Wine is an
alcoholic beverage made from
juice. The natural chemical balance of grapes is such that they can ferment without the addition of
enzymes, or other
nutrients. Although fruits other than grapes can also be fermented, the resultant wines are normally named after the fruit from which they are produced (for example,
apple wine) and are known as
fruit wine (or country wine). Others, such as
barley wine and
rice wine (e.g.
sake), are made from
starch-based materials and resemble
beer more than wine;
ginger wine is
brandy. In these cases, the use of the term "wine" is a reference to the higher alcohol content, rather than the production process. The commercial use of the word "wine" (and its equivalent in other languages) is protected by law in many
jurisdictions. Wine is produced by fermenting crushed grapes using various types of
yeast which consume the sugars found in the grapes and convert them into
alcohol. Various varieties of grapes and strains of yeasts are used depending on the types of wine produced.
Wine stems from an extended and rich history dating back about 8,000 years and is thought to have originated in present-day
Iran. Wine is thought to have appeared in
Europe about 6,500 years ago in present-day
Greece and was very common in
ancient Greece and
Dionysos, and his
Liber represented wine. Wine continues to play a role in religious ceremonies, such as
Judaism and the
appear repeatedly in
making copious amounts of
wedding at Cana
and later incorporating wine as part of the central rite
, in the
. Wine (that is,
) is the most common alcoholic beverage mentioned in biblical literature, where it is frequent source of symbolism, and was an important part of daily life in biblical times. The inhabitants of ancient
and wines made from other
, and some references to these appear in the scriptures, too.
On the whole, biblical literature displays an ambivalence toward intoxicating drinks, considering them both a
God that brings
joy and merriment and potentially dangerous beverages that can be unwisely and
sinfully abused The relationships between Judaism and alcohol and
Christianity and alcohol have generally followed this same pattern, with some dissenters particularly among Christians around the time of
B. April 9,1780 –
d. January 17, 1862
Jean-Louis Vignes, or as he was known to his Spanish and Mexican neighbors, "Don Luis del Aliso", was a French settler to the
Los Angeles area during the Mexican era. He was the first commercial wine maker in California and one of the first men to import and plant European
Vitis vinifera grapes in the state. A skilled cooper by trade and an adventurer and entrepreneur by choice, he arrived in the
Sandwich Islands on July 6, 1827 from
Béguey, a village downriver from Cadillac,
France. After losing his business in Honolulu, he sailed to California and landed at
El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Angeles de la Porciúncula in 1831. Upon his arrival, he bought 104 acres of land located between the original Pueblo and the banks of the Los Angeles river. Vignes proceeded to plant vines and to build a winery. Unhappy with the quality of the local
Mission grapes, he imported
Cabernet Franc and
Sauvignon blanc vines from Bordeaux In 1834, Vignes also planted one of the first orange groves in the Los Angeles area. By 1849, El Aliso, as Vignes' property was called, was the most extensive vineyard in California. Vignes owned over 40,000 vines and produced 150,000 bottles, or 1000 barrels, per year. In 1850, Vignes was the largest wine producer in California. (
is one of the world's most widely recognized red
. It is grown in nearly every major
wine producing country
among a diverse spectrum of climates from
. Cabernet Sauvignon became internationally recognized through its prominence in
where it is often blended with
, the grape spread across
and to the
where it found new homes in places like
. For most of the 20th century, it was the world's most widely planted premium red wine grape until it was surpassed by
in the 1990s.
Despite its prominence in the industry, the grape is a relatively new variety, the product of a chance
Cabernet franc and
Sauvignon blanc during the 17th century in southwestern
France. Its popularity is often attributed to its ease of cultivation—the grapes have thick skins and the vines are hardy and resistant to
frost—and to its consistent presentation of structure and flavours which express the typical character ("
typicity") of the variety. Familiarity and ease of pronunciation have helped to sell Cabernet Sauvignon wines to consumers, even when from unfamiliar wine regions. Its widespread popularity has also contributed to criticism of the grape as a "colonizer" that takes over wine regions at the expense of native grape varieties. (
The entire subject and Wikipedia's coverage of it is intended to be summarized in the
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The outline is a taxonomy of the subject, and also serves as a table of contents and navigation aid to browse Wikipedia's articles (and article sections) about the subject.
It is also a useful tool for the WikiProject to analyze, plan, develop, and revise wine-related material. It is a hub from which to organize related topics.
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reverse outline", a
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Photo request: Just about all of them! Any pictures of wine regions, grape varieties or wine would be useful. In particular we need wine region maps that can be
licensed for Wikipedia.