This is a
Good article, an article that meets a core set of high editorial standards.
Broad classification of Karmas as per Jain philosophy
Karma is the basic principle within an overarching psycho-cosmology in
Jainism. Human moral actions form the basis of the transmigration of the
soul (jīva). The soul is constrained to a cycle of rebirth, trapped within the
temporal world (saṃsāra), until it finally achieves liberation (mokṣa). Liberation is achieved by following a path of purification.
Jains believe that karma is a physical substance that is everywhere in the universe. Karma particles are attracted to the soul by the actions of that soul. Karma particles are attracted when we do, think, or say things, when we kill something, when we lie, when we steal and so on. Karma not only encompasses the
causality of transmigration, but is also conceived of as an extremely subtle matter, which infiltrates the
soul—obscuring its natural, transparent and pure qualities. Karma is thought of as a kind of pollution, that taints the soul with various colours (leśyā). Based on its karma, a soul undergoes transmigration and
reincarnates in various states of existence—like heavens or hells, or as humans or animals. (Full article...)
well-being or quality of life of a population is an important concern in
political science. There are many components to well-being. A large part is
standard of living, the amount of money and access to goods and services that a person has; these numbers are fairly easily measured. Others factors, like
environmental health, and
innovation, are far harder to measure. This has created an inevitable imbalance as programs and policies are created to fit the easily available economic numbers, while ignoring the other measures that are very difficult to plan for or assess.
Philosophy ponders the most fundamental questions humankind has been able to ask. These are increasingly numerous and over time they have been arranged into the overlapping branches of the philosophy tree:
Aesthetics: What is art? What is beauty? Is there a standard of taste? Is art meaningful? If so, what does it mean? What is good art? Is art for the purpose of an end, or is "art for art's sake?" What connects us to art? How does art affect us? Is some art unethical? Can art corrupt or elevate societies?
Epistemology: What are the nature and limits of knowledge? What is more fundamental to human existence, knowing (epistemology) or being (ontology)? How do we come to know what we know? What are the limits and scope of knowledge? How can we know that there are other minds (if we can)? How can we know that there is an external world (if we can)? How can we prove our answers? What is a true statement?
Ethics: Is there a difference between ethically right and wrong actions (or values, or institutions)? If so, what is that difference? Which actions are right, and which wrong? Do divine commands make right acts right, or is their rightness based on something else? Are there standards of rightness that are absolute, or are all such standards relative to particular cultures? How should I live? What is happiness?
Logic: What makes a good argument? How can I think critically about complicated arguments? What makes for good thinking? When can I say that something just does not make sense? Where is the origin of logic?
Metaphysics: What sorts of things exist? What is the nature of those things? Do some things exist independently of our perception? What is the nature of space and time? What is the relationship of the mind to the body? What is it to be a person? What is it to be conscious? Do gods exist?
Political philosophy: Are political institutions and their exercise of power justified? What is justice? Is there a 'proper' role and scope of government? Is democracy the best form of governance? Is governance ethically justifiable? Should a state be allowed? Should a state be able to promote the norms and values of a certain moral or religious doctrine? Are states allowed to go to war? Do states have duties against inhabitants of other states?
Lewis was born in
Ohio, to a Professor of Government at
Oberlin College and a distinguished medieval historian. He was known later in life for his formidable (even intimidating) intellect; this intelligence was already manifest during his years at Oberlin High School, when he attended college lectures in
chemistry. He went on to
Swarthmore College, and spent a year at Oxford (1959-1960), where he was tutored by
Iris Murdoch and attended lectures by
P.F. Strawson, and
J.L. Austin. It was his year at Oxford that played a seminal role in his decision to study philosophy, and which made him the quintessentially
analytic philosopher that he would be for the rest of his life. Lewis went on to receive his Ph.D from
Harvard in 1967, where he studied under
W.V.O. Quine, many of whose views he came to repudiate. It was there that his connection with
Australia was first established when he took a seminar with
J.J.C. Smart, a leading Australian philosopher. "I taught David Lewis," Smart would say in later years, "Or rather, he taught me."
…that Jagadguru Rāmabhadrācārya (pictured), a
blindHindu religious leader, has observed nine
Payovrata, a six-month diet of only milk and fruits, per the fifth verse of the Dohāvalī composed by
Tulasidāsa, which says that chanting the name of Rāma subsisting on a diet of milk and fruits for six months will result in all the auspiciousness and accomplishments in one's hand?
Image 5The center third of Education (1890), a stained glass window by
Louis Comfort Tiffany and Tiffany Studios, located in Linsly-Chittenden Hall at
Yale University. It depicts
Science (personified by Devotion, Labor, Truth, Research and Intuition) and
Religion (personified by Purity, Faith, Hope, Reverence and Inspiration) in harmony, presided over by the central personification of "Light·Love·Life".
Image 9Oscar Wilde reclining with Poems, by
Napoleon Sarony, in New York in 1882. Wilde often liked to appear idle, though in fact he worked hard; by the late 1880s he was a father, an editor, and a writer.
Optimism should have a separate page that focuses on the philosophical idea of optimism and distinguishes the philosophical view from "positive thinking" and other everyday uses of the word.
Philosophy of social science, has some okay points but requires elaboration on Wittgenstein and Winch, perhaps other linguistic critiques, whether logical positivist or postmodernist.
Exchange value needs to be redone, it shouldn't be under 'Marxist theory'- although it's an important component of Marxist theory it's also vital for all economics. That said the article's weight on Marx is also absurd.