Welcome to the Pan-Africanism portal!
Bienvenue sur le portail panafricanisme!
(17 August 1887 – 10 June 1940) : A prominent
. In this 1922 picture, Garvey is shown in a military uniform as the "Provisional President of Africa" during a parade on the opening day of the annual Convention of the Negro Peoples of the World at Lenox Avenue in Harlem, New York City.
Pan-Africanism is a worldwide movement that aims to encourage and strengthen bonds of solidarity between all indigenous and diaspora ethnic groups of African descent. Based on a common goal dating back to the
Atlantic slave trade, the movement extends beyond continental Africans with a substantial support base among the
African diaspora in the Americas and
Pan-Africanism can be said to have its origins in the struggles of the African people against enslavement and colonization and this struggle may be traced back to the first resistance on slave ships—rebellions and suicides—through the constant plantation and colonial uprisings and the
"Back to Africa" movements of the 19th century. Based on the belief that unity is vital to economic, social, and political progress and aims to "unify and uplift" people of African descent. (
Areas of Africa controlled by European colonial powers in 1913, shown along with current national boundaries.
Scramble for Africa was the occupation, division, and colonization of
African territory by European powers during the period of
New Imperialism, between 1881 and 1914. It is also called the Partition of Africa and by some the Conquest of Africa. In 1870, only 10 percent of Africa was under formal European control; by 1914 it had increased to almost 90 percent of the continent, with only
Ethiopia (Abyssinia) and
Liberia still being independent. There were multiple motivations including the quest for national prestige, tensions between pairs of European powers, religious missionary zeal and internal African native politics.
Berlin Conference of 1884, which regulated European colonisation and trade in Africa, is usually referred to as the ultimate point of the scramble for Africa. Consequent to the political and economic rivalries among the European empires in the last quarter of the 19th century, the partitioning, or splitting up of Africa was how the Europeans avoided warring amongst themselves over Africa. The later years of the 19th century saw the transition from "informal imperialism" by military influence and economic dominance, to direct rule, bringing about colonial
African art describes the modern and historical paintings, sculptures, installations, and other visual culture from native or indigenous
Africans and the African continent. The definition may also include the art of the native
African diasporas, such as
Caribbean and other American art. Despite this diversity, there are some unifying artistic themes when considering the totality of the
visual culture from the continent of Africa.
Masquerade, metalwork, sculpture, architecture, fiber art, and dance are important art forms across Africa and may be included in the study of African art. The term "African art" does not usually include the art of the
North African areas along the
Mediterranean coast, as such areas had long been part of different traditions. For more than a millennium, the art of such areas had formed part of
Islamic art, although with many particular characteristics. The
art of Ethiopia, with a long
Christian tradition, is also different from that of most of Africa, where
traditional African religion (with
Islam in the north) was dominant until relatively recently. African art includes ancient art, Muslim art of North and West Africa, the Christian art of East Africa, and the ritualistic art of these and other regions. Most
African sculpture was historically in wood and other natural materials that have not survived from earlier than, at most, a few centuries ago; older pottery figures can be found from a number of areas.
Masks are important elements in the art of many peoples, along with human figures, often highly stylized. There is a vast variety of styles, often varying within the same context of origin depending on the use of the object, but wide regional trends are apparent; sculpture is most common among "groups of settled cultivators in the areas drained by the
Congo rivers" in
West Africa. Direct images of deities are relatively infrequent, but masks in particular are or were often made for religious ceremonies; today many are made for tourists as "airport art". Since the late 19th century there has been an increasing amount of
African art in Western collections, the finest pieces of which are now prominently displayed.
African mask art has had an important influence on European
Modernist art, which was inspired by their lack of concern for naturalistic depiction.
West African cultures developed bronze casting for reliefs, like the famous
Benin Bronzes, to decorate palaces and for highly
naturalistic royal heads from around the
Bini town of
Benin City, Edo State, in terracotta as well as metal, from the 12th–14th centuries.
Akan goldweights are a form of small metal sculptures produced over the period 1400–1900; some apparently represent
proverbs, contributing a narrative element rare in African sculpture; and royal regalia included impressive gold sculptured elements. Many West African figures are used in religious rituals and are often coated with materials placed on them for ceremonial offerings. The
Mande-speaking peoples of the same region make pieces from wood with broad, flat surfaces and arms and legs shaped like cylinders. In Central Africa, however, the main distinguishing characteristics include heart-shaped faces that are curved inward and display patterns of circles and dots.
Frances Cress Welsing, an African-American physician receiving a community award at the National Black L.U.V, Festival in Washington DC (21 September 2008)
Credit: Elvert Barnes
Winnie Mandela, the South African anti-apartheid activist and politician, and ex-wife of
Credit: Kingkongphoto & www.celebrity-photos.com
Martin Delany (May 6, 1812 – January 24, 1885). Delany was an African-American abolitionist, journalist, physician, soldier and writer, and one of the first proponents of
black nationalism. Delany is also credited with the Pan-African slogan "Africa for Africans".
Pan-African flag with the red, black and green designed by the
UNIA in 1920. Currently, the three colours represent: red: the blood that unites all people of Black African ancestry, and shed for liberation; black: black people whose existence as a nation, though not a nation-state, is affirmed by the existence of the flag; and green: the abundant natural wealth of Africa.
Nok seated figure; 5th century BC – 5th century AD; terracotta; 38 cm (1 ft. 3 in.);
Musée du quai Branly (Paris). In this Nok work, the head is dramatically larger than the body supoorting it, yet the figure possesses elegant details and a powerful focus. The neat protrusion from the chin represents a beard. Necklaces from a cone around the neck and keep the focus on the face.
- Awakening the Natural Genius of Black Children (1992) by Dr.
Amos N. Wilson
- Blueprint for Black Power: A Moral, Political and Economic Imperative for the Twenty-First Century (1998) by Dr. Amos N. Wilson
- Afrikan-Centered Consciousness Versus the New World Order: Garveyism in the Age of Globalism (1999) by Dr. Amos N. Wilson
- The Cress Theory of Color-Confrontation and Racism (White Supremacy) (1970) by Dr.
Frances Cress Welsing
- The Isis Papers: The Keys to the Colors (1991) by Dr. Frances Cress Welsing
- The root cause of the bread and butter demonstration (1959) by
Alieu Ebrima Cham Joof
Films and TV
Audios and videos
Did you know
||We talk a lot as a people about self-hatred. Self-hatred is a personality configuration. It is an orientation toward the world and toward oneself.
Amos N. Wilson, Our Time Press:
"Black Self-Hatred is White Man’s Self-Defense" [in] "Dr. Amos Wilson: Why We Do The Things We Do" (26 February 2016)
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