# Science and technology in Romania

*https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Science_and_technology_in_Romania*

**Science and technology in Romania** is well developed, with the presence of several universities and research institutes, and has a distinguished tradition going back more than a century.

## Aviation and aeronautics

On March 18, 1906
Traian Vuia achieved a short hop at a height of about 1 foot. His flight was performed in
Montesson near
Paris and was about 12 meters long.^{
[1]}

Henri Coandă was a Romanian inventor and pioneer of aviation. He exhibited the non-flying Coandă-1910 at the Second International Aeronautical Exhibition in Paris in October 1910, and built his first flying aircraft in 1911. He discovered the Coandă effect of fluidics, and was the first to recognize the practical application of the phenomenon in aircraft design.

On May 14, 1981 Romania became the 11th country in the world to have an astronaut in space. That astronaut, Dumitru Prunariu later served as president of the Romanian Space Agency.

## Biology, chemistry and medicine

George Emil Palade was a Romanian-born cell biologist who won the
Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1974^{
[2]} for his study of internal organization of such cell structures as
mitochondria,
chloroplasts, the
Golgi apparatus, and for the discovery of the
ribosomes.^{
[3]} He also won the
National Medal of Science in 1986.

George Constantinescu created the theory of sonics, while Lazăr Edeleanu was the first chemist to synthesize amphetamine and also invented the modern method of refining crude oil.

## Mathematics

Mathematics research in Romania started in the late 19th century and the early 20th century with the work of Spiru Haret, Traian Lalescu, Octav Mayer, Miron Nicolescu, Octav Onicescu, Dimitrie Pompeiu, Isaac Jacob Schoenberg, Simion Stoilow, Gheorghe Țițeica, and Gheorghe Vrănceanu.

In the second half of the 20th century, there was a tremendous increase of research activity and international visibility. A very strong school of operator algebras and C*-algebras developed around Ciprian Foias and Dan-Virgil Voiculescu (the initiator of the field of Free probability), whose tradition has continued with Sorin Popa, Adrian Ioana, Adrian Ocneanu, Florin Boca, and others. Research in algebra and algebraic geometry is represented in the works of mathematicians such as Nicolae Popescu (of Gabriel–Popescu theorem fame), Alexandru Dimca, Mircea Mustață, and Mihnea Popa, while research in number theory is represented by Florian Pop, Preda Mihăilescu (proof of Catalan's conjecture), Cristian Dumitru Popescu, Alexandru Zaharescu, and Alina Carmen Cojocaru.

Research in the fields of
topology,
symplectic geometry,
global analysis, and
geometric group theory has been pursued my mathematicians such as
Tudor Ganea,
Valentin Poénaru,
Henri Moscovici,
Tudor Ratiu,
Eleny Ionel,
Cornelia Druțu, and
Ciprian Manolescu (known for his application of
Seiberg–Witten Floer theory to the
Hauptvermutung^{
[4]}). Finally, strong research in
mathematical analysis,
complex analysis,
partial differential equations, and
numerical analysis appears in the works of
Cabiria Andreian Cazacu,
Sergiu Klainerman,
Daniel Tătaru,
Matei Machedon,
Monica Vișan, and
Ioana Dumitriu.

## Physics

Notable Romanian physicists and inventors also include:
Horia Hulubei in atomic physics,
Șerban Țițeica in theoretical physics, especially thermodynamics and statistical mechanics,
Mihai Gavrilă in quantum theory,^{
[5]}^{
[6]}^{
[7]}
Alexandru Proca known for the first meson theory of nuclear forces and
Proca's equations of the vectorial mesonic field,^{
[8]}^{
[9]} formulated independently of the pion theory of Nobel laureate
Hideki Yukawa (who predicted the existence of the
pion in 1947),
Ştefan Procopiu known for the first theory of the magnetic moment of the electron in 1911 (now known as the
Bohr-Procopiu magneton),
Theodor V. Ionescu – the inventor of a multiple-cavity
magnetron in 1935, a hydrogen
maser in 1947,
3D imaging for cinema/television in 1924, quantum emission in hot plasmas and hot deuterium plasma beams for controlled
nuclear fusion in 1969,^{
[10]}
Ionel Solomon known for the
nuclear magnetic resonance theory in solids in 1955, the
Solomon equations,^{
[11]} solid state physics,^{
[11]} semiconductors in 1979,^{
[12]}^{
[13]} and photovoltaics since 1988,^{
[14]} Mircea Sabău^{
[15]}^{
[16]} and
Florentina Mosora known for their contributions to
nuclear medicine,
Petrache Poenaru,
Nicolae Teclu and

## Computer science and technology

Mathematician
Ştefan Odobleja was one of the precursors of
cybernetics,
while
Grigore Moisil is viewed as the father of
computer science in Romania. Another mathematician,
Cristian S. Calude is known for his work on
algorithmic information theory, while physicist Victor Toma is known for the invention and construction of the first Romanian computer, the CIFA-1 in 1955.^{
[17]}

