Rock music is a broad genre of
popular music that originated as "
rock and roll" in the United States in the late 1940s and early 1950s, developing into a range of different styles in the mid-1960s and later, particularly in the United States and the United Kingdom. It has its roots in 1940s and 1950s rock and roll, a style that drew directly from the
rhythm and blues genres of
African-American music and from
country music. Rock music also drew strongly from a number of other genres such as
electric blues and
folk, and incorporated influences from
jazz, classical, and other musical styles. For instrumentation, rock has centered on the electric guitar, usually as part of a rock group with
electric bass, drums, and one or more singers. Usually, rock is song-based music with a
4 time signature using a
verse–chorus form, but the genre has become extremely diverse. Like pop music, lyrics often stress romantic love but also address a wide variety of other themes that are frequently social or political.
Rock musicians in the mid-1960s began to advance the
album ahead of the
single as the dominant form of recorded music expression and consumption, with
the Beatles at the forefront of this development. Their contributions lent the genre a cultural legitimacy in the
mainstream and initiated a rock-informed
album era in the music industry for the next several decades. By the late 1960s "
classic rock" period, a number of distinct rock music subgenres had emerged, including hybrids like
raga rock, and
jazz rock, many of which contributed to the development of
psychedelic rock, which was influenced by the
psychedelic and hippie scene. New genres that emerged included
progressive rock, which extended the artistic elements,
glam rock, which highlighted showmanship and visual style, and the diverse and enduring subgenre of
heavy metal, which emphasized volume, power, and speed. In the second half of the 1970s,
punk rock reacted by producing stripped-down, energetic social and political critiques. Punk was an influence in the 1980s on
post-punk and eventually
From the 1990s, alternative rock began to dominate rock music and break into the mainstream in the form of
indie rock. Further fusion subgenres have since emerged, including
rap rock, and
rap metal, as well as conscious attempts to revisit rock's history, including the
techno-pop revivals in the early 2000s. The late 2000s and 2010s saw a slow decline in rock music's mainstream popularity and cultural relevancy, with
hip hop surpassing it as the most popular genre in the United States.
Rock music has also embodied and served as the vehicle for cultural and social movements, leading to major subcultures including
rockers in the United Kingdom and the
hippie counterculture that spread out from San Francisco in the US in the 1960s. Similarly, 1970s
punk culture spawned the
emo subcultures. Inheriting the folk tradition of the
protest song, rock music has been associated with political activism as well as changes in social attitudes to race, sex, and drug use, and is often seen as an expression of youth revolt against adult
conformity. At the same time, it has been commercially highly successful, leading to charges of
selling out. (
are an English
band formed in
in 2002. The group consists of
(lead vocals, guitar, keyboards),
(bass guitar, backing vocals), and
(drums, backing vocals). Former band member
(bass guitar, backing vocals) left the band in 2006 shortly after their debut album was released.
Arctic Monkeys were heralded as one of the first bands to come to public attention via the
Internet, with commentators suggesting they represented the possibility of a change in the way in which new bands are promoted and marketed. Their debut album,
Whatever People Say I Am, That's What I'm Not (2006), became the fastest selling debut album in
UK chart history, and has been hailed as one of the greatest debut albums. It won
Best British Album at the
2007 Brit Awards. The band's second album,
Favourite Worst Nightmare (2007), was also acclaimed by critics and won Best British Album at the
2008 BRIT Awards. They went on to release
Humbug (2009) and
Suck It and See (2011).
