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The Temple of Warriors at Chichen Itza, Mexico
The Temple of Warriors at Chichen Itza, Mexico

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Mexico ( Spanish: México [ˈmexiko] ( About this sound listen); Nahuan languages: Mēxihco), officially the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos; EUM [esˈtaðos uˈniðoz mexiˈkanos] ( About this sound listen)), is a country in the southern portion of North America. It is bordered to the north by the United States; to the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; to the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and to the east by the Gulf of Mexico. Mexico covers 1,972,550 square kilometers (761,610 sq mi), making it the world's 13th-largest country by area; with approximately 126,014,024 inhabitants, it is the 10th-most-populous country and has the most Spanish-speakers. Mexico is organized as a federation comprising 31 states and Mexico City, its capital and largest metropolis. Other major urban areas include Guadalajara, Monterrey, Puebla, Toluca, Tijuana, Ciudad Juárez, and León.

Pre-Columbian Mexico traces its origins to 8,000 BC and is identified as one of six cradles of civilization; it was home to many advanced Mesoamerican civilizations, most notably the Maya and the Aztecs. In 1521, the Spanish Empire conquered and colonized the region from its base in Mexico City, establishing the colony of New Spain. The Catholic Church played an important role in spreading Christianity and the Spanish language, while also preserving some indigenous cultures. Native populations were heavily exploited to mine rich deposits of precious metals, which contributed to Spain's status as a major world power for the next three centuries. Over time, a distinct Mexican identity formed, based on a fusion of indigenous and European customs; this contributed to the successful Mexican War of Independence against Spain in 1821. ( Full article...)

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Approximate location of the Republic of Fredonia

The Fredonian Rebellion (December 21, 1826 – January 23, 1827) was the first attempt by Anglo settlers in Texas to secede from Mexico. The settlers, led by Empresario Haden Edwards, declared independence from Mexican Texas and created the Republic of Fredonia near Nacogdoches. The short-lived republic encompassed the land the Mexican government had granted to Edwards in 1825 and included areas that had been previously settled. Edwards's actions soon alienated the established residents, and the increasing hostilities between them and settlers recruited by Edwards led Victor Blanco of the Mexican government to revoke Edwards's contract.

In late December 1826, a group of Edwards's supporters took control of the region by arresting and removing from office several municipality officials affiliated with the established residents. Supporters declared their independence from Mexico. Although the nearby Cherokee tribe initially signed a treaty to support the new republic because a prior agreement with the Mexican government negotiated by Chief Richard Fields was ignored, overtures from Mexican authorities and respected Empresario Stephen F. Austin convinced tribal leaders to repudiate the rebellion. On January 31, 1827, a force of over 100 Mexican soldiers and 275 Texian Militia marched into Nacogdoches to restore order. Haden Edwards and his brother Benjamin Edwards fled to the United States. Chief Richard Fields was killed by his own tribe. A local merchant was arrested and sentenced to death but later paroled. ( Full article...)

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The COVID-19 pandemic in Mexico is part of the ongoing worldwide pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The virus was confirmed to have reached Mexico in February 2020. However, the National Council of Science and Technology (CONACYT) reported two cases of COVID-19 in mid-January 2020 in the states of Nayarit and Tabasco, with one case per state.

The Secretariat of Health, through the "Programa Centinela" (Spanish for "Sentinel Program"), estimated in mid-July 2020 that there were more than 2,875,734 cases in Mexico because they were considering the total number of cases confirmed as just a statistical sample. ( Full article...)

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" Así Fue" is a song written and produced by Mexican singer-songwriter Juan Gabriel and performed by Spanish singer Isabel Pantoja. It was released in 1988 as the second single from her studio album Desde Andalucía. The song tells of the singer dealing with her ex-lover after she has a new fiancé. It reached number two on the Billboard Hot Latin Songs chart in the United States and was the fifth best-performing Latin single of 1989 in the country. Nine years later, Juan Gabriel performed a live cover version of the song at the Palacio de Bellas Artes which was recorded and released as a live album titled Celebrando 25 Años de Juan Gabriel: En Concierto en el Palacio de Bellas Artes (1998).

Juan Gabriel's cover was released as a single from the record and reached number three on the Hot Latin Songs. It was the best-performing Latin single of 1998 in the US and won the American Society of Composers, Authors and Publishers (ASCAP) Latin Award for "Super Song of the Year" in 1999. The track was well-received by music critics who called it one of Juan Gabriel's best compositions. "Así Fue" was recorded by other artists including Toño Rosario, Playa Limbo, and Jenni Rivera. Rosario and Playa Limbo's version led to Juan Gabriel winning an ASCAP Latin Award for their renditions while Playa Limbo received a nomination for Pop Song of the Year at the 22nd Annual Lo Nuestro Awards in 2010. ( Full article...)

