Ritual purification

From Wikipedia

Taking the bride to the bath house, Shalom Koboshvili, 1939.
Male Ablution Facility at University of Toronto's Multifaith Centre

Ritual purification is the ritual prescribed by a religion by which a person is considered to be free of uncleanliness, especially prior to the worship of a deity, and ritual purity is a state of ritual cleanliness. Ritual purification may also apply to objects and places. Ritual uncleanliness is not identical with ordinary physical impurity, such as dirt stains; nevertheless, body fluids are generally considered ritually unclean.

Most of these rituals existed long before the germ theory of disease, and figure prominently from the earliest known religious systems of the Ancient Near East. Some writers connect the rituals to taboos.

Some have seen benefits of these practices as a point of health and preventing infections especially in areas where humans come in close contact with each other. While these practices came before the idea of the germ theory was public in areas that use daily cleaning, the destruction of infectious agents seems to be dramatic. [1] Others have described a 'dimension of purity' that is universal in religions that seeks to move humans away from disgust, (at one extreme) and to uplift us towards purity and divinity (at the other extreme). Away from uncleanliness to purity, and away from deviant to moral behavior, (within one's cultural context). [2]

Baháʼí Faith

In the Baháʼí Faith, ritual ablutions (the washing of the hands and face) should be done before the saying of the obligatory prayers, as well as prior to the recitation of the Greatest Name 95 times. [3] Menstruating women are obliged to pray, but have the (voluntary) alternative of reciting a verse instead; if the latter choice is taken, ablutions are still required before the recital of the special verse. Bahá'u'lláh, the founder of the Baháʼí Faith, prescribed the ablutions in his book of laws, the Kitáb-i-Aqdas. [3]

These ablutions have a significance beyond washing and should be performed even if one has bathed oneself immediately before reciting the obligatory prayer; fresh ablutions should also be performed for each devotion, unless they are being done at the same time. If no water (or clean water) is available or if an illness would be worsened by the use of water, one may instead repeat the verse "In the Name of God, the Most Pure, the Most Pure" five times before the prayer. [3]

Apart from this, Bahá'u'lláh abolished all forms of ritual impurity of people and things, following Báb who stressed the importance of cleanliness and spiritual purity. [4]


Tsukubai at Ryōan-ji temple in Kyoto.

In Japanese Buddhism, a basin called a tsukubai is provided at Buddhist temples for ablutions. It is also used for tea ceremony.

This type of ritual cleansing is the custom for guests attending a tea ceremony [5] or visiting the grounds of a Buddhist temple. [6] The name originates from the verb tsukubau meaning "to crouch" [7] or "to bow down", an act of humility. [6] Guests attending a tea ceremony crouch and wash their hands in a tsukubai set in the tea garden before entering the tearoom. [7]

Tsukubai are usually of stone, and are often provided with a small ladle, ready for use. [7] A supply of water may be provided via a bamboo pipe [7] called a kakei.

The famous tsukubai shown here stands in the grounds of the Ryōan-ji temple in Kyoto, and was donated by the feudal lord Tokugawa Mitsukuni. [8] The kanji written on the surface of the stone are without significance when read alone. If each is read in combination with 口 (kuchi) - the shape of the central bowl - then the characters become 吾, 唯, 足, 知 which translates literally as "I only know plenty" (吾 = ware = I, 唯 = tada = only, 足 = taru = plenty, 知 = shiru = know). [9] The underlying meaning, variously translated as "what one has is all one needs", [9] or "learn only to be content" [8] reflects the basic anti-materialistic teachings of Buddhism.


The Bible has many rituals of purification relating to menstruation, childbirth, sexual relations, nocturnal emission, unusual bodily fluids, skin disease, death, and animal sacrifices. The Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church prescribes several kinds of hand washing for example after leaving the latrine, lavatory or bathhouse, or before prayer, or after eating a meal. [10] The women in the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church are prohibited from entering the church temple during menses; and the men do not enter a church the day after they have had intercourse with their wives. [11]

Baptismal ceremony on Easter Sunday.

Baptism, as a form of ritual purification, occurs in several religions related to Judaism, and most prominently in Christianity; Christianity also has other forms of ritual purification. Many Christian churches practice a ceremony of the Washing of Feet, [12] following the example of Jesus in the Gospel. [John 13:1–17] Some interpret this as an ordinance which the church is obliged to keep as a commandment, see also Biblical law in Christianity. [12] Others interpret it as an example that all should follow. Most denominations that practice the rite will perform it on Maundy Thursday. Often in these services, the bishop will wash the feet of the clergy, and in monasteries the Abbot will wash the feet of the brethren.