The band's global recognition increased with their critically acclaimed fifth album
AM (2013), which was supported by the global hit "
Do I Wanna Know?". It topped four
Billboard charts and was certified
platinum in the US. At the
2014 BRIT Awards, the album became their third to win
British Album of the Year. Their sixth album,
Tranquility Base Hotel & Casino (2018), was a major departure from the band's previous guitar-heavy work, instead being piano-orientated. It received a
Best Alternative Music Album nomination at the
2019 Grammy Awards, their second to do so after Whatever People Say I Am, That's What I'm Not.
As of 2021, Arctic Monkeys has sold over 20 million records worldwide. In the United Kingdom, the band became the first independent-label band to debut at number one in the UK with their first six albums. The band have won seven
Brit Awards; winning
Best British Group and
British Album of the Year three times; a
Mercury Prize for Whatever People Say I Am, That's What I'm Not, an
Ivor Novello Award, and 20
NME Awards. In addition, they have been nominated for five
Grammy Awards, and received Mercury Prize nominations in 2007, 2013, and 2018. Both Whatever People Say I Am, That's What I'm Not and AM are included in
NME's and different editions of
Rolling Stone's 500 Greatest Albums of All Time lists. (
(born 18 December 1943), often referred to during the 1960s and 1970s as Keith Richard
, is an English musician, singer, and songwriter. He is best known as the co-founder, guitarist, secondary vocalist, and co-principal songwriter of
the Rolling Stones
magazine called Richards the creator of "rock's greatest single body of riffs" on guitar and ranked him fourth on its list of 100 best guitarists in 2011. The magazine lists fourteen songs that Richards wrote with the Rolling Stones' lead vocalist
on its "
Rolling Stone's 500 Greatest Songs of All Time
Richards plays both lead and rhythm guitar parts, often in the same song; the Stones are generally known for their guitar interplay of rhythm and lead ("weaving") between him and the other guitarist in the band –
Brian Jones (1962–1969),
Mick Taylor (1969–1975), or
Ronnie Wood (1975–present). In the recording studio Richards sometimes plays all of the guitar parts, notably on the songs "
Paint It Black", "
Ruby Tuesday", "
Sympathy for the Devil", and "
Gimme Shelter". He is also a vocalist, singing
backing vocals on many Rolling Stones songs as well as occasional lead vocals, such as on the Rolling Stones' 1972 single "
Happy", as well as with his
side project, the X-Pensive Winos.
He has also appeared in three
Pirates of the Caribbean films as
Captain Teague, father of
Jack Sparrow, whose look and characterization was inspired by Richards himself. (
Deep Shadows and Brilliant Highlights is the third studio album by
gothic rock band
HIM. Released 27 August 2001, HIM began recording demos in the fall of 2000, with producer T.T. Oksala intending to release the initial recordings as the finished album. After being rejected by the record label
Kevin Shirley was brought in, who clashed with members of the band over his style of working. The recording process took eleven months, with outside influences within the industry and the extended time frame causing friction with the album, which ended up with a sleeker and more pop-oriented sound than its predecessors. Deep Shadows and Brilliant Highlights was also HIM's first album to feature keyboardist
Janne "Burton" Puurtinen.
Deep Shadows and Brilliant Highlights received mixed reviews from critics, with some praise being given to the songwriting and
Ville Valo's vocal performance, but most criticized the album's production and overall commercial sound. Despite this, Deep Shadows and Brilliant Highlights charted in seven countries, peaking at number one in Finland and
Austria, later going platinum and gold respectively. The album was also the band's first to chart on the
Billboard 200 at number 190. Three singles were released, with all reaching the top two in Finland. The supporting tour for Deep Shadows and Brilliant Highlights saw HIM playing the US for the first time, but overall strained the band to the point of nearly breaking up. (
Post-Britpop is an
alternative rock subgenre and is the period in the late 1990s and early 2000s, following
Britpop, when the media were identifying a "new generation" or "second wave" of guitar bands influenced by acts like
Blur, but with less overt British concerns in their lyrics and making more use of American rock and
indie influences, as well as experimental music. Bands in the post-Britpop era that had been established acts, but gained greater prominence after the decline of Britpop, such as
the Verve, and new acts such as
Toploader and particularly
Coldplay, achieved much wider international success than most of the Britpop groups that had preceded them, and were some of the most commercially successful acts of the late 1990s and early 2000s. (
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