horse Joey before and during World War I.  Distributed by Walt Disney Studios, with whom DreamWorks made a distribution deal in 2009, War Horse was the first of four consecutive Spielberg films released by Disney. War Horse had an acclaimed response from critics,  and was nominated for six Academy Awards, including Best Picture.  In his review for Salon magazine, Andrew O'Hehir wrote, "at this point in his career Spielberg is pursuing personal goals, and everything that's terrific and overly flat and tooth-rottingly sweet about War Horse reflects that." 
Spielberg returned to the World War II theme, co-producing the 2010 miniseries The Pacific, with Tom Hanks and Gary Goetzman. The miniseries is centered on the battles in the Pacific Theater.  The following year, Spielberg co-created Falling Skies, a science fiction series on the TNT network, with Robert Rodat.  Spielberg also produced the 2011 Fox series Terra Nova. Terra Nova begins in the year 2149 when all life on the planet Earth is threatened with extinction resulting in scientists opening a door that allows people to travel back 85 million years to prehistoric times.   In that same year, he produced J. J. Abrams' thriller, Super 8. 
Spielberg directed the historical drama Lincoln (2012), starring Daniel Day-Lewis as President Abraham Lincoln, and Sally Field as Mary Todd Lincoln.  Based on Doris Kearns Goodwin's book Team of Rivals: The Political Genius of Abraham Lincoln, the film describes the final four months of Lincoln's life. Written by Tony Kushner, the film was shot in Richmond, Virginia, in late 2011,  and was released in the U.S. in November 2012.  Lincoln was acclaimed, it earned more than $250 million worldwide,  and was nominated for twelve Academy Awards, including Best Picture and Best Director.  It won Best Production Design, and Day-Lewis won Best Actor for his portrayal of Lincoln.  The critic from The Irish Times complimented the direction: "Against the odds, Spielberg makes something genuinely exciting of the backstage wheedling." 
It was announced on May 2, 2013 that Spielberg would direct American Sniper,  but he left the project before production began.  Instead, he directed 2015's Bridge of Spies, a Cold War thriller based on the 1960 U-2 incident, and focusing on James B. Donovan's negotiations with the Soviets for the release of pilot Gary Powers after his aircraft was shot down over Soviet territory. The screenplay was by the Coen brothers, and the film starred Tom Hanks as Donovan, as well as Mark Rylance, Amy Ryan, and Alan Alda.  It was filmed in the fall of 2014 in New York City, Berlin and Wroclaw, and was released on October 16.   Bridge of Spies was popular with critics,  and was nominated for six Academy Awards, including Best Picture; Rylance won Best Supporting Actor, becoming the second actor to win for a performance directed by Spielberg. 
In 2016, Spielberg made The BFG, an adaptation of Roald Dahl's children's book, starring newcomer Ruby Barnhill, and Rylance as the titular Big Friendly Giant. DreamWorks bought the rights in 2010, and John Madden had intended to direct.  The film was the last to be written by E.T. screenwriter Melissa Mathison before her death.  It was co-produced and released by Walt Disney Pictures, marking the first Disney-branded film to be directed by Spielberg. The BFG premiered as an out-of-competition entry at the 2016 Cannes Film Festival,   and received a wide release in the U.S. on July 1, 2016.  The BFG welcomed fair reviews; Michael Phillips of Chicago Tribune compared certain scenes to the works of earlier filmmakers,  while Toronto Sun's Liz Braun thought that there were "moments of wonder and delight [...] but not nearly enough". 
A year later, Spielberg directed The Post, an account of The Washington Post's printing of the Pentagon Papers.  Starring Tom Hanks and Meryl Streep, production began in New York on May 30, 2017.  Spielberg stated his attraction to the project: "When I read the first draft of the script, this wasn't something that could wait three years or two years—this was a story I felt we needed to tell today."  The film received a wide release on January 12, 2018.  The Post gained positive reception; the critic from the Associated Press thought "Spielberg infuses every scene with tension and life and the grandeur of the ordinary that he’s always been so good at conveying."  In 2017, Spielberg and other filmmakers were featured in the Netflix documentary series Five Came Back, which discussed the contributions of directors Frank Capra, John Ford, John Huston, George Stevens and William Wyler, about their war-related works. Spielberg also served as an executive producer. 
Spielberg directed 2018's science fiction Ready Player One, adapted from the novel of the same name by Ernest Cline. It stars Tye Sheridan, Olivia Cooke, Ben Mendelsohn, Lena Waithe, T.J. Miller, Simon Pegg, and Mark Rylance. The plot takes place in 2045 when much of humanity uses virtual reality to escape the real world. Ready Player One began production in July 2016,  and was to be released by Warner Bros. on December 15, 2017,   but was moved to March 2018 to avoid competition with Star Wars: The Last Jedi.  It premiered at the 2018 South by Southwest film festival.  Several critics enjoyed the action scenes, but thought the film was too long and overused the 1980s nostalgia.   In 2019, Spielberg filmed West Side Story,  a new adaptation of the musical of the same name.  Writer Tony Kushner stated in July 2017 that he was adapting the show's book for Spielberg, although the score would remain unchanged, as would the late 1950s setting.  The film was set for a December 2020 release, which was postponed to December 2021, due to the COVID-19 pandemic. 
Spielberg had planned to direct the fifth installment of the Indiana Jones series. The film is set to star Harrison Ford and will be produced by Kathleen Kennedy and Frank Marshall. In 2016, it was announced that it would be written by David Koepp,  with a release by Disney on July 19, 2019.  After a change of filming and release dates,   it was postponed again when Jonathan Kasdan was announced as the film's new writer.  Soon after, a new release date of July 9, 2021 was announced.  In May 2019, Dan Fogelman was hired to write a new script, and Kasdan's story, focused on the Nazi gold train, would not be used.  In February 2020, it was reported that Spielberg had left the role of director, and would be replaced by James Mangold. However, Spielberg expressed that he would remain as a "hands on" producer for the film.   In April 2020, it was announced that the release of the film was delayed to July 29, 2022 due to the COVID-19 pandemic,  and in October 2021 the release date was again delayed to June 30, 2023.  The film began production in the UK in June 2021. 
Spielberg is currently directing The Fabelmans, a fictionalized account of his own childhood, which he wrote with Tony Kushner.  Gabriel LaBelle plays a character inspired by Spielberg, while Michelle Williams plays the character's mother, Paul Dano plays his father and Seth Rogen plays his favorite uncle.  Filming began in Los Angeles in July 2021, and the film will be released on November 23, 2022, by Universal Pictures.  
In January 2013, HBO confirmed that it was developing a third World War II miniseries based on the book Masters of the Air by Donald L. Miller with Spielberg and Tom Hanks.  NME reported in March 2017 that production was progressing under the working title The Mighty Eighth.  By 2019, it was confirmed development of the series, Masters of the Air, had moved to Apple TV+.  On June 21, 2021, it was announced that Spielberg's Amblin Entertainment signed a deal with Netflix to release multiple new feature films for the streaming service. Under the deal, Amblin is expected to produce at least two films a year for Netflix for an unspecified number of years. It is possible that Spielberg may even direct some of the projects. 
In May 2009, Spielberg bought the rights to the life story of Martin Luther King, Jr., with the intention of being involved as both the producer and director.  However, the purchase was made from the King estate, led by son Dexter, while the two other surviving children, the Reverend Bernice and Martin III, immediately threatened to sue, not having given their approvals to the project.  As of 2015, Spielberg is attached to direct an adaptation of American photojournalist Lynsey Addario's memoir It's What I Do, with Jennifer Lawrence in the lead role.  In April 2018, it was announced that Spielberg would direct a film adaptation of the Blackhawk comic book series. Warner Bros. will distribute the film, with David Koepp writing the script. 
In March 2013, Spielberg announced that he was developing a miniseries based on the life of Napoleon.  In May 2016, it was announced that Cary Fukunaga is in talks to direct the miniseries for HBO, from a script by David Leland based on extensive research materials accumulated by Stanley Kubrick over the years. 
Spielberg was set to executive produce Cortes, a historical miniseries written by Steven Zaillian about the Spanish conquest of the Aztec empire, and Hernán Cortés's relationship with Aztec ruler Montezuma.  The script was based on an earlier one from 1965 by Oscar-winner Dalton Trumbo.  Javier Bardem would play the lead role of explorer Hernán Cortés. Spielberg was previously attached to direct the project as a feature film. 
Spielberg had planned to shoot a $200 million adaptation of Daniel H. Wilson's novel Robopocalypse, adapted for the screen by Drew Goddard.  Like Lincoln, it was to be released by Disney in the U.S. and Fox overseas.  Spielberg postponed production indefinitely in January 2013.  In March 2018, it was announced that the film will be directed by Michael Bay. 
Spielberg was set to film an adaptation of David Kertzer's The Kidnapping of Edgardo Mortara in early 2017, for release at the end of that year,  but production has been postponed. It was first announced in 2014, with Tony Kushner adapting the book for the screen.  Mark Rylance, in his fourth collaboration with Spielberg, was announced to star in the role of Pope Pius IX. Spielberg saw more than 2,000 kids to play the role of Edgardo Mortara. 
The director has been an avid gamer since 1974; in 2005, Spielberg collaborated with Electronic Arts (EA) on several games including one for the Wii called Boom Blox, and its sequel Boom Blox Bash Party).   He is also the creator of EA's Medal of Honor series.  In 1996, Spielberg helped create and design of LucasArts' adventure game The Dig.  He also collaborated with software publishers Knowledge Adventure on the game Steven Spielberg's Director's Chair, which was released in 1996; Spielberg appears in the game to direct the player. 
Spielberg played many of LucasArts adventure games, including the first Monkey Island games.   He owns a Wii, a PlayStation 3, a PSP, and an Xbox 360, and enjoys playing first-person shooters such as the Medal of Honor series and Call of Duty 4: Modern Warfare. He dislikes the use of cutscenes in games, and thinks that natural storytelling is a challenge for game developers. 