Many ancient churches were built with a large fountain in the courtyard. It was the tradition for Christians to wash before entering the church for worship. [13] This usage is also legislated in the Rule of St. Benedict, as a result of which, many medieval monasteries were built with communal lavers for the monks or nuns to wash up before the Daily Office. Catholic religious orders of the Augustinians' and Benedictines' rules contained ritual purification, [14] and inspired by Benedict of Nursia encouragement for the practice of therapeutic bathing; Benedictine monks played a role in the development and promotion of spas. [15]

The principle of washing the hands before celebrating the holy Liturgy began as a practical precaution of cleanness, which was also interpreted symbolically. [16] "In the third century there are traces of a custom of washing the hands as a preparation for prayer on the part of all Christians, and from the fourth century onwards it appears to have been usual for the ministers at the Communion Service ceremonially to wash their hands before the more solemn part of the service as a symbol of inward purity." [17]

Bishop Sebouh Chouldjian of the Armenian Apostolic Church washing the feet of children.

Traditionally, Christianity adhered to the biblical regulation requiring the purification of women after childbirth; this practice, was adapted into a special ritual known as the churching of women, for which there exists liturgy in the Church of England's Book of Common Prayer, but its use is now rare in Western Christianity. The churching of women is still performed in a number of Eastern Christian churches ( Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox and Eastern Catholic churches).

A cantharus is a fountain used by Christians for ablution before entering a church. [18] [19] [20] These ablutions involve the washing of the hands, face, and feet. [20] The cantharus is traditionally located in the exonarthex of the church. [19] [21] The water emitted by a cantharus is to be running water. [22] The practice of ablutions before prayer and worship in Christianity symbolizes "separation form sins of the spirit and surrender to the Lord." [21] Eusebius recorded this practice of canthari located in the courtyards of churches, for the faithful to wash themselves before entering a Christian house of worship. [20] The practice has its origins Jewish practice of performing ablutions before entering into the presence of God (cf. Exodus 30:17–21). [19] [18] Though cantharus are not as prevalent anymore in Western Christianity, they are found in Eastern Christian and Oriental Christian churches. [18]

In Reformed Christianity, ritual purity is achieved through the Confession of Sins, and Assurance of Forgiveness, and Sanctification. Through the power of the Holy Spirit, believers offer their whole being and labor as a 'living sacrifice'; and cleanliness becomes a way of life (See Romans 12:1, and John 13:5-10 (the Washing of the Feet)). Prior to praying the canonical hours at seven fixed prayer times, Oriental Orthodox Christians wash their hands, face and feet (cf. Agpeya, Shehimo). [23] [24] [25]

The use of water in many Christian countries is due in part to the Biblical toilet etiquette which encourages washing after all instances of defecation. [26] The bidet is common in predominantly Catholic countries where water is considered essential for anal cleansing, [27] [28] and in some traditionally Orthodox and Lutheran countries such as Greece and Finland respectively, where bidet showers are common. [29]


Devotees taking holy bath during festival of Ganga Dashahara at Har Ki Pauri, Haridwar

Various traditions within Hinduism follow different standards of ritual purity and purification; in Smartism, for example, the attitude to ritual purity is similar to that of Karaite Judaism. Within each tradition the more orthodox groups follow stricter rules, but the strictest rules are generally prescribed for brahmins, especially those engaged in the temple worship.

An important part of ritual purification in Hinduism is the bathing of the entire body, particularly in rivers considered holy such as the Ganges. It is considered auspicious to perform this method of purification before festivals after a death, in order to maintain purity.

Punyahavachanam is a ritual meant to purify one's self and one's home, usually performed before important occasions, like weddings. During the ceremony, mantras are chanted and then consecrated water is sprinkled over all of the participants and the items used.

In the ritual known as abhisheka (Sanskrit, "sprinkling; ablution"), the deity's murti or image is ritually bathed with water, curd, milk, honey, ghee, cane sugar, rosewater, etc. Abhisheka is also a special form of puja prescribed by Agamic injunction. The act is also performed in the inauguration of religious and political monarchs and for other special blessings. The murtis of deities must not be touched without cleansing the hands, and one is not supposed to enter a temple without a bath.