At the beginning of the second millennium, there was a boom in Romania in the number of
computer programmers. Romania is reported to be among the countries with the highest number of computer programmers in the world.^{
[18]} Some examples of successful software include RAV (Romanian AntiVirus) which was bought in 2003 by
Microsoft for use in their development of
Windows Defender,^{
[19]} and
BitDefender, which was considered the number one antivirus software and internet security software in a report from TopTenReviews.^{
[20]}

## See also

- American-Romanian Academy of Arts and Sciences
- ARCAspace
- Aviation in Romania
- List of universities in Romania
- List of research institutes in Romania
- Nuclear power in Romania
- Romanian Academy
- Romanian Academy of Sciences

## Notes

**^**"Traian I. Vuia".*earlyaviators.com*.**^**George E. Palade - The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1974 at Nobelprize.org**^**Nicole Kresge, Robert D. Simoni, and Robert L. Hill George Emil Palade: How Sucrose and Electron Microscopy Led to the Birth of Cell Biology*J. Biol. Chem.*, Vol. 280, Issue 22, 19, June 3, 2005**^**Manolescu, Ciprian (2016) [2015]. "Pin(2)-equivariant Seiberg–Witten Floer homology and the Triangulation Conjecture".*Journal of the American Mathematical Society*.**29**: 147–176. arXiv: 1303.2354. doi: 10.1090/jams829. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter ( link)**^**Gavrilă, Mihai (1959-01-15). "Relativistic K-Shell Photoeffect".*Physical Review*. American Physical Society.**113**(2): 514–526. doi: 10.1103/physrev.113.514. ISSN 0031-899X. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter ( link)**^**McEnnan, James; Gavrilă, Mihai (1977-04-01). "Radiative corrections to the atomic photoeffect".*Physical Review A*. American Physical Society.**15**(4): 1537–1556. doi: 10.1103/physreva.15.1537. ISSN 0556-2791.**^**Florescu, Viorica; Gavrilă, Mihai (2003-11-14). "Extreme relativistic Compton scattering by K-shell electrons".*Physical Review A*. American Physical Society.**68**(5): 052709. doi: 10.1103/physreva.68.052709. ISSN 1050-2947.**^**Alexandru Proca.*"On the relativistic theory of Dirac's electron"*PhD thesis defended by Alexandru Proca under Nobel laureate Louis de Broglie at Sorbonne University**^**Brown, Laurie M.; Rechenberg, Helmut (1996),*The origin of the concept of nuclear forces*, CRC Press, p. 185, ISBN 978-0-7503-0373-6**^**Th.V. Ionescu et al. (1969). "Les oscillations ioniques dans les cathodes creuses dans un champ magnetique", transmise par M. Louis Neel,*Comptes rendus de l'Académie des Sciences*,**270**: 1321-1324- ^
^{a}^{b}Solomon, I. (1955-07-15). "Relaxation Processes in a System of Two Spins".*Physical Review*. American Physical Society (APS).**99**(2): 559–565. doi: 10.1103/physrev.99.559. ISSN 0031-899X. **^**I. Solomon. "Amorphous Semiconductors", In*"Topics in Applied Physics"*, Ed. Springer Verlag, Berlin (1979)**^**Solomon, I.; Schmidt, M. P.; Tran-Quoc, H. (1988-11-15). "Selective low-power plasma decomposition of silane-methane mixtures for the preparation of methylated amorphous silicon".*Physical Review B*. American Physical Society (APS).**38**(14): 9895–9901. doi: 10.1103/physrevb.38.9895. ISSN 0163-1829.**^**Solomon, I.; Drévillon, B.; Shirai, H.; Layadi, N. (1993). "Plasma deposition of microcrystalline silicon: the selective etching model".*Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids*. Elsevier BV. 164–166: 989–992. doi: 10.1016/0022-3093(93)91164-x. ISSN 0022-3093.**^**http://www.glascomun.info/?p=2116 George Roca. In Memoriam: Prof. Dr. Mircea Sabău.*Glas Comun-Revistă Cultural-creștină*, Iulie 31, 2009**^**http://www.public.asu.edu/~gzl747/nl-may99.html AMERICAN ROMANIAN ACADEMY OF ARTS AND SCIENCES, Newsletter, vol. 10: 1, May 1999**^**Victor Toma- "Tatăl calculatoarelor din țările socialiste".*România Liberă*, July 13, 2007**^**Townsend, Eileen (2002),*Global IT IQ Report*(PDF), Brainbench, Inc.**^**Microsoft to Acquire Antivirus Technology From GeCAD Software**^**2008 Internet Security Suite Report