Portal:Morocco

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Morocco, officially the Kingdom of Morocco, is the northwesternmost country in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It overlooks the Mediterranean Sea to the north and the Atlantic Ocean to the west, and has land borders with Algeria to the east, and the disputed territory of Western Sahara to the south. Morocco also claims the Spanish exclaves of Ceuta, Melilla and Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera, and several small Spanish-controlled islands off its coast. Morocco spans an area of 710,850 km2 (274,460 sq mi), with a population of 37 million. Its predominant religion is Islam, and its official languages are Arabic and Berber. The Moroccan dialect of Arabic, and French are also widely spoken. Moroccan culture is a vibrant mix of Berber, Arab, and European cultures, and its capital is Rabat, while largest city is Casablanca.

Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 788 AD, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith in the 11th and 12th centuries under the Almoravid and Almohad dynasties, when it controlled most of the Iberian Peninsula and the Maghreb. Beginning in the 15th century, the Portuguese extended their area of control to include parts of Morocco. The Moroccan dynasties of Marinid and Saadi otherwise resisted foreign domination, and Morocco was the only North African nation to escape occupation by the Ottoman Empire. The Alaouite dynasty, which rules Morocco to this day, seized power in 1631.

Morocco's strategic location near the mouth of the Mediterranean attracted renewed interest of European powers in the early 20th century. In 1912, France and Spain divided Morocco into French and Spanish protectorates, respectively, reserving an international zone in Tangier. In 1956 Morocco regained its independence and reunified. Since then, it has been a relatively stable and prosperous nation, and it has the fifth-largest economy in Africa.

Morocco claims ownership of the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara, which it has designated its Southern Provinces. In 1975, after Spain agreed to decolonise the territory and cede its control to Morocco and Mauritania, a guerrilla war broke out between those powers and some of the local inhabitants. In 1979, Mauritania relinquished its claim to the area, but the war continued to rage. In 1991, a ceasefire agreement was reached, but the issue of sovereignty remained unresolved. Today, Morocco occupies two thirds of the territory, and efforts to resolve the dispute have thus far failed to break the political deadlock. ( Full article...)

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(1937–1956)

The Spanish protectorate in Morocco was established on 27 November 1912 by a treaty between France and Spain that converted the Spanish sphere of influence in Morocco into a formal protectorate.

The Spanish protectorate consisted of a northern strip on the Mediterranean and the Strait of Gibraltar, and a southern part of the protectorate around Cape Juby, bordering the Spanish Sahara. The northern zone became part of independent Morocco on 7 April 1956, shortly after France ceded its protectorate ( French Morocco). Spain finally ceded its southern zone through the Treaty of Angra de Cintra on 1 April 1958, after the short Ifni War. The city of Tangier was excluded from the Spanish protectorate and received a special internationally-controlled status as Tangier International Zone.

Since France already held a protectorate over the entire country and had controlled Morocco's foreign affairs since 30 March 1912, it also held the power to delegate a zone to Spanish protection. The surface area of the zone was about 20,948 km2 (8,088 sq mi), which represents 4.69% of modern-day Morocco. ( Full article...)
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Clockwise, from top: Jemaa el-Fnaa, city walls, Musicians on Jemaa el-Fnaa, Local handicraft, Bab Agnaou, El Badi Palace, Bahia Palace, Kutubiyya Mosque.

Marrakesh ( /məˈrækɛʃ/ or /ˌmærəˈkɛʃ/; Arabic: مراكش‎, romanizedmurrākuš; Berber languages: ⴰⵎⵓⵔⴰⴽⵓⵛ, romanized: amurakuš) is the fourth largest city in the Kingdom of Morocco. It is the capital of the mid-southwestern region of Marrakesh-Safi. It is west of the foothills of the Atlas Mountains. Marrakesh is 580 km (360 mi) southwest of Tangier, 327 km (203 mi) southwest of the Moroccan capital of Rabat, 239 km (149 mi) south of Casablanca, and 246 km (153 mi) northeast of Agadir.

The region has been inhabited by Berber farmers since Neolithic times. The city was founded in 1070 by Emir Abu Bakr ibn Umar as the imperial capital of the Almoravid Empire. The Almoravids established the first major structures in the city and shaped its layout for centuries to come. The red walls of the city, built by Ali ibn Yusuf in 1122–1123, and various buildings constructed in red sandstone afterwards, have given the city the nickname of the "Red City" (المدينة الحمراء) or "Ochre City" (ville ocre). Marrakesh grew rapidly and established itself as a cultural, religious, and trading center for the Maghreb and sub-Saharan Africa. Jemaa el-Fnaa is the busiest square in Africa. ( Full article...)