Sūtak are Hindu rules of impurity to be followed after the birth of a child (vṛddhi sūtak). [30] Sūtak involves the practice of keeping socially isolated from relatives and community by abstention of mealtaking with family, engaging in customary religious activities, and leaving the home. A mother must practice sūtak for 10 to 30 days, depending upon her caste, while the father may become purified immediately after the birth of his child by ritual purification (ritualistic bathing). [31]

There are various kinds of purificatory rituals associated with death ceremonies. After visiting a house where a death has recently occurred, Hindus are expected to take baths.

Women take a head bath after completing their four-day menstrual period.

Indigenous American religions

El Infiernito ("The Little Hell") Ruins of an ancient Muisca shrine, place of purification rituals

In the traditions of many Indigenous peoples of the Americas, one of the forms of ritual purification is the ablutionary use of a sauna, known as a sweatlodge, as preparation for a variety of other ceremonies. The burning of smudge sticks is also believed by some indigenous groups to cleanse an area of any evil presence. Some groups like the southeastern tribe, the Cherokee, practiced and, to a lesser degree, still practice going to water, performed only in bodies of water that move like rivers or streams. Going to water was practiced by some villages daily (around sunrise) while others would go to water primarily for special occasions, including but not limited to naming ceremonies, holidays, and ball games. [32] Many anthropologists that studied with the Cherokees like James Adair tried to connect these groups to the Lost Tribes of Israel based on religious practices including going to water, [33] but this form of historiography is mostly Christian "wish fulfillment" rather than respectable anthropology.

Yuquot Whalers' Shrine on Vancouver Island was used by chiefs to prepare ritually for whaling.


People washing before prayer at Badshahi Mosque in Lahore, Pakistan.

Islamic ritual purification is particularly centred on the preparation for salah, ritual prayer; theoretically ritual purification would remain valid throughout the day, but is treated as invalid on the occurrence of certain acts, flatulence, sleep, contact with the opposite sex (depending on which school of thought), unconsciousness, and the emission of blood, semen, or vomit. Some schools of thought mandate that ritual purity is necessary for holding the Quran.

Ritual purification takes the form of ablution, wudu and ghusl, depending on the circumstance; the greater form is obligatory by a woman after she ceases menstruation, on a corpse that didn't die during battle, and after sexual activity, and is optionally used on other occasions, for example just prior to Friday prayers or entering ihram.

An alternative tayammum ("dry ablution"), involving clean sand or earth, is used if clean water is not available or if an illness would be worsened by the use of water; this form is invalidated in the same circumstances as the other forms, and also whenever water becomes available and safe to use. It is also necessary to be repeated (renewed) before every obligatory prayer.

The fard or "obligatory activities" of the lesser form include beginning with the intention to purify oneself, washing of the face, arms, head, and feet. while some mustahabb "recommended activities" also exist such as basmala recitation, oral hygiene, washing the mouth, nose at the beginning, washing of arms to the elbows and washing of the ears at the end; additionally recitation of the Shahada. The greater form (ghusl) is completed by first performing wudu and then ensuring that the entire body is washed. Some minor details of Islamic ritual purification may vary between different madhhabs "schools of thought".


Pool of a medieval mikvah in Speyer, dating back to 1128 .
Ancient ablution pool (mikvah) unearthed at Gamla

The Hebrew Bible mentions a number of situations when ritual purification is required, including during menstruation, following childbirth ( postpartum), sexual relations, nocturnal emission, unusual bodily fluids, skin disease, death ( corpse uncleanness), and animal sacrifices. The oral law specifies other situations when ritual purification is required, such as after performing excretory functions, meals, and waking. The purification ritual is generally a form of water-based ritual washing in Judaism for removal of any ritual impurity, sometimes requiring just washing of the hands, and at other times requiring full immersion; the oral law requires the use of un-drawn water for any ritual full immersion - either a natural river/stream/spring, or a special bath (a Mikvah) which contains rain-water.

These regulations were variously observed by the ancient Israelites; contemporary Orthodox Jews and (with some modifications and additional leniencies) some Conservative Jews continue to observe the regulations, except for those tied to sacrifice in the Temple in Jerusalem, as the Temple no longer fully exists. These groups continue to observe many of the hand-washing rituals. Of those connected with full ritual immersion, perhaps the quintessential immersion rituals still carried out are those related to nidda, according to which a menstruating woman must avoid physical contact with her husband, especially avoiding sexual contact, and may only resume contact after she has first immersed herself fully in a mikvah of living water seven days after her menstruation has ceased.