Spielberg has cited Frank Capra's It's A Wonderful Life (1946) as an influence on "family, community and suburbia".  He enjoyed the work of Alfred Hitchcock,   David Lean,  John Ford, Stanley Kubrick and John Frankenheimer.   In college, he was inspired by foreign films directed by Ingmar Bergman, Jacques Tati and François Truffaut. Truffaut was one of his favorite directors.  Spencer Tracy has also influenced the characters of Spielberg's films,  as did The Twilight Zone series. 
Method and themes
Spielberg often uses storyboards to visualize the sequences, with the exceptions being in E.T. and The Color Purple.   After the experience of filming Jaws, the director learned to leave special effect scenes until last, and exclude the media from filming locations.  Spielberg prefers to shoot quickly, with large amounts of coverage (from single-shot to multi-shot setups), so that he will have many options in the editing room.  From the beginning of his career, Spielberg's shooting style consisted of extreme high and low camera angles, long takes, and handheld cameras.  The director also favors the use of wide-angle lens for creating depth,  and by the time he was making Minority Report, Spielberg was more confident with elaborate camera movements. 
In an interview with The Tech in 2015, Spielberg described how he chooses the film projects he would work on:
[Sometimes], a story speaks to me, even if it doesn't speak to any of my collaborators or any of my partners, who look at me and scratch their heads and say, 'Gee, are you sure you wanna get into that trench for a year and a half?' I love people challenging me that way because it's a real test about my own convictions and [whether] I can be the standing man of my own life and take a stand on a subject that may not be popular, but that I would be proud to add to the body of my work. That's pretty much the litmus test that gets me to say, 'Yeah, I'll direct that one.' 
Spielberg's films contain many similar themes throughout his work. One of his most pertinent themes revolves around "ordinary people in extraordinary circumstances."   The ordinary people often have limitations, but they succeed in becoming a "hero".  A consistent theme in his family-friendly work is a childlike sense of wonder and faith, and "the goodness in humanity will prevail."  He has also explored the importance of childhood, loss of innocence, and the need for parental figures.  In exploring the parent-child relationship, there is usually a flawed or irresponsible father figure. This theme personally resonates with the director's childhood.  Exploring extraterrestrial life is another aspect to his work. Spielberg described himself as like an "alien" during childhood,  and this interest came from his father, a science fiction fan. 
Janusz Kamiński has served as a cinematographer on 19 of Spielberg's films.  As Spielberg's career evolved from action to drama films, he and Kamiński adopted more handheld camerawork, as evidenced in Schindler's List and Amistad.   Michael Kahn has edited all of Spielberg's films, except for one, since the 1970s. The director has also worked consistently with production designer Rick Carter, and writer David Koepp. Producer Kathleen Kennedy is one of the director's longest serving collaborators.  Spielberg also displays loyalty to his actors, casting them repeatedly including: Harrison Ford, Mark Rylance, Richard Dreyfuss, Tom Cruise, Jeff Goldblum and Tom Hanks.   
The Sugarland Express began Spielberg's long-time partnership with composer John Williams,  who would return to compose all but five of Spielberg's feature films (the exceptions are Twilight Zone: The Movie, The Color Purple, Bridge of Spies, Ready Player One and West Side Story). Williams won three of his five Academy Awards for his work on Spielberg's films (Jaws, E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial, and Schindler's List). While making Schindler's List, the director approached Williams about composing the score. After seeing a rough, unedited cut, Williams was impressed, and said that composing would be too challenging. He said to Spielberg, "You need a better composer than I am for this film." Spielberg responded, "I know. But they're all dead!"  In 2016, Spielberg presented Williams with the 44th AFI Life Achievement Award, the first to be awarded to a composer. 
Spielberg met actress Amy Irving in 1976 when she auditioned for Close Encounters of the Third Kind. After meeting her, Spielberg told his co-producer Julia Phillips, "I met a real heartbreaker last night."  Although she was too young for the role, she and Spielberg began dating and she eventually moved into what she described as his "bachelor funky" house.  They broke up in 1979.  In 1984, they renewed their romance and married in November 1985. Their son, Max, had been born on June 13 of that year.  In 1989, the couple divorced; they agreed to live near each other to share custody of their son.  Their divorce settlement is one of the most expensive in history.   Spielberg was diagnosed with dyslexia at age 60.  
Spielberg met actress Kate Capshaw when he cast her in Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom. They married on October 12, 1991; Capshaw converted to Judaism before their marriage.   Spielberg said he rediscovered "the honor of being a Jew" when they married.  He said, "Kate is Protestant and she insisted on converting to Judaism. She spent a year studying, did the " mikveh," the whole thing. She chose to do a full conversion before we were married in 1991, and she married me after becoming a Jew. I think that, more than anything else, brought me back to Judaism."  He credits her for the family's level of observance;  "This shiksa goddess has made me a better Jew than my own parents", he said.  He and his family live in Pacific Palisades, California,  and East Hampton, New York. 
He has seven children: Jessica Capshaw (born August 9, 1976), Max Samuel Spielberg (born June 13, 1985), Sasha Rebecca Spielberg (born May 14, 1990), Sawyer Avery Spielberg (born March 10, 1992),  and Destry Allyn Spielberg (born December 1, 1996). He has two adopted children: Theo Spielberg (born August 21, 1988),  and Mikaela George (born February 28, 1996). 
In 1997, a man named Jonathan Norman stalked and attempted to enter Spielberg's home; Norman was jailed for 25 years.   In 2001, Spielberg was stalked by conspiracy theorist and former social worker Diana Napolis. She accused him, and actress Jennifer Love Hewitt, of installing a mind-control device in her brain, and being part of a satanic cult.  Napolis was committed to a mental institution, and plead guilty to stalking. She was released on probation with a condition that she have no contact with either Spielberg or Hewitt.  
In 2013, Spielberg purchased the 282-foot (86 m) mega-yacht The Seven Seas for US$182 million. He has put it up for sale and has made it available for charter. At US$1.2 million per month, it is one of the most expensive charters on the market. He has ordered a new 300-foot (91 m) yacht at a reported US$250 million.  
Spielberg has usually supported U.S. Democratic Party candidates. He has donated over $800,000 to the Democratic party and its nominees. He has been a close friend of former President Bill Clinton and worked with the President for the USA Millennium celebrations. He directed an 18-minute film for the project, scored by John Williams and entitled The American Journey. It was shown at America's Millennium Gala on December 31, 1999, in the National Mall at the Reflecting Pool at the base of the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C.  Spielberg endorsed Hillary Clinton in the 2016 presidential election; he donated $1 million to Priorities USA Action. 
Spielberg resigned as a member of the national advisory board of the Boy Scouts of America in 2001 because he disagreed with the organization's anti-homosexuality stance.   In 2007, the Arab League voted to boycott Spielberg's movies after he donated $1 million for relief efforts in Israel during the 2006 Lebanon War.   On February 20, 2007, Spielberg, Jeffrey Katzenberg, and David Geffen invited Democrats to a fundraiser for Barack Obama. 
In February 2008, Spielberg resigned as advisor to the 2008 Summer Olympics in response to the Chinese government's inaction over the War in Darfur.  Spielberg said in a statement, "I find that my conscience will not allow me to continue business as usual [...] Sudan's government bears the bulk of the responsibility for these on-going crimes, but the international community, and particularly China, should be doing more."  The International Olympic Committee (IOC) respected Spielberg's decision but IOC president Jacques Rogge expressed disappointment: "[Spielberg] certainly would have brought a lot to the opening ceremony in terms of creativity."  Chinese state media called the director's comments "unfair". 
In September 2008, Spielberg and his wife offered their support to same-sex marriage in California by issuing a statement following their donation of $100,000 to the "No on Proposition 8" campaign fund, a figure equal to the amount of money Brad Pitt donated to the same campaign less than a week prior.  In 2018, Spielberg and his wife donated $500,000 to the March for Our Lives student demonstration in favor of gun control in the United States. 
A notable figure of the New Hollywood era,  Spielberg is one of the most commercially successful film directors in history.    In 1996, Life magazine named Spielberg the most influential person of his generation.  In 2003, Premiere magazine ranked him first place in the list of 100 Most Powerful People in Movies.  In 2005, Empire magazine ranked him number one on a list of the greatest film directors of all time.  In 2013, Time magazine listed him as one of the 100 Most Important People of the Century.  According to Forbes' magazine of Most Influential Celebrities of 2014, Spielberg was ranked at first place.    As of 2020, Forbes estimates his net worth at $3.7 billion. 
His work is admired by other directors including Robert Aldrich,  Ingmar Bergman,  Werner Herzog,  Stanley Kubrick,  David Lean,  Sidney Lumet,  Roman Polanski,  Martin Scorsese,  François Truffaut,  Jean Renoir  and David Lynch.  Spielberg's films have also influenced directors J. J. Abrams,  Paul Thomas Anderson,  Neill Blomkamp,  Guillermo del Toro,  Roland Emmerich,  Peter Jackson,  Kal Ng,  Robert Rodriguez,  John Sayles,  Ridley Scott,  John Singleton,  Kevin Smith,  and Gareth Edwards. 
Film critic Tom Shone said of Spielberg, "If you have to point to any one director of the last twenty-five years in whose work the medium of film was most fully itself – where we found out what it does best when left to its own devices, it has to be that guy."  Jess Cagle, former editor of Entertainment Weekly, called Spielberg "...arguably (well, who would argue?) the greatest filmmaker in history."  Stephen Rowley, writing for Senses of Cinema, discussed Spielberg's strengths as a filmmaker, saying "there is a welcome complexity of tone and approach in these later films that defies the lazy stereotypes often bandied about his films", and that "Spielberg continues to take risks, with his body of work continuing to grow more impressive and ambitious", concluding that he has only received "limited, begrudging recognition" from critics.  In a 1999 "Millennium Movies" survey of British film fans run by the Sky Premier channel, Spielberg had seven films in the top 100, which made him the most popular director. 
