The Psychiatry Portal
Psychiatry is the
medical specialty devoted to the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of
mental disorders. These include various
maladaptations related to mood, behaviour,
glossary of psychiatry.
Initial psychiatric assessment of a person typically begins with a
case history and
mental status examination. Physical examinations and
psychological tests may be conducted. On occasion,
neuroimaging or other
neurophysiological techniques are used. Mental disorders are often diagnosed in accordance with clinical concepts listed in diagnostic manuals such as the
International Classification of Diseases (ICD), edited and used by the
World Health Organization (WHO) and the widely used
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), published by the
American Psychiatric Association (APA). The fifth edition of the DSM (
DSM-5) was published in 2013 which re-organized the larger categories of various diseases and expanded upon the previous edition to include information/insights that are consistent with current research.
The combined treatment of
psychiatric medication and
psychotherapy has become the most common mode of psychiatric treatment in current practice, but contemporary practice also includes a wide variety of other modalities, e.g.,
assertive community treatment,
community reinforcement, and
supported employment. Treatment may be delivered on an
outpatient basis, depending on the severity of functional impairment or on other aspects of the disorder in question. An inpatient may be treated in a
psychiatric hospital. Research and treatment within psychiatry as a whole are conducted on an interdisciplinary basis with other professionals, such as
occupational therapists or clinical
(trade names Concerta
, Equasym XL
) is a
used for the
attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder
postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome
. Methylphenidate has been studied and researched for over 50 years and has a very good efficacy and safety record for the treatment of ADHD. The original patent was owned by
. It was first licensed by the U.S.
Food and Drug Administration
(FDA) in 1955 for treating what was then known as hyperactivity. Prescribed to patients beginning in 1960, the drug became heavily prescribed in the 1990s, when the diagnosis of ADHD itself became more widely accepted.
ADHD and other similar conditions are believed to be linked to sub-performance of the
norepinephrine functions in the brain, primarily in the
prefrontal cortex, responsible for
self-regulatory function (e.g.,
executive function (e.g.,
problem solving, and
mechanism of action involves the inhibition of
reuptake, primarily as a
dopamine reuptake inhibitor. Methylphenidate acts by blocking the
dopamine transporter and
norepinephrine transporter, leading to increased concentrations of dopamine and norepinephrine within the
synaptic cleft. This effect in turn leads to increased
neurotransmission of dopamine and norepinephrine.
Carl Gustav Jung
[ˈkarl ˈɡʊstaf jʊŋ]
; 26 July 1875 – 6 June 1961), often referred to as C. G. Jung
, was a Swiss
. Jung proposed and developed the concepts of
extraversion and introversion
, and the
. His work has been influential in
and in the
study of religion
, philosophy, archeology, anthropology, literature, and related fields. He was a prolific writer, many of whose works were not published until after his death.
The central concept of analytical psychology is
individuation—the psychological process of integrating the opposites, including the conscious with the unconscious, while still maintaining their relative autonomy. Jung considered individuation to be the central process of human development.
Jung created some of the best known psychological concepts, including the
archetype, the collective unconscious, the
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), a popular
psychometric instrument, was developed from Jung's theory of psychological types.
Jung saw the human psyche as "by nature religious" and made this religiousness the focus of his explorations. Jung is one of the best known contemporary contributors to
dream analysis and symbolization.
Though he was a practising clinician and considered himself to be a scientist, much of his life's work was spent exploring tangential areas such as
sociology, as well as
literature and the arts. Jung's interest in philosophy and the occult led many to view him as a mystic, although his ambition was to be seen as a man of science. His influence on popular psychology, the "psychologization of religion",
spirituality and the
New Age movement has been immense.
The following are images from various psychiatry-related articles on Wikipedia.
The Republican Vilnius Psychiatric Hospital in Naujoji Vilnia (Parko g. 15), is one of the largest health facilities in Lithuania; built in 1902, it officially opened on 21 May 1903. (from