In December 2006, the Committee on Jewish Law and Standards of Conservative Judaism re-affirmed the traditional requirement that Conservative women ritually immerse following menstruation. In doing so, it adopted multiple opinions regarding details, including an opinion re-affirming traditional (Orthodox) practices and concepts, an opinion adapting certain leniencies, including counting seven days from start of menstruation, rather than its end, and an opinion re-formulating the theological basis of the practice, basing it on concepts other than ritual purity. See the Niddah article for details. Classical ritual immersion and associated requirements are generally not observed by Reform Judaism or Reconstructionist Judaism, with the exception that both generally include immersion as part of the ritual for Conversion to Judaism, although Reform Judaism does not require it.

Tumat HaMet ("The impurity of death"), coming into contact with a human corpse, is considered the ultimate impurity, one which cannot be purified through the waters of the mikvah alone. Tumat HaMet required an additional purification process through sprinkling of the ashes of the Parah Adumah, the Red Heifer. However, the law is considered inactive to a great degree, since neither the Temple in Jerusalem nor the red heifer is currently in existence, though without the latter, a Jew is forbidden to ascend to the site of the former. One of the main current implications of Tumat HaMet is the prohibition to cause impurity to foods that are holy according to Jewish law, such as terumah in the Land of Israel. Meaning that one is forbidden to touch such terumah unless one of two criteria are met: the food is dry and was never wetted with water or another of the seven liquids. the food had previously been wetted and touched by an impure Jew before or after it was imbued with the holiness of terumah. Regardless, it is regarded as forbidden today for any person to eat trumah, in part as a consequence of the widespread prevalence of Tumat HaMet. All are currently assumed to possess the impurity of death. [34] However, someone who is a Kohen, one of the priestly class, is not allowed to intentionally come into contact with a dead body, nor approach too closely to graves within a Jewish cemetery.

Purification was required in the nation of Israel during Biblical times for the ceremonially unclean so that they would not defile God's tabernacle and put themselves in a position to be cut off from Israel. An Israelite could become unclean by handling a dead body. In this situation, the uncleanliness would last for seven days. Part of the cleansing process would be washing the body and clothes, and the unclean person would need to be sprinkled with the water of purification. [35]

Kalash people

Kalash theology has very strong notions of purity and impurity. Menstruation is confirmation of women's impurity and when their periods begin they must leave their homes and enter the village menstrual building or "bashaleni". Only after undergoing a purification ceremony restoring their purity can they return home and rejoin village life. The husband is an active participant in this ritual.

Western esotericism

In ceremonial magic, banishing refers to one or more rituals intended to remove non-physical influences ranging from spirits to negative influences. [36] Although banishing rituals are often used as components of more complex ceremonies, they can also be performed by themselves.

In Wicca and various forms of neopaganism, banishing is performed before casting a circle in order to purify the area where the ritual or magick is about to take place. In his books on Nocturnal Witchcraft, for example, Konstantinos recommends performing banishings regularly, in order to keep the magical workspace free of negativity, and to become proficient in banishing before attempting acts that are much more spiritually taxing on the body, such as magical spellworking. [37] Banishing can be viewed as one of several techniques of magick, closely related to ritual purification and a typical prerequisite for consecration and invocation.

For "actual workings" Aleister Crowley recommends a short, general banishing, with a comment that "in more elaborate ceremonies it is usual to banish everything by name." [36] Crowley also recommended that a banishing ritual be done at least once daily by Thelemites in Liber Aleph vel CXI. [38]

In the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn, the lesser banishing ritual of the pentagram ( LBRP for shorthand) must be learned by the Neophyte before moving on to the next grade ( Zelator). [39] [40]



Naked in the sea, Okinoshima (Fukuoka)

Ritual cleanliness is a central part of Shinto life. [46] In Shintō, a common form of ritual purification is misogi, [47] [48] which involves natural running water, and especially waterfalls. Rather than being entirely naked, men usually wear Japanese loincloths and women wear kimono, both additionally wearing headbands. [47] [48]