Spielberg's critics have argued that his films are overly sentimental and tritely moralistic.    In Easy Riders, Raging Bulls, Peter Biskind wrote that the director is "infantilizing the audience, reconstituting the spectator as child, then overwhelming him and her with sound and spectacle, obliterating irony, aesthetic self-consciousness, and critical reflection."  Critic Ray Carney and actor Crispin Glover claimed that Spielberg's films lack depth and do not take risks.   Critic Pauline Kael, who enjoyed Spielberg's films in the 1970s, expressed disappointment in his later work, stating that "he's become, I think, a very bad director.... And I'm a little ashamed for him, because I loved his early work.... [H]e turned to virtuous movies. And he's become so uninteresting now.... I think that he had it in him to become more of a fluid, far-out director. But, instead, he's become a melodramatist."  Filmmaker Jean-Luc Godard opined that Spielberg was partly responsible for the lack of artistic merit in mainstream cinema, and accused Spielberg of using Schindler's List to profit from a tragedy.  In defense of Spielberg, critic Roger Ebert said "Has Godard or any other director living or dead done more than Spielberg, with his Holocaust Project, to honor and preserve the memories of the survivors?" 
Seven of his films have been inducted into the National Film Registry by the Library of Congress as being "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant": Jaws, Close Encounters of the Third Kind, Raiders of the Lost Ark, E.T., Jurassic Park, Schindler's List, and Saving Private Ryan. 
Awards and recognition
Spielberg has won three Academy Awards. He received seven nominations for Best Director, and won twice (for Schindler's List and Saving Private Ryan).   His third was in Best Picture, for Schindler's List.  In 1987, he was awarded the Irving G. Thalberg Memorial Award for his work as a creative producer.  Drawing from his own experiences in Scouting, Spielberg helped the Boy Scouts of America develop a merit badge in cinematography to promote filmmaking as a marketable skill; the badge was launched at the 1989 National Scout Jamboree.  In 1989, Spielberg was presented with the Distinguished Eagle Scout Award.  Spielberg received the AFI Life Achievement Award in 1995. 
In 1998, he was awarded the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany. The award was presented to him by President Roman Herzog in recognition of Schindler's List, and work on the Shoa-Foundation.  Spielberg was awarded the Medal for Distinguished Public Service in 1999, in recognition for Saving Private Ryan.  For the same film, he also received an award for Outstanding Directorial Achievement in Motion Pictures by the Directors Guild of America.  The next year, he received the Lifetime Achievement Award from the Directors Guild of America. 
Spielberg was given a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame in 2003, located on 6801 Hollywood Boulevard.  On July 15, 2006, Spielberg was awarded the Gold Hugo Lifetime Achievement Award at the Summer Gala of the Chicago International Film Festival,  and was awarded a Kennedy Center honor on December 3. The tribute to Spielberg featured a biographical short film narrated by Liam Neeson, and a performance of the finale to Leonard Bernstein's Candide, conducted by John Williams.  The Science Fiction Hall of Fame inducted Spielberg in 2005, the first year it considered non-literary contributors.   He was a recipient of the Visual Effects Society Lifetime Achievement Award in February 2008; it is awarded for "significant and lasting contributions to the art and science of the visual effects industry."  In 2009, Spielberg was awarded the Cecil B. DeMille Award by the Hollywood Foreign Press Association for "outstanding contributions to the world of entertainment". 
In 2001, he was appointed as an honorary Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire (KBE) by Queen Elizabeth II for services to the British film industry.   In 2004, he was awarded France's highest civil honor, the Légion d'Honneur by President Jacques Chirac.  In June 2008, Spielberg received Arizona State University's Hugh Downs Award for Communication Excellence.  In October 2009, Spielberg received the Philadelphia Liberty Medal; the prize was presented by former U.S. President Bill Clinton.   In October 2011, he was made a Commander of the Order of the Belgian Crown, one of Belgium's highest honors. 
On November 19, 2013, Spielberg was honored by the National Archives and Records Administration with a Records of Achievement Award. Spielberg was given two facsimiles of the 13th Amendment; the first which passed in 1861 but was not ratified, and the second signed by Abraham Lincoln in 1865 to abolish slavery. The amendment and the process of passing it were the subject of his film Lincoln.  On November 24, 2015, Spielberg was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom from President Barack Obama in a ceremony at the White House.  In July 2016, Spielberg was awarded a gold Blue Peter badge by the BBC children's television programme Blue Peter.  Spielberg has honorary degrees from University of Southern California, 1994;  Brown University, 1999;  Yale University, 2002;  Boston University, 2009;  Harvard University, 2016. 
Awards received by Spielberg's films
|Awards and nominations received by Spielberg's films|
|Year||Film||Academy Awards||BAFTA Awards||Golden Globe Awards|
|1977||Close Encounters of the Third Kind||9||2||9||1||4|
|1981||Raiders of the Lost Ark||9||5||7||1||1|
|1982||E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial||9||4||12||1||5||2|
|1984||Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom||2||1||4||1|
|1985||The Color Purple||11||1||5||1|
|1987||Empire of the Sun||6||6||3||2|
|1989||Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade||3||1||3||1|
|1997||The Lost World: Jurassic Park||1|
|1998||Saving Private Ryan||11||5||10||2||5||2|
|2001||A.I. Artificial Intelligence||2||1||3|
|Catch Me If You Can||2||4||1||1|
|2005||War of the Worlds||3|
|2008||Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull||1|
|2011||The Adventures of Tintin||1||2||1||1|
|2015||Bridge of Spies||6||1||9||1||1|
|2018||Ready Player One||1||1|
Prolific in film since the 1960s, Spielberg has directed 33 feature films, and co-produced many works.
- Amblin' (1968, short film)
- Duel (1971)
- The Sugarland Express (1974)
- Jaws (1975)
- Close Encounters of the Third Kind (1977)
- 1941 (1979)
- Raiders of the Lost Ark (1981)
- E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial (1982)
- Twilight Zone: The Movie (1983, one segment)
- Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom (1984)
- The Color Purple (1985)
- Empire of the Sun (1987)
- Always (1989)
- Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade (1989)
- Hook (1991)
- Jurassic Park (1993)
- Schindler's List (1993)
- The Lost World: Jurassic Park (1997)
- Amistad (1997)
- Saving Private Ryan (1998)
- A.I. Artificial Intelligence (2001)
- Minority Report (2002)
- Catch Me If You Can (2002)
- The Terminal (2004)
- War of the Worlds (2005)
- Munich (2005)
- Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull (2008)
- The Adventures of Tintin (2011)
- War Horse (2011)
- Lincoln (2012)
- Bridge of Spies (2015)
- The BFG (2016)
- The Post (2017)
- Ready Player One (2018)
- West Side Story (2021)
- The Fabelmans (2022)
- Back to the Future (1985, executive producer) 
- Tiny Toon Adventures (1990 series, executive producer) 
- seaQuest DSV (1993 series, executive producer) 
- Men in Black (1997, executive producer) 
- Band of Brothers (2001 series, executive producer)
- Men in Black II (2002, executive producer) 
- Taken (2002 series, executive producer) 
- Memoirs of a Geisha (2005) 
- Into the West (2005 series, executive producer) 
- Monster House (2006, executive producer) 
- Flags of Our Fathers (2006) 
- Disturbia (2007) 
- On the Lot (2007 series, executive producer) 
- Falling Skies (2011 series, executive producer)
- Terra Nova (2011 series, executive producer)
- The River (2012 series, executive producer) 
- Smash (2012 series, executive producer) 
- Extant (2014 series, executive producer) 
- The Whispers (2015 series, executive producer) 
- Minority Report (2015 series, executive producer) 
- Under the Dome (2015 series, executive producer) 
Acting and cameos
Spielberg had numerous cameo roles, including in The Blues Brothers, Gremlins, Vanilla Sky, Double Dare, and Austin Powers in Goldmember.    Spielberg voiced himself in the 2011 film Paul, and in one episode of Tiny Toon Adventures titled Buster and Babs Go Hawaiian. 
- McBride 1997, p. 80.
- McBride 1997, p. 35.
- "Fred A. Bernstein". Fredbernstein.com. Archived from the original on March 23, 2013. Retrieved May 25, 2012.
- Moreau, Jordan (August 26, 2020). "Arnold Spielberg, Father of Steven Spielberg, Dies at 103". Variety. Archived from the original on January 1, 2021. Retrieved December 17, 2020.
- Parish 2004, p. 6.
- Baxter 1996, p. 38.
- "Arnold Meyer Spielberg (b. 1917)". birth-records.mooseroots.com. Retrieved January 10, 2018.
- Gutfreund, Sara Debbie (January 28, 2017). "Steven Spielberg's Jewish Roots". The Jewish Website – aish.com. Archived from the original on May 12, 2018. Retrieved May 11, 2018.
- Tugend, Tom (June 13, 2012). "A close encounter with Steven Spielberg's dad". The Jewish Journal of Greater Los Angeles. Archived from the original on July 7, 2017. Retrieved October 25, 2015.
- McBride 1997, p. 22.
- Baxter 1996, p. 16.
- McBride 1997, p. 48.
- McBride 1997, p. 53.
- Denby, David (January 16, 2017). "Steven Spielberg at Seventy". The New Yorker. Archived from the original on May 11, 2018. Retrieved May 11, 2018.
- Parish 2004, p. 9.
- McBride 1997, p. 36.
- Pogrebin 2005, p. 30.
- Jungreis-Wolff, Slovie (August 22, 2015). "Steven Spielberg, E.T. and Growing Up Jewish". The Jewish Website – aish.com. Archived from the original on May 11, 2018. Retrieved May 11, 2018.
- "Steven Spielberg: 'We Can't Just Sit Back and Hope'". Parade Magazine. March 27, 1994. Archived from the original on February 2, 2016.
- Weinraub, Bernard (December 12, 1993). "Steven Spielberg Faces the Holocaust". The New York Times. Archived from the original on January 12, 2018. Retrieved February 13, 2017.
- Reed, J.D. (March 15, 1999). "Steven Spielberg". People. Archived from the original on May 11, 2018. Retrieved May 11, 2018.
- Pogrebin 2005, p. 29.
- McBride 1997, p. 20.
- Parish 2004, p. 11.
- McBride 1997, p. 77.