Moroccan cities

Rank City Population
(2014 census) [1] [2]
Region
1 Casablanca [a] 3,359,818 Casablanca-Settat
2 Fez [b] 1,112,072 Fès-Meknès
3 Tangier [c] 947,952 Tanger-Tetouan-Al Hoceima
4 Marrakesh [d] 928,850 Marrakesh-Safi
5 Salé [e] 890,403 Rabat-Salé-Kénitra
6 Meknes [f] 632,079 Fès-Meknès
7 Rabat [g] 577,827 Rabat-Salé-Kénitra
8 Oujda 494,252 Oriental
9 Kenitra 431,282 Rabat-Salé-Kénitra
10 Agadir 421,844 Souss-Massa
11 Tetouan 380,787 Tanger-Tetouan-Al Hoceima
12 Temara 313,510 Rabat-Salé-Kénitra
13 Safi 308,508 Marrakesh-Safi
14 Mohammedia 208,612 Casablanca-Settat
15 Khouribga 196,196 Béni Mellal-Khénifra
16 El Jadida 194,934 Casablanca-Settat
17 Beni Mellal 192,676 Béni Mellal-Khénifra
18 Aït Melloul 171,847 Souss-Massa
19 Nador 161,726 Oriental
20 Dar Bouazza 151,373 Casablanca-Settat
21 Taza 148,456 Fès-Meknès
22 Settat 142,250 Casablanca-Settat
23 Berrechid 136,634 Casablanca-Settat
24 Khemisset 131,542 Rabat-Salé-Kénitra
25 Inezgane 130,333 Souss-Massa
26 Ksar El Kebir 126,617 Tanger-Tetouan-Al Hoceima
27 Larache 125,008 Tanger-Tetouan-Al Hoceima
28 Guelmim 118,318 Guelmim-Oued Noun
29 Khenifra 117,510 Béni Mellal-Khénifra
30 Berkane 109,237 Oriental
31 Taourirt 103,398 Oriental
32 Bouskoura 103,026 Casablanca-Settat
33 Fquih Ben Salah 102,019 Béni Mellal-Khénifra
34 Dcheira El Jihadia 100,336 Souss-Massa
35 Oued Zem 95,267 Béni Mellal-Khénifra
36 El Kelaa Des Sraghna 95,224 Marrakesh-Safi
37 Sidi Slimane 92,989 Rabat-Salé-Kénitra
38 Errachidia 92,374 Drâa-Tafilalet
39 Guercif 90,880 Oriental
40 Oulad Teima 89,387 Souss-Massa
41 Ben Guerir 88,626 Marrakesh-Safi
42 Tifelt 86,709 Rabat-Salé-Kénitra
43 Lqliaa 83,235 Souss-Massa
44 Taroudant 80,149 Souss-Massa
45 Sefrou 79,887 Fès-Meknès
46 Essaouira 77,966 Marrakesh-Safi
47 Fnideq 77,436 Tanger-Tetouan-Al Hoceima
48 Sidi Kacem 75,672 Rabat-Salé-Kénitra
49 Tiznit 74,699 Souss-Massa
50 Tan-Tan 73,209 Guelmim-Es Semara
51 Ouarzazate 71,067 Drâa-Tafilalet
52 Souk El Arbaa 69,265 Rabat-Salé-Kénitra
53 Youssoufia 67,628 Marrakesh-Safi
54 Lahraouyine 64,821 Casablanca-Settat
55 Martil 64,355 Tanger-Tetouan-Al Hoceima
56 Ain Harrouda 62,420 Casablanca-Settat
57 Suq as-Sabt Awlad an-Nama 60,076 Béni Mellal-Khénifra
58 Skhirat 59,775 Rabat-Salé-Kénitra
59 Ouazzane 59,606 Tanger-Tetouan-Al Hoceima
60 Benslimane 57,101 Casablanca-Settat
61 Al Hoceima 56,716 Tanger-Tetouan-Al Hoceima
62 Beni Ansar 56,582 Oriental
63 M'diq 56,227 Tanger-Tetouan-Al Hoceima
64 Sidi Bennour 55,815 Casablanca-Settat
65 Midelt 55,304 Drâa-Tafilalet
66 Azrou 54,350 Fès-Meknès
67 Drargua [h] 50,946 Souss-Massa


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  1. ^ In the 2014 census, the High Commission for Planning gave the legal population of Casablanca as 3,359,818, [1] which corresponds to the population of Casablanca Prefecture. [2]
  2. ^ In the 2014 census, the High Commission for Planning gave the legal population of Fez as 1,112,072, [1] which corresponds to the combined population of those parts of Fez Prefecture not within the cercle of Fez Banlieue ("suburbs"). [2]
  3. ^ In the 2014 census, the High Commission for Planning gave the legal population of Tangier as 947,952, [1] which corresponds to the combined population of the four arrondissements of Bni Makada, Charf-Mghogha, Charf-Souani and Tanger-Médina. [2]
  4. ^ In the 2014 census, the High Commission for Planning gave the legal population of Marrakesh as 928,850, [1] which corresponds to the combined population of the municipality of Méchouar-Kasba and the five arrondissements of Annakhil, Gueliz, Marrakech-Médina, Ménara and Sidi Youssef Ben Ali. [2]
  5. ^ In the 2014 census, the High Commission for Planning gave the legal population of Salé as 890,403, [1] which corresponds to the combined population of the five arrondissements of Bab Lamrissa, Bettana, Hssaine, Layayda and Tabriquet. [2]
  6. ^ In the 2014 census, the High Commission for Planning gave the legal population of Meknes as 632,079, [1] which corresponds to the combined population of the municipalities of Meknes, Al Machouar – Stinia, Toulal and Ouislane. [2]
  7. ^ In the 2014 census, the High Commission for Planning gave the legal population of Rabat as 577,827, [1] which corresponds to the population of Rabat Prefecture. [2]
  8. ^ The population figure refers only to the urban centre (HCP geographic code [ fr] 09.001.05.09.3) of the rural commune of Drargua.
  1. ^ a b c d e f g h "Note de présentation des premiers résultats du Recensement Général de la Population et de l'Habitat 2014" (in French). High Commission for Planning. 20 March 2015. p. 8. Retrieved 9 October 2017.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h "POPULATION LÉGALE DES RÉGIONS, PROVINCES, PRÉFECTURES, MUNICIPALITÉS, ARRONDISSEMENTS ET COMMUNES DU ROYAUME D'APRÈS LES RÉSULTATS DU RGPH 2014" (in Arabic and French). High Commission for Planning. 8 April 2015. Retrieved 29 September 2017.

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