See also



  1. ^ "Nitten Soji and the prevention of infections" Classical fighting arts vol 2 #18
  2. ^ Haidt, Johnathan. The Happiness Hypothesis. Basic Books.
  3. ^ a b c Smith, Peter (2000). "ablutions". A Concise Encyclopedia of the Baháʼí Faith. Oxford: Oneworld Publications. pp.  21–22. ISBN  1-85168-184-1.
  4. ^ Smith, Peter (2000). "purity". A Concise Encyclopedia of the Baháʼí Faith. Oxford: Oneworld Publications. pp. 281–282. ISBN  1-85168-184-1.
  5. ^ Must See in Kyoto. Kyoto: Japan Travel Bureau, Inc. 1991. p. 107. ISBN  4-533-00528-4.
  6. ^ a b Einarsen, John (2004). Zen and Kyoto. Kyoto: Uniplan Co, Inc. p. 133. ISBN  4-89704-202-X.
  7. ^ a b c d Setsuko, Kojima; Crane, Gene A (1991). Dictionary of Japanese Culture (1st American ed.). Union City, CA: Heian. pp. 369–70. ISBN  0893463361. OCLC  23738000.
  8. ^ a b Einarsen, John (2004). Zen and Kyoto. Kyoto: Uniplan Co, Inc. pp. 90–91. ISBN  4-89704-202-X.
  9. ^ a b "Tsukubai and Zenibachi, the Japanese Water Basins". Retrieved 3 March 2016.
  11. ^ The Liturgy of the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church
  12. ^ a b Peter C. Bower (January 2003). The Companion to the Book of Common Worship. Geneva Press. ISBN  9780664502324. Retrieved 11 April 2009. Maundy Thursday (or le mandé; Thursday of the Mandatum, Latin, commandment). The name is taken from the first few words sung at the ceremony of the washing of the feet, "I give you a new commandment" (John 13:34); also from the commandment of Christ that we should imitate His loving humility in the washing of the feet (John 13:14–17). The term mandatum (maundy), therefore, was applied to the rite of foot-washing on this day.
  13. ^ The Holy Rule of St. Benedict
  14. ^ Hembry, Phyllis (1990). The English Spa, 1560-1815: A Social History. Fairleigh Dickinson Univ Press. ISBN  9780838633915.
  15. ^ Bradley, Ian (2012). Water: A Spiritual History. Bloomsbury Publishing. ISBN  9781441167675.
  16. ^ Fortescue, Adrian. "Lavabo." The Catholic Encyclopedia Vol. 9. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1910. 12 July 2017
  17. ^ Report of the Royal Commission on Ecclesiastical Discipline ( Church of England) 1906
  18. ^ a b c Ian Bradley (2 November 2012). Water: A Spiritual History. Bloomsbury Publishing. ISBN  978-1-4411-6767-5. It was probably out of the Jewish rite that the practice developed among early Christians, especially in the east, of washing their hands and feet before going into church. Early Christian basilicas had a fountain for ablutions, known as cantharus or phiala, and usually placed in the centre of the atrium. They are still found in some Eastern Orthodox churches, notably at the monastery of Laura at Mount Athos, where the phiala is an imposing structure in front of the entrance covered by a dome resting on eight pillars. In several Orthodox churches today worshippers take off heir shoes and wash their feet before entering the church just as Muslims do before going into a mosque.
  19. ^ a b c Soloviĭ, Meletiĭ M. (1970). Eastern Liturgical Theology: General Introduction. Ukrainian Catholic Religion and Culture Society of Etobicoke (Toronto) and Ukrainian Catholic Youth of Canada. p. 68. In the Book of Exodus (30, 18-20) Aaron and his sons were required to wash before approaching the altar. Here water is used as a symbol of purification and expiation. But water is also the most common and most indispensable drink. ... So much was the practice a part of the life of the early Church, that in the period after Constantine the “cantharus”, or water fountain, became a standard fixture in the courtyard before the basilica to permit the faithful to purify themselves before entering the presence of God.
  20. ^ a b c Bingham, Joseph (1840). The antiquities of the Christian Church. W. Straker. p. 396. In the middle of which stood a Fountain for washing as they entered into the Church, called Cantharus and Phiala in some authors. It is further to be noted, that in the middle of the atrium, there was commonly a fountain, or a cistern of water, for people to wash their hands and face, before they went into the church.