- Parish 2004, p. 12.
- McBride 1997, p. 78.
- McBride 1997, p. 83.
- Parish 2004, p. 16.
- McBride 1997, p. 99.
- Jackson 2007, p. 5.
- McBride 1997, p. 84.
- McBride 1997, p. 81.
- Ryfle, Steve (1998). Japan's Favorite Mon-Star: The Unauthorized Biography of the Big G. ECW Press. pp. 15–17. ISBN 9781550223484.
- O'Callaghan, Paul (January 23, 2018). "10 great films that inspired Steven Spielberg". British Film Institute. Archived from the original on February 13, 2019. Retrieved February 11, 2019.
- McBride 1997, p. 94.
- McBride 1997, p. 102.
- Parish 2004, p. 18.
- "CSU Newsline – Steven Spielberg To Graduate from California State University, Long Beach With Bachelor's Degree in Film and Electronic Arts". Calstate.edu. May 14, 2002. Archived from the original on March 9, 2010. Retrieved March 2, 2010.
- Parish 2004, p. 20.
- McBride 1997, p. 115.
- Parish 2004, p. 24.
- Parish 2004, p. 22.
- McBride 1997, p. 131.
- McBride 1997, p. 141.
- Parish 2004, p. 23.
- Parish 2004, p. 26.
- McBride 1997, p. 169.
- Fischer, Dennis (2011). Science Fiction Film Directors, 1895-1998. North Carolina: McFarland. p. 548. ISBN 9780786485055.
- Parish 2004, p. 28.
- McBride 1997, p. 170.
- Parish 2004, p. 31.
- Chandler, Charlotte. (2008). Not the girl next door : Joan Crawford, a personal biography (1st Simon & Schuster hardcover ed.). New York: Simon & Schuster. p. 262. ISBN 978-1-4165-4751-8. OCLC 166273792. Archived from the original on January 1, 2021. Retrieved December 20, 2020.
- Parish 2004, p. 33.
- Baxter 1996, p. 69.
- "Spielberg, Universal Sign Four-Picture Agreement". Los Angeles Times. July 14, 1975.
- Parish 2004, p. 35.
- Parish 2004, p. 36.
- Parish 2004, p. 37.
- Jackson 2007, p. 20.
- Baxter 1996, p. 115.
- McBride 1997, p. 223.
- Parish 2004, p. 38.
- Jackson 2007, p. 22.
- "Jaws". Box Office Mojo. Archived from the original on January 1, 2021. Retrieved November 27, 2020.
- McBride 1997, p. 248.
- McBride 1997, p. 250.
- Gleiberman, Owen (August 1, 2007). "The Bourne Ultimatum". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved October 22, 2019.
- Baxter 1996, p. 145.
- Jackson 2007, p. 26.
- McBride 1997, p. 277.
- Baxter 1996, p. 170.
- "The 50th Academy Awards | 1978". Oscars.org | Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. Archived from the original on May 6, 2019. Retrieved November 27, 2020.
- Baxter 1996, p. 178.
- Jackson 2007, p. 30.
- "1941, Box Office Information." The Numbers, September 27, 2012.
- McBride 1997, p. 309.
- Jackson 2007, p. 32.
- Jackson 2007, p. 33.
- "The 54th Academy Awards | 1982". Oscars.org | Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. Archived from the original on April 17, 2018. Retrieved December 18, 2020.
- McBride 1997, p. 312.
- Heitmueller, Karl (April 3, 2007).
"Rewind: Major-Studio flicks that belong in the Grind House". MTV.
Archived from the original on October 6, 2008. Retrieved January 2, 2009.
Ultimate A-lister Steven Spielberg co-produced this big-budget adaptation of Rod Serling's classic '60s TV show....
- Jackson 2007, p. 38.
- Jackson 2007, p. 36.
- Wise, Damon (October 21, 2010). "ET: The Extra-Terrestrial: No 7 best sci-fi and fantasy film of all time". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved October 18, 2017.
- Jackson 2007, p. 42.
- McBride 1997, p. 357.
- Jackson 2007, p. 43.
- "Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom". Box Office Mojo. Archived from the original on January 1, 2021. Retrieved November 29, 2020.
- "Steven Spielberg Biography". Biography.com. December 18, 1947. Archived from the original on May 14, 2011. Retrieved January 31, 2011.
- Jackson 2007, p. 41.
- McBride 1997, p. 380.
- Corliss, Richard (January 7, 1985).
"This way to the children's crusade".
Time. Archived from
the original on October 19, 2009. Retrieved January 2, 2009.
he wrote the story and served as an executive producer of The Goonies....
- Jackson 2007, p. 105.
- McBride 1997, p. 506.
- McBride 1997, p. 381.
- McBride 1997, p. 507.
- McBride 1997, p. 389.
- McBride 1997, p. 390.
- McBride 1997, p. 384.
- McBride 1997, p. 386.
- Jackson 2007, p. 104.
- McBride 1997, p. 383.
- Jackson 2007, p. 45.
- Ebert, Roger. "The Color Purple movie review (1985) | Roger Ebert". rogerebert.com. Archived from the original on January 1, 2021. Retrieved November 27, 2020.
- McBride 1997, p. 395.
- Jackson 2007, p. 46.
- McBride 1997, p. 397.
- McBride 1997, p. 398.
- "Andrew Sarris' Top 10 lists 1958–2005". Archived from the original on February 10, 2001. Retrieved October 21, 2006.
- "The 60th Academy Awards | 1988". Oscars.org | Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. Archived from the original on July 24, 2020. Retrieved November 27, 2020.
- Jackson 2007, p. 47.
- "Opinion | Oscar Nominations Again Snub Spielberg (Published 1989)". The New York Times. March 29, 1989. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on January 1, 2021. Retrieved December 19, 2020.
- McBride 1997, p. 400.
- Jackson 2007, p. 48.
- McBride 1997, p. 403.
- McBride 1997, p. 406.
- "Always (1989)", Rotten Tomatoes, archived from the original on January 1, 2021, retrieved November 27, 2020
- Maslin, Janet (December 22, 1989). "Review/Film; 'Always,' Love and Death in a Wilderness (Published 1989)". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on January 1, 2021. Retrieved December 18, 2020.
- Jackson 2007, p. 51.
- Jackson 2007, p. 52.
- Howe, Desson (December 13, 1991). "Hook". www.washingtonpost.com. Archived from the original on January 1, 2021. Retrieved December 18, 2020.
- "Hook". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved November 27, 2020.
- McBride 1997, p. 419.
- Jackson 2007, p. 54.
- McBride 1997, p. 424.
- The screenplay, adapted from Thomas Keneally's novel, was originally in the hands of fellow director Martin Scorsese, but Spielberg negotiated with Scorsese to trade scripts. (At the time, Spielberg held the script for a remake of Cape Fear.)
- Pogrebin 2005, p. 32.
- Jackson 2007, p. 55.
- McBride 1997, p. 18.
- McBride 1997, p. 21.
- Jackson 2007, p. 56.
- McBride 1997, p. 415.
- McBride 1997, p. 434.
- McAuley, James. "Imre Kertész, Nobel-winning novelist and Holocaust survivor, dies at 86". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Archived from the original on January 1, 2021. Retrieved December 19, 2020.
- Jackson 2007, p. 59.
- Jackson 2007, p. 58.
- "Film in 1994 | BAFTA Awards". awards.bafta.org. Archived from the original on April 13, 2016. Retrieved December 19, 2020.
- "Winners & Nominees 1994". www.goldenglobes.com. Archived from the original on February 29, 2016. Retrieved December 19, 2020.
- "AFI's 100 YEARS…100 MOVIES". American Film Institute. Archived from the original on April 22, 2020. Retrieved December 11, 2020.
- McBride 1997, p. 442.
- McBride 1997, p. 445.
- Jackson 2007, p. 60.
- Mara 2014, p. 55.
- Jackson 2007, p. 61.
- Jackson 2007, p. 65.
- McBride 1997, p. 447.
- Jackson 2007, p. 66.
- Jackson 2007, p. 67.
- Freer 2001, p. 247.
- Jackson 2007, p. 68.
- Freer 2001, p. 252.
- Jackson 2007, p. 69.
- Freer 2001, p. 258.
- Jackson 2007, p. 72.
- Freer 2001, p. 274.
- "Saving Private Ryan". Box Office Mojo. Archived from the original on January 1, 2021. Retrieved November 30, 2020.
- Jackson 2007, p. 73.
- Horn 2002, p. 39.
- "Band of Brothers". www.goldenglobes.com. Archived from the original on January 1, 2021. Retrieved December 1, 2020.
- Jackson 2007, p. 74.
- Horn 2002, p. 40.
- Jackson 2007, p. 75.
- Parish 2004, p. 109.
- "A.I. Artificial Intelligence". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved December 1, 2020.
- Ebert, Roger (June 21, 2002). "Minority Report". Chicago Sun-Times. Archived from the original on February 5, 2013. Retrieved April 10, 2018.
- Jackson 2007, p. 79.
- "Minority Report". Box Office Mojo. Archived from the original on January 1, 2021. Retrieved December 1, 2020.
- Jackson 2007, p. 80.
- Jackson 2007, p. 81.
- Jackson 2007, p. 82.
- Jackson 2007, p. 83.
- "War of the Worlds – Production Notes". War of the Worlds. 2005. Archived from the original on July 27, 2011. Retrieved December 19, 2020.
- Jackson 2007, p. 84.
- "War of the Worlds". Box Office Mojo. Archived from the original on January 1, 2021. Retrieved November 27, 2020.
- Jackson 2007, p. 86.
- Jackson 2007, p. 87.
- Yossi Melman and Steven Hartov (January 17, 2006). "Munich: Fact and Fantasy". The Guardian. The Guardian Unlimited. Archived from the original on July 28, 2020. Retrieved April 10, 2018.
- "The 78th Academy Awards | 2006". Oscars.org | Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. Archived from the original on October 1, 2014. Retrieved November 27, 2020.
- Edge 2008, p. 102.
- Mara 2014, p. 60.