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Presidential portrait currently hanging in the Chapultepec Castle

Francisco Ignacio Madero González (Spanish pronunciation:  [fɾanˈsisko iɣˈnasjo maˈðeɾo ɣonˈsales]; 30 October 1873 – 22 February 1913) was a Mexican revolutionary, writer and statesman who served as the 37th president of Mexico from 1911 until shortly before his assassination in 1913. A wealthy landowner, he was nonetheless an advocate for social justice and democracy. Madero was notable for challenging long-time President Porfirio Díaz for the presidency in 1910 and being instrumental in sparking the Mexican Revolution.

Madero was born into an extremely wealthy family in the northern state of Coahuila. Between 1886 and 1892, Madero was educated in France and then the United States, attending the Lycée Hoche de Versailles, HEC Paris and UC Berkeley. Returning to Mexico, he became a landowner and successful businessman in his own right. Until he ran for president in the 1910 elections, he had never held office. In his 1908 book entitled The Presidential Succession in 1910, Madero called on voters to prevent the sixth reelection of Porfirio Díaz, which Madero considered anti-democratic. His vision would lay the foundation for a democratic, twentieth-century Mexico, but without polarizing the social classes. To that effect, he bankrolled the opposition Anti-Reelectionist Party and urged voters to oust Díaz in the 1910 election. Madero's candidacy against Díaz garnered widespread support in Mexico. He was possessed of independent financial means, ideological determination, and the bravery to oppose Díaz when it was dangerous to do so. Díaz had Madero arrested before the elections, which were then seen as illegitimate. Madero escaped from prison and issued the Plan of San Luis Potosí from the United States. For the first time, he called for an armed uprising against the illegitimately elected Díaz, and outlined a program of reform. The armed phase of the Mexican Revolution dates to his plan. ( Full article...)

In the news

14 June 2021 – COVID-19 pandemic
Phase III clinical trials for the Novavax COVID-19 vaccine candidate conclude in the U.S. and Mexico, showing an efficacy rating of 90.4%, down from the initial estimate of 96.4% efficacy reported in March. Additionally, the vaccine candidate was also found to be 86.3% effective against the Lineage B.1.1.7 Alpha variant that originated in the United Kingdom. (CNN)
11 June 2021 – Discoveries of exoplanets
A group of scientists from NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and the University of New Mexico announces that water clouds are discovered on TOI-1231 b, a Neptune-like exoplanet that is located 90 light-years away from Earth. (CBS News)
7 June 2021 – U.S.-Mexico border crisis
In Guatemala, U.S. Vice President Kamala Harris announces several steps to address the migration crisis at the Northern Triangle during a joint conference with Guatemalan President Alejandro Giammattei. She also urged migrants not to flee to the Mexico–United States border. (NBC News)
7 June 2021 – 2021 Mexican legislative election
The National Electoral Institute reports that President Andrés Manuel López Obrador's coalition Juntos Hacemos Historia is projected to win between 265 and 292 seats in the Chamber of Deputies, retaining its majority but without the two-thirds majority that it previously had. His party National Regeneration Movement (MORENA) saw losses in Mexico City, previously a MORENA stronghold. López Obrador subsequently vows to do more to help the poor. (Reuters)
6 June 2021 – 2021 Mexican legislative election
Mexican voters head to the polls to elect a new session to the Chamber of Deputies. Analysts predict that while President Andrés Manuel López Obrador's party National Regeneration Movement will lose seats, his coalition will retain an overall majority. The lead-up to the election saw considerable violence, with at least 89 politicians, including 35 candidates, killed in the past 200 days. (Al Jazeera English)
6 June 2021 – 2019–20 CONCACAF Nations League
The United States wins the inaugural edition of the CONCACAF Nations League, defeating Mexico in the final by a scoreline of 3–2 after extra time. (ESPN)

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Breads inside a Mexican bakery
Mexican breads and other baked goods are the result of centuries of experimentation and the blending of influence from various European baking traditions. Wheat, and bread baked from it, was introduced by the Spanish at the time of the Conquest. The French influence in Mexican Bread is the strongest. From the bolillo evolving from a French baguette to the concha branching out from a French brioche even the terminology comes from France. A baño maría, meaning a water bath for a custard type budín or bread pudding comes from the French word bain marie. While the consumption of wheat has never surpassed that of corn in the country, wheat is still a staple food and an important part of everyday and special rituals. While Mexico has adopted various bread styles from Europe and the United States, most of the hundreds of varieties of breads made in the country were developed here. However, there is little to no baking done in Mexican homes; instead, Mexicans have bought their baked goods from bakeries (and street vendors) since the colonial period. ( Full article...)

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