Science and technology in Canada
Science and technology in Canada consists of three distinct but closely related phenomena:
- the diffusion of technology in Canada
- scientific research in Canada
- innovation, invention and industrial research in Canada
In 2018, Canada spent approximately C$34.5 billion on domestic research and development, of which around $2 billion was spent directly by the federal government in-house and an additional $5.7 billion was provided by provincial and federal sources in the form of grants.  This investment corresponds to about 1.57% of Canada's gross domestic product, a decline from 1.72% in 2014. 
- Canada, Government of Canada, Statistics (December 22, 2018). "The Daily – Spending on research and development, 2018 intentions". statcan.gc.ca. Retrieved September 19, 2019.
- Schneegans, S.; Straza, T.; Lewis, J., eds. (11 June 2021). UNESCO Science Report: the Race Against Time for Smarter Development. Paris: UNESCO. ISBN 978-92-3-100450-6.
- "Release of the Global Innovation Index 2020: Who Will Finance Innovation?". www.wipo.int. Retrieved 2021-09-02.
- "Global Innovation Index 2019". www.wipo.int. Retrieved 2021-09-02.
- "RTD - Item". ec.europa.eu. Retrieved 2021-09-02.
- "Global Innovation Index". INSEAD Knowledge. 2013-10-28. Retrieved 2021-09-02.
- Council of Canadian Academies (2012). The State of Science and Technology in Canada, 2012. Council of Canadian Academies. ISBN 978-1-926558-47-9.
- G. Bruce Doern; Peter W. B. Phillips; David Castle (2016). Canadian Science, Technology, and Innovation Policy: The Innovation Economy and Society Nexus. McGill-Queen's University Press. ISBN 978-0-7735-4724-7.
- Edward Jones-Imhotep; Tina Adcock (2018). Made Modern: Science and Technology in Canadian History. UBC Press. ISBN 978-0-7748-3726-2.
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