- Child, Ben (January 10, 2013). "Christopher Nolan's next film mission to go Interstellar". The Guardian. Archived from the original on January 1, 2021. Retrieved December 19, 2020.
- Jackson 2007, p. 103.
- "New Indy Adventure Begins Shooting". IndianaJones.com. June 18, 2007. Archived from the original on June 21, 2007. Retrieved June 18, 2007.
- "Spielberg, Ford and Lucas on Indy IV". Empire. August 21, 2006. Retrieved December 19, 2020.
- Masters, Kim (June 15, 2016). "Steven Spielberg on DreamWorks' Past, Amblin's Present and His Own Future". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved July 11, 2016.
- Hook 2010, p. 90.
- Reviewer, Tom Ryan (May 23, 2008). "Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull". The Age. Archived from the original on January 1, 2021. Retrieved December 19, 2020.
- "Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull". Box Office Mojo. Archived from the original on January 1, 2021. Retrieved December 2, 2020.
- "The Man Behind Boy, Dog and Their Adventures" Book review by Charles McGrath, The New York Times, December 22, 2009 (December 23, 2009, p. C1 NY ed.). Book reviewed: Hergé: The Man Who Created Tintin, by Pierre Assouline; translated by Charles Ruas, 276 pages. Oxford University Press. Retrieved December 24, 2009.
- Mara 2014, p. 65.
- "Tintin fans flock to Belgian film premiere". The Telegraph. October 23, 2011. Archived from the original on October 27, 2011. Retrieved December 19, 2020.
- "The Adventures of Tintin Official Movie Site". Paramount Pictures. Archived from the original on October 13, 2011. Retrieved October 13, 2011.
- "The Adventures of Tintin (Rotten Tomatoes)". Rotten Tomatoes. Archived from the original on June 5, 2020. Retrieved April 12, 2012.
- "The Adventures of Tintin". Box Office Mojo. Archived from the original on January 1, 2021. Retrieved December 19, 2020.
- "Adventures of Tintin, The". www.goldenglobes.com. Archived from the original on January 1, 2021. Retrieved December 19, 2020.
- "Tintin Takes Golden Globe". Retrieved April 12, 2012.
- "The Adventures of Tintin (Trivia)". IMDb. Retrieved April 12, 2012.
- "Steven Spielberg starts filming War Horse on Dartmoor" Archived April 25, 2011, at the Wayback Machine by Tristan Nichols, The Herald August 3, 2010
- Mara 2014, p. 64.
- "Nominees and Winners for the 84th Academy Awards". oscars.org. Archived from the original on August 25, 2013. Retrieved April 12, 2012.
- O'Hehir, Andrew (December 25, 2011). ""War Horse": Spielberg's almost-great World War I epic". Salon. Archived from the original on January 1, 2021. Retrieved December 19, 2020.
- Ziffer, Daniel (May 16, 2007). "Spielberg mini-series forms link with Seven". The Age. Archived from the original on January 1, 2021. Retrieved December 13, 2020.
- Rudolph, Ileane (June 28, 2011). "Steven Spielberg Talks Falling Skies and Upcoming TV Projects | TV Guide". TVGuide.com. Archived from the original on January 1, 2021. Retrieved December 19, 2020.
- Schneider, Michael (December 11, 2006). "Spielberg takes development role in Fox TV projects". Variety. Archived from the original on September 14, 2012. Retrieved December 11, 2006.
- Hibberd, James (March 11, 2011). "Fox pushes back 'Terra Nova' to fall". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved October 22, 2019.
- "NEW 'Super 8' Teaser Details, Spielberg/Abrams Collaboration Confirmed!". Bloody-disgusting.com. May 6, 2010. Retrieved January 31, 2011.
- Breznican, Anthony (April 13, 2011). "Steven Spielberg's 'Lincoln' gets its Mary Todd: Sally Field". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved October 22, 2019.
- Garbarek, Ben (May 9, 2011). "First casting calls for Steven Spielberg movie". WWBT (Richmond). Retrieved July 20, 2011.
- Fischer, Russ (November 19, 2010). "Daniel Day-Lewis to Star in Steven Spielberg's 'Lincoln'". /Film.
- "The 85th Academy Awards | 2013". oscars.org. Archived from the original on May 2, 2019. Retrieved March 3, 2013.
- Clarke, Donald (January 25, 2013). "The real deal". The Irish Times. Archived from the original on January 1, 2021. Retrieved December 19, 2020.
- "Steven Spielberg, Bradley Cooper to team for 'American Sniper'". LA Times. Retrieved May 3, 2013.
- Kroll, Justin (August 5, 2013). "Steven Spielberg, DreamWorks Part Ways With 'American Sniper'". Variety.
- Bahr, Lindsey (June 16, 2014). "Steven Spielberg's Cold War thriller and 'The BFG' snag release dates". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved October 22, 2019.
- McNary, Dave (June 16, 2014). "Tom Hanks-Steven Spielberg Cold War Thriller Set for Oct. 16, 2015". Variety. Archived from the original on June 20, 2014. Retrieved June 6, 2014.
- McNary, Dave (July 21, 2014). "Amy Ryan, Alan Alda Join Tom Hanks in Steven Spielberg's Cold War Thriller". Variety. Retrieved July 21, 2014.
- "Bridge of Spies (2015)", Rotten Tomatoes, archived from the original on January 1, 2021, retrieved December 2, 2020
- "The 88th Academy Awards | 2016". Oscars.org | Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. Archived from the original on November 8, 2019. Retrieved December 2, 2020.
- Pulver, Andrew (April 28, 2014). "Steven Spielberg to tackle The BFG movie". The Guardian. Archived from the original on January 1, 2021. Retrieved December 19, 2020.
- "Steven Spielberg to direct The BFG". www.roalddahl.com. April 26, 2014. Archived from the original on January 1, 2021. Retrieved December 2, 2020.
- "Programme". Festival de Cannes. Retrieved December 1, 2017.
- Tartaglione, Nancy; Jaafar, Ali (April 14, 2016). "Cannes Film Festival 2016 Lineup: 'The BFG', 'Nice Guys', Penn, Refn, Almodóvar & More Confirmed; No Closing-Night Pic". Deadline. Retrieved December 1, 2017.
- Phillips, Michael. "'The BFG' review: Oscar-winner Rylance delightful to watch in Spielberg adaptation". chicagotribune.com. Archived from the original on January 1, 2021. Retrieved December 19, 2020.
- Braun, Liz (June 30, 2016). "'The BFG' review: Steven Spielberg can't capture the magic of Roald Dahl". Toronto Sun. Archived from the original on January 1, 2021. Retrieved December 19, 2020.
- Fleming, Mike Jr. (March 10, 2017). "Spielberg, Hanks & Streep's Pentagon Papers Pic A Contender In Next Oscar Race". Deadline Hollywood. Retrieved March 30, 2017.
- "Production Underway on Spielberg's THE PAPERS, Starring Meryl Streep & Tom Hanks". Broadwayworld.com. Retrieved December 1, 2017.
- Ryan, Patrick (November 20, 2017). "Steven Spielberg on timely new film 'The Post': 'History is certainly repeating itself'". USA Today. Retrieved December 2, 2020.
- "Steven Spielberg, Bryan Singer's Queen Film Land Awards Season Releases". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved December 1, 2017.
- Bahr, Lindsey (December 13, 2017). "Review: Spielberg, Streep and Hanks deliver in 'The Post'". AP NEWS. Archived from the original on January 1, 2021. Retrieved December 19, 2020.
- Busch, Anita (February 28, 2017). "'Netflix's 'Five Came Back' With Spielberg, Coppola, Del Toro, Greengrass & Kasdan Drops Trailer – Watch". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on March 1, 2017. Retrieved December 1, 2017.
- Alexander, Bryan (June 26, 2016). "New BFFs Spielberg, Rylance team up for 'The BFG' and big things beyond". USA Today. Retrieved July 4, 2016.
- Mike Fleming Jr (August 6, 2015). "Steven Spielberg's 'Ready Player One' Slotted For December 2017". Deadline Hollywood. Penske Business Media, LLC. Archived from the original on August 7, 2015. Retrieved March 10, 2018.
- Anita Busch (March 25, 2015). "Steven Spielberg To Direct Sci-Fi Cult Favorite 'Ready Player One'; Back At Warner Bros". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on July 2, 2020. Retrieved February 19, 2020.
- Lang, Brent (February 9, 2016). "Steven Spielberg's 'Ready Player One' Pushed Back to Avoid 'Star Wars: Episode VIII'". Variety. Retrieved February 9, 2016.
- "Spielberg's 'Ready Player One' Premiere Hit With Technical Difficulties". Variety. March 12, 2018.
- Nashawaty, Chris (March 26, 2018). "Here's what our critic thought of Steven Spielberg's 'Ready Player One'". EW.com. Archived from the original on January 1, 2021. Retrieved December 19, 2020.
- Burr, Ty (March 28, 2018). "Spielberg's 'Ready Player One' is much deeper than the trailers suggest". BostonGlobe.com. Archived from the original on January 1, 2021. Retrieved December 19, 2020.
- "Steven Spielberg Says West Side Story Is Like A Dream Come True". Daily Research Plot. Retrieved November 29, 2021.
- Mike Fleming Jr (March 5, 2014). "'West Side Story' Remake For Steven Spielberg In Works At Fox – Deadline". Deadline Hollywood. Penske Business Media, LLC.
- Teeman, Tim (July 19, 2017). "Tony Kushner: Why I'm Writing a Play About Donald Trump". The Daily Beast. Archived from the original on February 11, 2019. Retrieved December 1, 2017.
- McPhee, Ryan (May 7, 2019). "New West Side Story Movie Sets December 2020 Release." Archived June 10, 2019, at the Wayback Machine Playbill. Retrieved April 2, 2020.
- Kroll, Justin (March 18, 2016). "'Indiana Jones 5' Taps Writer David Koepp, a Steven Spielberg Regular". Variety. Retrieved July 4, 2016.
