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The Punjab Portal


Punjab (India) banner.jpg

Punjab map (topographic) with cities

Punjab ( /pʌnˈɑːb, -ˈæb, ˈpʌn-/; Gurmukhi: ਪੰਜਾਬ; Shahmukhi: پنجاب; Punjabi:  [pənˈdʒaːb] ( About this sound listen); also romanised as Panjāb or Panj-Āb) is a geopolitical, cultural, and historical region in South Asia, specifically in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, comprising areas of eastern Pakistan and northern India. The boundaries of the region are ill-defined and focus on historical accounts.

The geographical definition of the term "Punjab" has changed over time. In the 16th century Mughal Empire it referred to a relatively smaller area between the Indus and the Sutlej rivers. In British India, until the Partition of India in 1947, the Punjab Province encompassed the present-day Indian states and union territories of Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Chandigarh, and Delhi and the Pakistani regions of Punjab and Islamabad Capital Territory. It bordered the Balochistan and Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa regions to the west, Kashmir to the north, the Hindi Belt to the east, and Rajasthan and Sindh to the south.

The predominant ethnolinguistic group of the Punjab region is the Punjabi people, who speak the Indo-Aryan Punjabi language. Punjabi Muslims are the majority in western Punjab (Pakistan), while Punjabi Sikhs and Hindus are the majority in eastern Punjab (India). Other religious groups are Christianity, Jainism, Zoroastrianism, Buddhism, and Ravidassia. The Punjab region was the cradle for the Indus Valley Civilisation. The region had numerous migrations by the Indo-Aryan peoples. The land was later invaded and contested by the Persians, Mauryans, Indo-Greeks, Indo-Scythians, Kushans, Macedonians, Ghaznavids, Turkic, Mongols, Timurids, Mughals, Marathas, Arabs, Pashtuns, British, and other peoples. Historic foreign invasions mainly targeted the most productive central region of the Punjab known as the Majha region, which is also the bedrock of Punjabi culture and traditions. The Punjab region is often referred to as the breadbasket in both India and Pakistan. ( Full article...)

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Ludhiana Montage.jpg

Ludhiana /ˌlʊdiˈɑːnə/ is the largest city of the Indian state of Punjab and 28th largest urban agglomeration in India. The city has an area of 159 km2 (61 sq mi) and an estimated population of 1,618,879 2011 census. The city stands on the old bank of Sutlej River, that is now 13 kilometres (8.1 mi) to the south of its present course. It is an industrial center of northern India, often referred to as Indian Manchester by BBC. Ludhiana is among the list of smart cities that will be developed by government of India and has been ranked as the easiest city in India for business according to the World Bank.

Ludhiana is 107 kilometres (66 mi) west of the state capital, Chandigarh, and is centrally located on National Highway 44, which runs from New Delhi to Amritsar. It is 315 km (194 miles) north of Delhi and 142 km (88 miles) southeast of Amritsar. ( Full article...)

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Har Gobind Khorana signature.jpg

Har Gobind Khorana (9 January 1922 – 9 November 2011) was an Indian American biochemist. While on the faculty of the University of Wisconsin–Madison, he shared the 1968 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine with Marshall W. Nirenberg and Robert W. Holley for research that showed the order of nucleotides in nucleic acids, which carry the genetic code of the cell and control the cell's synthesis of proteins. Khorana and Nirenberg were also awarded the Louisa Gross Horwitz Prize from Columbia University in the same year.

Born in British India, Khorana served on the faculties of three universities in North America. He became a naturalized citizen of the United States in 1966, and received the National Medal of Science in 1987. ( Full article...)

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Harmandir Sahib at night

The Harmandir Sahib (The abode of God), known as the Golden Temple of Amritsar.
Credit: Oleg Yunakov

Some topics


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Provinces and territories of Punjab Provinces and territories:

1799-1849 definition: Chandigarh - Delhi - Eastern Punjab state - Federally Administered Tribal Areas - Galgit - Haryana - Himachal Pradesh - Islamabad Capital Territory - Jammu - Kashmir - Khyber Pass - Khyber Pakhtunkhwa - Ladakh - Western Punjab province

1947 definition: Chandigarh - Delhi - Eastern Punjab state - Haryana - Himachal Pradesh - Islamabad Capital Territory - Western Punjab province

Present definition: Chandigarh - Eastern Punjab state - Western Punjab province

Major cities: Amritsar - Bathinda - Chandigarh - Faisalabad - Lahore - Ludhiana - Multan - Patiala - Sialkot

WikiProject Punjab


WikiProject Punjab was formed to foster better articles on the region of Punjab with a spirit of cooperation. The project is a home base that provides a place for Wikipedians (editors) to discuss issues, while share information and resources regarding improvements to Punjabi related articles, which can be discussed at the project's talk page. To join WikiProject Punjab (anyone may join), simply list your username on the members page. Editors are also encouraged to participate in the more regional and/or topic specific WikiProject 's as listed below.

Associated Wikimedia

The following Wikimedia Foundation sister projects provide more on this subject:






Learning resources

Travel guides



Wikipedia in Punjabi

There is a Shahmukhi پنجابی version of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

There is a Gurmukhi ਪੰਜਾਬੀ version of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.