Portal:Telephones

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https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Portal:Telephones

Candlestick-telephone icon.svg The Telephones Portal Smartphone icon - Noun Project 283536.svg

A rotary dial telephone, c. 1940s

A telephone is a telecommunications device that permits two or more users to conduct a conversation when they are too far apart to be heard directly. A telephone converts sound, typically and most efficiently the human voice, into electronic signals that are transmitted via cables and other communication channels to another telephone which reproduces the sound to the receiving user. The term is derived from Greek: τῆλε (tēle, far) and φωνή (phōnē, voice), together meaning distant voice. A common short form of the term is phone, which came into use almost immediately after the first patent was issued.

In 1876, Alexander Graham Bell was the first to be granted a United States patent for a device that produced clearly intelligible replication of the human voice at a second device. This instrument was further developed by many others, and became rapidly indispensable in business, government, and in households. ( Full article...)

A mobile phone, cellular phone, cell phone, cellphone, handphone, or hand phone, sometimes shortened to simply mobile, cell or just phone, is a portable telephone that can make and receive calls over a radio frequency link while the user is moving within a telephone service area. The radio frequency link establishes a connection to the switching systems of a mobile phone operator, which provides access to the public switched telephone network (PSTN). Modern mobile telephone services use a cellular network architecture and, therefore, mobile telephones are called cellular telephones or cell phones in North America. In addition to telephony, digital mobile phones ( 2G) support a variety of other services, such as text messaging, MMS, email, Internet access, short-range wireless communications ( infrared, Bluetooth), business applications, video games and digital photography. Mobile phones offering only those capabilities are known as feature phones; mobile phones which offer greatly advanced computing capabilities are referred to as smartphones. ( Full article...)

A smartphone is a portable device that combines mobile telephone and computing functions into one unit. They are distinguished from feature phones by their stronger hardware capabilities and extensive mobile operating systems, which facilitate wider software, internet (including web browsing over mobile broadband), and multimedia functionality (including music, video, cameras, and gaming), alongside core phone functions such as voice calls and text messaging. Smartphones typically contain a number of metal–oxide–semiconductor (MOS) integrated circuit (IC) chips, include various sensors that can be leveraged by pre-included and third-party software (such as a magnetometer, proximity sensors, barometer, gyroscope, accelerometer and more), and support wireless communications protocols (such as Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, or satellite navigation). ( Full article...)

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An indoor location tracking map on a mobile phone

Mobile phone tracking is a process for identifying the location of a mobile phone, whether stationary or moving. Localization may be effected by a number of technologies, such as using multilateration of radio signals between (several) cell towers of the network and the phone, or simply using GPS. To locate a mobile phone using multilateration of mobile radio signals, it must emit at least the idle signal to contact nearby antenna towers, but the process does not require an active call. The Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) is based on the phone's signal strength to nearby antenna masts.

Mobile positioning may be used for location-based services that disclose the actual coordinates of a mobile phone. Telecommunication companies use this to approximate the location of a mobile phone, and thereby also its user. ( Full article...)
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A blue box is an electronic device, designed specifically for telephone toll fraud (but now obsolete for that purpose), that generates the in-band signaling tones formerly used within the North American long distance telephone network to send line status and called number information over voice circuits, either between a telephone operator switchboard or technician console and a switching machine, or machine to machine. First developed during the 1960s or possibly earlier, blue boxes allowed private individuals to call one number normally and redirect the call to a second number, with billing registering only the first number. The first number might be a toll free "800" or "information" number, a billable number, an unassigned number, or even, in some metropolitan areas, a local call. The call could be redirected to telephones elsewhere in North America or on many other continents, or, possibly, to ships at sea. Furthermore, the blue box gave the user access to numbers that were supposed to only be accessible to telephone operators and technicians. ( Full article...)

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The following are images from various telephone-related articles on Wikipedia.

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Charles Bourseul, c.1890

Charles Bourseul (28 April 1829 – 23 November 1912) was a pioneer in development of the "make and break" telephone about 20 years before Bell made a practical telephone.

Bourseul was born in Brussels, Belgium, and grew up in Douai, France. His father was a French army officer. Charles worked for the telegraph company as a civil engineer and mechanic. He made improvements to the telegraph system of L. F. Breguet (a French instrument maker) and Samuel F. B. Morse. Charles Bourseul experimented with the electrical transmission of the human voice and developed an electromagnetic microphone, but his telephone receiver was unable to convert electric current back into clear human voice sounds.

In 1854 Bourseul wrote a memorandum on the transmission of the human voice by electric currents that was first published in a magazine L'Illustration (Paris), though no prototype was built. That is about the same time that Meucci later claimed to have created his first attempt at the telephone in Italy. ( Full article...)

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Telephones in the news

8 June 2021 – ANOM sting operation
A global operation where crime gangs were sold encrypted phones that law enforcement could monitor has led to more than 800 arrests and the seizure of 30 tonnes of drugs, millions of dollars in cash, weapons and luxury cars. The FBI helped to infiltrate 12,000 devices into 300 criminal groups in more than 100 countries, providing the FBI and its partner forces around the world with access to 27 million messages. The operation also revealed that gangs were being tipped off about police actions, which prompted "numerous high-level public corruption cases in several countries", according to an affidavit from an FBI agent. (ABC News)

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