- D'Alessandro, Anthony (March 15, 2016). "Steven Spielberg & Harrison Ford Team Up For 'Indiana Jones 5'; Disney Sets July 2019 Release". Deadline Hollywood. Penske Business Media, LLC. Retrieved July 4, 2016.
- "Star Wars: Episode IX and Next Indiana Jones Get Release Dates". Starwars.com. Archived from the original on April 25, 2017. Retrieved December 1, 2017.
- Barfield, Charles (March 19, 2018). "Spielberg Confirms 'Indy 5' Will Begin Production In April 2019". The Playlist.
- Lang, Brent (June 28, 2018). "'Indiana Jones 5' Will Miss 2020 Release Date (EXCLUSIVE)". Variety.
- McClintock, Pamela (July 10, 2018). "Disney Pushes 'Indiana Jones 5' a Year to 2021, Dates 'Maleficent 2,' 'Jungle Cruise'". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on July 10, 2018. Retrieved July 10, 2018.
- JK, Schmidt (May 1, 2019). "Indiana Jones 5 Gets New Writer, Abandoned Plot Details Revealed". Comic Book. Archived from the original on January 1, 2021. Retrieved December 18, 2020.
- Vary, Adam B.; Kroll, Justin; Lang, Brent (February 26, 2020). "Steven Spielberg Won't Direct 'Indiana Jones 5,' James Mangold in Talks to Replace (EXCLUSIVE)". Variety. Retrieved February 26, 2020.
- "Indiana Jones 5 writer says Steven Spielberg quit as director because his ideas 'didn't work'". Independent. October 1, 2020. Retrieved May 6, 2021.
- "'Black Widow,' 'Eternals,' 'Indiana Jones 5' and More Disney Films Get New Release Dates". Variety. April 3, 2020. Retrieved May 6, 2021.
- Rubin, Rebecca (October 18, 2021). "Disney Delays 'Doctor Strange 2,' 'Thor 4,' 'Black Panther' Sequel and 'Indiana Jones 5'". Variety. Retrieved December 2, 2021.
- "'Indiana Jones 5' to Begin Filming in the UK Next Week". June 2, 2021.
- "Steven Spielberg's Next Film is Titled the Fabelmans, About a Young Spielberg – IGN".
- "Steven Spielberg Sets Newcomer Gabriel LaBelle to Star in Untitled Film Based on Director's Childhood". May 26, 2021.
- "Steven Spielberg on set of semi-autobiographical movie The Fabelmans in Malibu for the first time". California News Times. July 24, 2021. Retrieved August 31, 2021.
- D'Alessandro, Anthony (December 6, 2021). "Steven Spielberg's The Fabelmans, Based On Filmmaker's Childhood, Sets 2022 Theatrical Release". Deadline Hollywood. Retrieved December 6, 2021.
- Guthrie, Marisa (January 18, 2013). "HBO Developing Third WWII Miniseries with Tom Hanks, Steven Spielberg (Exclusive) | Hollywood Reporter". www.hollywoodreporter.com. Archived from the original on August 28, 2014. Retrieved December 19, 2020.
- Moore, Sam (March 1, 2017). "Production progresses on reported Spielberg/Tom Hanks HBO miniseries 'The Mighty Eighth' | NME". NME. Archived from the original on January 1, 2021. Retrieved December 19, 2020.
- Gonzalez, Sandra (October 11, 2019). "'Masters of the Air' from Steven Spielberg and Tom Hanks lands at Apple". CNN. Retrieved December 2, 2021.
- Lang, Brent (June 21, 2021). "Steven Spielberg's Amblin Partners, Netflix Forge Film Deal in Sign of Changing Hollywood". MSN. Retrieved June 21, 2021.
- "Steven Spielberg to direct Martin Luther King film" Daily Telegraph, May 19, 2009. Footnote format December 24, 2009.
- "King's Children May Sue Over Planned Biographical Film" by Dave Itzkoff, The New York Times ArtsBeat blog, May 20, 2009. Retrieved December 24, 2009.
- Chitwood, Adam (March 2, 2015). "Steven Spielberg to Direct Jennifer Lawrence in War Memoir Adaptation IT'S WHAT I DO". Collider.
- Kroll, Justin (April 17, 2018). "Steven Spielberg to Direct Film Adaptation of DC's 'Blackhawk'". Variety. Retrieved December 19, 2020.
- Kellogg, Jane (March 3, 2013). "Steven Spielberg developing Stanley Kubrick". The Hollywood Reporter.
- Holdsworth, Nick (May 20, 2016). "Cary Fukunaga in Talks to Direct HBO Stanley Kubrick Mini 'Napoleon,' From Steven Spielberg". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved December 1, 2017.
- Sexenio.com.mx (May 17, 2016). "Steven Spielberg grabará cinta sobre Moctezuma y Hernán Cortés | 1Fila". Archived from the original on June 10, 2016. Retrieved July 4, 2016.
- Schaefer, Sandy (January 6, 2014). "Steven Spielberg May Direct Montezuma-Cortes Film Starring Javier Bardem". Screen Rant. Retrieved July 4, 2016.
- Goldberg, Lesley (March 26, 2018). "Amazon Revives Dalton Trumbo's 'Cortes': Javier Bardem to Star in Mini From Steven Spielberg, Steven Zaillian". The Hollywood Reporter.
- Fleming, Mike Jr. (October 22, 2010). "Steven Spielberg Commits To Next Direct 'Robopocalypse'". Deadline. Retrieved June 8, 2011.
- "DreamWorks, Fox To Co-Finance Steven Spielberg's 'Robopocalypse'". September 7, 2011. Retrieved September 7, 2011.
- Kim Masters (January 9, 2013). "Steven Spielberg's 'Robopocalypse' Postponed Indefinitely – Hollywood Reporter". The Hollywood Reporter.
- D'Alessandro, Anthony (March 7, 2018). "Michael Bay Lining Up 'Robopocalypse' & '6 Underground' As Next Projects".
- Fleming, Mike Jr. (April 11, 2016). "Steven Spielberg Sets 'The Kidnapping Of Edgardo Mortara' Next; Tony Kushner Script, Mark Rylance Is Pope Pius IX". Retrieved July 4, 2016.
- Kroll, Justin (April 18, 2014). "Steven Spielberg Boards Religious Drama 'Edgardo Mortara' (Exclusive)". Retrieved July 4, 2016.
- Fleming., Mike Jr. (January 19, 2018). "Steven Spielberg Eyes Indiana Jones & 'West Side Story' Atop Next Directing Vehicles". Deadline Hollywood. Penske Business Media, LLC. Archived from the original on April 21, 2019. Retrieved January 25, 2018.
- "Spielberg's Boom Blox Revealed". Kotaku.com. February 6, 2008. Archived from the original on June 23, 2011. Retrieved January 31, 2011.
- Waters, Darren (February 23, 2008). "Making games with Steven Spielberg". BBC News. Retrieved January 6, 2010.
- "Medal of Honor: Allied Assault (2002) Windows credits". MobyGames. Archived from the original on December 1, 2017. Retrieved January 31, 2011.
- McBride 1997, p. 441.
- GameSpot, "Storytime with Ron Gilbert – PAX Australia 2013 Keynote" Archived July 28, 2020, at the Wayback Machine, Ron Gilbert, July 7, 2013, accessed March 21, 2015
- DoubleFineProd, "Tim Schafer Plays Day of the Tentacle Part 1" Archived July 28, 2020, at the Wayback Machine, Tim Schafer, May 9, 2014, accessed March 22, 2015
- Tom Chick (December 8, 2008). "A Close Encounter with Steven Spielberg". Yahoo!. Archived from the original on December 11, 2008. Retrieved December 11, 2008.
- Baxter 1996, p. 20.
- Hook 2010, p. 6.
- Freer 2001, p. 148.
- McBride 1997, p. 263.
- Jackson 2007, p. xvii.
- McBride 1997, p. 143.
- Baxter 1996, p. 19.
- Freer 2001, p. 112.
- Freer 2001, p. 149.
- Baxter 1996, p. 160.
- Mairata 2018, p. 69.
- Buckland 2006, p. 69.
- Buckland 2006, p. 205.
- Buckland 2006, p. 202.
- Wang, Ray (October 22, 2015). "The Tech talks to Steven Spielberg". The Tech. The Tech. Retrieved March 10, 2018.
- Freer 2001, p. 76.
- Steven Spielberg and philosophy : we're gonna need a bigger book. Kowalski, Dean A. Lexington, Ky.: University Press of Kentucky. 2008. p. 48. ISBN 978-0-8131-7324-5. OCLC 299792520. Archived from the original on January 1, 2021. Retrieved December 20, 2020.CS1 maint: others ( link)
- McBride 1997, p. 181.
- McBride 1997, p. 67.
- E.T. DVD Production Notes Booklet. Universal. 2002.
- "Janusz Kaminski ASC / The Post". British Cinematographer. April 29, 2018. Archived from the original on January 1, 2021. Retrieved December 24, 2020.
- Freer 1996, p. 229. sfn error: no target: CITEREFFreer1996 ( help)
- Freer 1996, p. 256. sfn error: no target: CITEREFFreer1996 ( help)
- Mairata 2018, p. 64.
- "Steven Spielberg's Frequent A-List Collaborators (Photos) | Hollywood Reporter". www.hollywoodreporter.com. October 17, 2015. Archived from the original on January 1, 2021. Retrieved December 18, 2020.
- "5 Actors Who Enjoy Working With Steven Spielberg (& 5 Who've Turned Him Down)". ScreenRant. December 5, 2020. Retrieved July 14, 2021.
- "The key collaborators of Steven Spielberg". Set The Tape. September 21, 2017. Retrieved July 14, 2021.
- "John Williams and Steven Spielberg". Classic FM. Retrieved November 10, 2020.
- "The man behind the music of 'Star Wars'". Today.com. May 5, 2005. Archived from the original on January 1, 2021. Retrieved November 10, 2020.
- "Composer John Williams to Receive the 44th AFI Life Achievement Award". American Film Institute. October 8, 2015. Archived from the original on January 1, 2021. Retrieved November 22, 2020.
- McBride 1997, p. 293.