  21. ^ a b Ferguson, Everett (8 October 2013). Encyclopedia of Early Christianity: Second Edition. Routledge. p. 6. ISBN  978-1-136-61158-2.
  22. ^ Lowrie, Walter (1901). Christian Art and Archæology: Being a Handbook to the Monuments of the Early Church. Macmillan Publishers. p. 179. In the middle of this court there was as a rule a fountain of running water (the cantharus) for the symbolical purification of those who ere about to enter the church.
  23. ^ Smith, Bertha H. (1909). "The Bath as a Religious Rite among Mohammedans". Modern Sanitation. Standard Sanitary Mfg. Co. 7 (1). The Copts, descendants of these ancient Egyptians, although Christians, have the custom of washing their hands and faces before prayer, and some also wash their feet.
  24. ^ Mary Cecil, 2nd Baroness Amherst of Hackney (1906). A Sketch of Egyptian History from the Earliest Times to the Present Day. Methuen. p. 399. Prayers 7 times a day are enjoined, and the most strict among the Copts recite one of more of the Psalms of David each time they pray. They always wash their hands and faces before devotions, and turn to the East.
  25. ^ Tadros, Emile (2015). Reconstruction the Origins of the Coptic Church through its Liturgy. McMaster Divinity College. p. 16. The Coptic Church observes strict practices concerning circumcision, rituals surrounding menstruation, weekly two-days fasting, 40 ablution, and many other rituals.
  26. ^ E. Clark, Mary (2006). Contemporary Biology: Concepts and Implications. University of Michigan Press. ISBN  9780721625973.
  27. ^ E. Clark, Mary (2006). Contemporary Biology: Concepts and Implications. University of Michigan Press. p. 613. ISBN  9780721625973. Douching is commonly practiced in Catholic countries. The bidet ... is still commonly found in France and other Catholic countries.
  28. ^ Made in Naples. Come Napoli ha civilizzato l'Europa (e come continua a farlo) [Made in Naples. How Naples civilised Europe (And still does it)] (in Italian). Addictions-Magenes Editoriale. 2013. ISBN  978-8866490395.
  29. ^ "Bidets in Finland"
  30. ^ https://www.douban.com/group/topic/2081128/
  31. ^ Textbook of the 'University of Spirituality', Volume 61, Death and Post-Death Rites, by Parātpar Guru (Dr) Athavale and H.H. (Mrs.) Anjali http://sanatanshop.com/shop/en/booklets/383-death-and-post-death-rites.html
  32. ^ The Sacred Formulas of the Cherokee by James Mooney 1891
  33. ^ The History of The American Indians by James Adair 1775
  34. ^ Rutta, Matt (30 March 2008). "Shemini/Parah (The smell of burning death)". Rabbinic Rambling. Retrieved 6 May 2009.
  35. ^ Rowman, Altamira (2004). The Inclusive Hebrew Scriptures: The Torah. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc. p. 241. ISBN  0-9644279-6-6. Retrieved 11 April 2015.
  36. ^ a b Crowley, Aleister. Magick in Theory and Practice. pp. 103–6.
  37. ^ Konstantinos.Nocturnal Witchcraft: Magick After Dark. St. Paul, Minn:Llewellyn Publications, 2002.
  38. ^ Crowley, Aleister. Liber Aleph vel CXI. A.:.A.:.
  39. ^ The Golden Dawn by I. Regardie
  40. ^ "Golden Dawn Neophyte Knowledge Lecture". Retrieved 7 May 2011.
  41. ^ "Greater Banishing Ritual of the Pentagram". Thelemapedia. Archived from the original on 14 May 2011. Retrieved 7 May 2011.
  42. ^ "Lesser Banishing Ritual of the Hexagram". Thelemapedia. Archived from the original on 14 May 2011. Retrieved 7 May 2011.
  43. ^ "Greater Banishing Ritual of the Hexagram". Thelemapedia. Archived from the original on 14 May 2011. Retrieved 7 May 2011.
  44. ^ Crowley, Aleister. "The Star Ruby". Thelemapedia. Retrieved 7 May 2011.
  45. ^ "Opening by Watchtower". Hermetic.com. Retrieved 7 May 2011.
  46. ^ Ono, Sakyo. Shinto: The Kami Way. Pp 51–52, 108. Tuttle Publishing. 2004. ISBN  0-8048-3557-8
  47. ^ a b Bocking 1997, p. 93; Cali & Dougill 2013, p. 20.
  48. ^ a b Nelson 1996, p. 101; Bocking 1997, p. 45; Cali & Dougill 2013, p. 21.


  •  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainHerbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Lavabo". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.

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