- McBride 1997, p. 294.
- McBride 1997, p. 362, 363.
- "'Most costly' celebrity divorces". BBC News. April 13, 2007. Archived from the original on March 13, 2012. Retrieved April 13, 2007.
- "Steven Spielberg on unlocking 'tremendous mystery' of his dyslexia". Los Angeles Times. September 25, 2012. Retrieved March 12, 2021.
- "Another Celebrity with Dyslexia – Steven Spielberg". LDRFA. September 11, 2019. Retrieved March 12, 2021.
- Arenson, Karen W. (September 24, 1995). "From 'Schindler's List,' a Jewish Mission". The New York Times. Archived from the original on May 11, 2018. Retrieved May 11, 2018.
- Jackson 2007, p. 49.
- Pogrebin 2005, p. 25.
- Pogrebin 2005, p. 26.
- Pogrebin 2005, p. 27.
- III, Harry Hurt (May 10, 2016). "Look Inside Steven Spielberg's House in Pacific Palisades". Architectural Digest. Archived from the original on January 1, 2021. Retrieved December 18, 2020.
- Valhouli, Christina (September 19, 2002). "Billionaires On Vacation". Forbes. Archived from the original on August 25, 2006. Retrieved December 18, 2020.
- Schuster, Dana (September 7, 2012). "A stage for Spielberg's son". New York Post. Retrieved May 11, 2018.
- "Spielberg, Steven – Fun Facts, Answers, Factoids, Info, Information". Funtrivia.com. Archived from the original on March 9, 2010. Retrieved March 2, 2010.
- "Spielberg stalker jailed". BBC News. June 17, 1998. Retrieved December 11, 2011.
- Sylvester, Sherri (February 26, 1998). "Spielberg recounts fears, anguish over alleged stalker". CNN. Retrieved December 11, 2011.
- Armstrong, Mark; Mandel, Kwala (October 18, 2002). "Steven Spielberg Curbs Alleged Stalker". People. Archived from the original on January 1, 2021. Retrieved December 19, 2020.
- Sauer, M (December 31, 2002). "Stalking suspect to undergo more psychological tests". The San Diego Union-Tribune. Archived from the original on September 6, 2008. Retrieved October 30, 2008.
- De Young, Mary (2004). The day care ritual abuse moral panic. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland. pp. 234–235. ISBN 978-0-7864-1830-5.
- "Steven Spielberg is selling his $184 million mega-yacht because he needs a bigger boat". Businessinsider.com. Retrieved December 1, 2017.
- Gardner, Chris (July 7, 2015). "Spielberg Trading Up to 300-Foot Yacht | Hollywood Reporter". www.hollywoodreporter.com. Archived from the original on January 1, 2021. Retrieved December 18, 2020.
- "The Clintons' Showbiz Celebration". BBC News. January 1, 2000. Retrieved October 21, 2006.
- Iacob, Ivona (May 27, 2016). "The Top Donors Backing Hillary Clinton's Super PAC". Forbes. Archived from the original on May 17, 2019. Retrieved September 15, 2017.
- "Spielberg quits scouts 'over gay ban'". BBC News. April 17, 2001. Retrieved October 30, 2006.
- "Spielberg resigns from Boy Scouts board". Hollywood.com. April 26, 2001. Archived from the original on January 3, 2013. Retrieved March 10, 2006.
- "Spielberg movies banned by Arab League, WikiLeaks cable reveals." Archived July 28, 2020, at the Wayback Machine Haaretz, December 18, 2010.
- "Spielberg donates $US1m to Israeli relief". The Age. Melbourne. Associated Press. August 10, 2006. Retrieved December 18, 2010.
- Wulfhorst, Ellen (February 22, 2007). "Obama finds friends, money in Hollywood". Reuters. Archived from the original on January 1, 2021. Retrieved December 19, 2020.
- Rachel Abramowitz (2008). "Spielberg drops out as Beijing Olympics advisor". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on June 3, 2008. Retrieved February 13, 2007.
- "Spielberg in Darfur snub to China". BBC News. February 13, 2008. Archived from the original on April 7, 2008. Retrieved May 16, 2008.
- "Rogge respect for Spielberg move". BBC News. February 15, 2008. Retrieved May 16, 2008.
- Bristow, Michael (February 20, 2008). "China hits back over Olympics row". BBC News. Retrieved May 16, 2008.
- Serpe, Gina (September 23, 2008). "Spielberg Makes Like Pitt, Supports Same-Sex Marriage – E! Online". E! Online. Retrieved March 2, 2010.
- Gonzalez, Sandra (February 21, 2018). "Oprah, Steven Spielberg also donating to March For Our Lives, following George Clooney's pledge". CNN. Retrieved March 29, 2018.
- Tibbetts, John C. (2015). Those who made it : speaking with the legends of Hollywood. Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 82. ISBN 978-1-137-54190-1. OCLC 908990396. Archived from the original on January 1, 2021. Retrieved December 20, 2020.
- Parish 2004, p. 1.
- Hook 2010, p. 7.
- Freer 2001, p. vi.
- Sentinel, Orlando (June 3, 1996). "Spielberg Tops Life List of 50 Influential Boomers". Orlando Sentinel. Archived from the original on January 1, 2021. Retrieved December 15, 2020.
- "Spielberg voted 'best director'". BBC. June 1, 2005. Archived from the original on January 1, 2021. Retrieved November 27, 2020.
- Brokaw, Tom (April 18, 2013). "Steven Spielberg: The World's 100 Most Influential People". Time. ISSN 0040-781X. Archived from the original on January 1, 2021. Retrieved December 15, 2020.
- Selby, Jenn (January 16, 2014). "Steven Spielberg tops Forbes Most Influential Celebrities of 2014 list". The Independent. Retrieved January 18, 2014.
- "Forbes' Most Influential Celebrities 2014 List Led By Steven Spielberg, Naturally". The Huffington Post. January 16, 2014. Retrieved January 18, 2014.
- Pomerantz, Dorothy (January 15, 2014). "Steven Spielberg Tops Our List of the Most Influential Celebrities". Forbes. Retrieved January 18, 2014.
- "Steven Spielberg". Forbes. Archived from the original on September 25, 2010. Retrieved December 19, 2020.
- Arnold, Edwin T.; Miller, Eugene L. (2004). Robert Aldrich: Interviews. p. 172. ISBN 978-1-57806-602-5. Archived from the original on January 1, 2021. Retrieved October 8, 2020.
- "När Bergman går på bio". Sydsvenskan. July 31, 2007. Archived from the original on December 4, 2007. Retrieved December 18, 2020.
- "Interview: Strong Man on a Mission; Werner Herzog Talks About 'Invincible'". Indiewire. September 23, 2002. Retrieved December 18, 2020.
- "On Kubrick – A Talk With Kubrick Documentarian Jan Harlan". Dvdtalk.com. Retrieved January 31, 2011.
- Organ, Steven (2009). David Lean Interviews. University Press of Mississippi. p. 95. ISBN 978-1-60473-235-1. Archived from the original on January 1, 2021. Retrieved October 8, 2020.
- "The Hollywood Interview: Sidney Lumet". Thehollywoodinterview.blogspot.com. January 7, 2008. Retrieved January 31, 2011.
- Polanski, Roman; Cronin, Paul (2005). Roman Polanski: Interviews. University Press of Mississippi. p. 167. ISBN 978-1-57806-799-2. Archived from the original on January 1, 2021. Retrieved October 8, 2020.
- "Golden Globes 2009: Steven Spielberg Cecil B. DeMille Award". YouTube. Retrieved January 31, 2011.
- Stephen Rowley. "Genre, Auteurism, and Spielberg". Home.mira.net. Archived from the original on May 4, 2011. Retrieved January 31, 2011.
- "The Spielberg Hundred #002: A Letter from Jean Renoir". Spectacular Attractions. September 14, 2013. Retrieved November 14, 2021.
- "David Lynch interview New Musical Express, 21st August, 1982". Davidlynch.de. August 21, 1982. Archived from the original on March 13, 2012. Retrieved May 25, 2012.
- Five Favorite Films with J.J. Abrams. Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved June 21, 2011.
- Johnston, Robert K. (2004). Useless Beauty: Ecclesiastes Through The Lens Of Contemporary Film – Robert K. Johnston. Michigan: Baker Academic. p. 74. ISBN 978-0-8010-2785-7. Archived from the original on January 1, 2021. Retrieved May 25, 2012.
- "District 9 (2009) – Neill Blomkamp Interview". Sci-Fi Movie Page. August 18, 2009. Retrieved January 31, 2011.
- "Del Toro Films". Del Toro Films. Archived from the original on February 9, 2010. Retrieved December 18, 2020.
- Vo, Alex (November 10, 2009). "Five Favorite Films with Roland Emmerich". Rotten Tomatoes. Archived from the original on June 17, 2013. Retrieved January 31, 2011.
- Goodsell, Luke (December 23, 2009). "Five Favorite Films With Peter Jackson". Rotten Tomatoes. Archived from the original on September 20, 2013. Retrieved January 31, 2011.
- Xuan, Liu (October 2000). "Interview with Kal Ng". Senses of Cinema. Archived from the original on December 25, 2010. Retrieved January 31, 2011.
- Yamato, Jen (July 25, 2009). "Five Favorite Films with Robert Rodriguez". Rotten Tomatoes. Archived from the original on March 2, 2010. Retrieved January 31, 2011.
- Sayles, John; Carson, Dan (1999). John Sayles: interviews. University Press of Mississippi. p. 98. ISBN 978-1-57806-138-9. Archived from the original on January 1, 2021. Retrieved October 8, 2020.
- Ridley, Scott; Knapp, Laurence F.; Kulas, Andrea F. (2005). Ridley Scott: interviews. University Press of Mississippi. p. 184. ISBN 978-1-57806-726-8. Archived from the original on January 1, 2021. Retrieved October 8, 2020.
- Barboza, Craigh (2009). John Singleton: Interviews. University Press of Mississippi. pp. ix. ISBN 978-1-60473-116-3.
- Vo, Alex (October 27, 2008). "Five Favorite Films with Kevin Smith". Rotten Tomatoes. Archived from the original on July 18, 2010. Retrieved January 31, 2011.
- Jagernauth, Kevin (May 1, 2014). "Watch: Gareth Edwards Names His 3 Filmmaking Heroes Plus – The Playlist". The Playlist. Archived from the original on May 5, 2014. Retrieved December 18, 2020.
- Shone, Tom. Blockbuster: how Hollywood learned to stop worrying and love the summer. p. 80. Simon and Schuster, 2004. ISBN 0-7432-3568-1.
- "Spielberg and You" – Entertainment Weekly. p. 6. 12/9/11.
- Rowley, Stephen (February 6, 2006). "Steven Spielberg on Senses of Cinema". Archived from the original on March 5, 2008. Retrieved March 16, 2007.
- "Star Wars hailed best film". BBC News. July 11, 1999. Retrieved November 3, 2021.
- Glenn Heath, Jr. (April 14, 2011). "A.I. Artificial Intelligence". Slant Magazine. Retrieved May 1, 2011.
- Thorsen, Tor. "A.I.: Artificial Intelligence". Archived from the original on February 10, 2008.
- Easy Riders, Raging Bulls: How the Sex 'n' Drugs 'n' Rock 'n' Roll Generation Saved Hollywood by Peter Biskind, Bloomsbury, London, 1999, pp. 343–344.
- Carney, Ray (May 8, 1996). There's no Business like Show Business. The Baffler.
- Glover, Crispin. "What Is It?". Archived from the original on May 3, 2006. Retrieved September 1, 2007.
- Kael, Pauline (2002). Afterglow: a last conversation with Pauline Kael. Davis, Francis (1st Da Capo Press ed.). Cambridge, MA: Da Capo Press. p. 50. ISBN 0-306-81192-8. OCLC 50557407. Archived from the original on January 1, 2021. Retrieved December 20, 2020.
- Gibron, Bill (April 21, 2007). "Short Cuts – Forgotten Gems: In Praise of Love". Pop Matters. Archived from the original on April 24, 2007. Retrieved April 28, 2007.
- Roger Ebert (October 18, 2002). "In Praise of Love". Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved April 28, 2007.
- "Complete National Film Registry Listing | Film Registry | National Film Preservation Board | Programs | Library of Congress". Library of Congress, Washington, DC. Archived from the original on March 5, 2016. Retrieved December 16, 2020.
- Jackson 2007, p. 109.
- Jackson 2007, p. 112.
- Parish 2004, p. 2.
- Baxter 1996, p. 354.
- "Distinguished Eagle Scout Award". National Capital Area Council – Boy Scouts of America. Archived from the original on October 5, 2006. Retrieved October 21, 2006.
- Jackson 2007, p. 110.
- "Steven Spielberg erhält das Bundesverdienstkreuz". Berlin Online. September 11, 1998. Archived from the original on October 19, 2009. Retrieved December 19, 2008.
- Jackson 2007, p. 111.
- Hook 2010, p. 95.
- Jackson 2007, p. 113.
- "Spielberg receives Lifetime Achievement Award". Chicago Film Festival. July 17, 2006. Archived from the original on October 16, 2006. Retrieved October 21, 2006.
- Boedeker, Hal (December 26, 2006). "'Kennedy Center Honors' hits mostly high notes". chicagotribune.com. Retrieved January 26, 2020.
- "It's Official! Inductees Named for 2005 Hall of Fame Class". Archived from the original on March 26, 2005. Retrieved March 26, 2005.. Press release March 24, 2005. Science Fiction Museum (sfhomeworld.org). Archived March 26, 2005. Retrieved March 22, 2013.
- "Science Fiction and Fantasy Hall of Fame" Archived May 21, 2013, at the Wayback Machine. Mid American Science Fiction and Fantasy Conventions, Inc. Retrieved April 7, 2013. This was the official website of the hall of fame to 2004.
- "6th Annual VES Awards". VES. Archived from the original on June 10, 2020. Retrieved December 15, 2020.
- "Spielberg receives Royal honour". BBC News. January 30, 2001. Archived from the original on October 20, 2014. Retrieved January 18, 2008.
- Jackson 2007, p. 97.
- "Spielberg awarded Légion d'Honneur". The Guardian. September 6, 2004. Archived from the original on January 1, 2021. Retrieved December 16, 2020.
- "Spielberg receives ASU award for communication excellence". ASU Now: Access, Excellence, Impact. June 19, 2008. Archived from the original on January 1, 2021. Retrieved December 15, 2020.
- Mucha, Peter (August 4, 2009). "Steven Spielberg is winner of 2009 Liberty Medal". The Philadelphia Inquirer. Archived from the original on January 1, 2021. Retrieved December 16, 2020.
- "Spielberg Receives Liberty Medal Award In Philly". www.cbsnews.com. Archived from the original on January 1, 2021. Retrieved December 16, 2020.
- Casert, Raf (October 22, 2011). "Tintin has world premiere in Belgian hometown". Today.com. Archived from the original on January 1, 2021. Retrieved December 16, 2020.
- Johnson, Ted (November 21, 2013). "Steven Spielberg Honored by National Archives". Variety. Archived from the original on January 1, 2021. Retrieved December 16, 2020.
- "President Obama Names Recipients of the Presidential Medal of Freedom". whitehouse.gov. November 16, 2015. Archived from the original on January 28, 2017. Retrieved November 16, 2015 – via National Archives.
- "Steven Spielberg has just won at life. He's got a Gold Blue Peter badge". BBC News. July 22, 2016. Archived from the original on January 1, 2021. Retrieved December 16, 2020.
- "Honorary Degrees". USC News. May 1, 1994. Archived from the original on January 1, 2021. Retrieved December 18, 2020.
- "98-136 (1999 Honorary Degrees)". www.brown.edu. May 26, 1999. Archived from the original on January 1, 2021. Retrieved December 18, 2020.
- Daniloff, Caleb (May 13, 2009). "Honoring Steven Spielberg: Talking about old-school filmmaking, the virtues of TV, and the scent of film". BU Today. Archived from the original on January 9, 2014. Retrieved August 2, 2013.
- Gibson, Katie (May 26, 2016). "Nine to receive honorary degrees". Harvard Gazette. Archived from the original on January 1, 2021. Retrieved December 18, 2020.
- "ABC's 'The River' offers scary mystery". USA Today. July 22, 2011. Retrieved July 22, 2011.
- "'Smash': It has Steven Spielberg, Katharine McPhee, Marilyn Monroe". Archived from the original on May 20, 2011. Retrieved May 15, 2011.
- Brian Lowry (August 6, 2015). "Steven Spielberg's 'Extant' Only One of Many Alien TV Shows – Variety". Variety. Variety Media, LLC.
- Brian Lowry (May 29, 2015). "'The Whispers' Review Steven Spielberg Series ABC – Variety". Variety. Variety Media, LLC.
- Whitney Friedlander (September 21, 2015). "'Minority Report': Producers on Show Based on Tom Cruise Movie – Variety". Variety. Variety Media, LLC.
- "Stephen King, Steven Spielberg Go 'Under the Dome'". Rolling Stone. June 19, 2013. Retrieved December 1, 2017.
- "The films of Steven Spielberg". www.cbsnews.com. Archived from the original on January 1, 2021. Retrieved December 19, 2020.
- Mara 2014, p. 56.
- Freer 2001, p. 287.
- Freer 2001, p. 288.
- Jackson, Kathi (2007). Steven Spielberg: A Biography. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. ISBN 9780313337963.
- Hook, Sue Vander (2010). Steven Spielberg: Groundbreaking Director. Edina, MN: Abdo Publishing Company. ISBN 9781604537048.
- Mara, Wil (2014). Great Filmmakers Steven Spielberg. New York: Cavendish Square Publishing. ISBN 9781627129367.
- McBride, Joseph (1997). Steven Spielberg: A Biography. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 9780684811673.
- Freer, Ian (2001). The Complete Spielberg. London: Virgin Publishing. ISBN 9780753505564.
- Parish, James Robert (2004). Steven Spielberg Filmmaker. New York: Ferguson. ISBN 9780816054817.
- Horn, Geoffrey M. (2002). Steven Spielberg. Milwaukee: World Almanac Library. ISBN 9780836850802.
- Edge, Laura Bufano (2008). Steven Spielberg: Director of blockbuster films. Berkeley Heights, NJ: Enslow Publishers. ISBN 9780766028883.
- Baxter, John (1996). Steven Spielberg: The Unauthorised Biography. London: Harper Collins. ISBN 9780002555876.
- Pogrebin, Abigail (2005). Stars of David: Prominent Jews Talk About Being Jewish. New York: Broadway Books. ISBN 9780307419323.
- Mairata, James (2018). Steven Spielberg's Style by Stealth. Cham, Switzerland: Springer International Publishing. ISBN 9783319690810.
- Buckland, Warren (2006). Directed by Steven Spielberg: Poetics of the Contemporary Hollywood Blockbuster. New York: Continuum. ISBN 9780826416919.
- Steven Spielberg; Lester D. Friedman; Brent Notbohm (2000). Steven Spielberg: interviews. Univ. Press of Mississippi. ISBN 978-1-57806-113-6. Archived from the original on January 1, 2021. Retrieved October 8, 2020.
- Laura Bufano Edge (2008). Steven Spielberg: Director of Blockbuster Films. Enslow Publishers, Inc. ISBN 978-0-7660-2888-3.
- Nigel Morris (2007). The cinema of Steven Spielberg: empire of light. Wallflower Press. ISBN 978-1-904764-88-5.
- Haskell, Molly (2017). Steven Spielberg: A Life in Films. Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-18693-2.
- Steven Spielberg at IMDb
- Steven Spielberg at the TCM Movie Database
- Steven Spielberg at AllMovie
- Steven Spielberg at Curlie
- "Steven Spielberg collected news and commentary". The New York Times.
- "Steven Spielberg biography". Science Fiction and Fantasy Hall of Fame.
- Talking About Steven Spielberg at The Interviews: An Oral History of Television