map is a
symbolic depiction emphasizing relationships between elements of some space, such as
regions, or themes.
Many maps are static, fixed to
paper or some other durable medium, while others are dynamic or interactive. Although most commonly used to depict
geography, maps may represent any
space, real or fictional, without regard to
scale, such as in
DNA mapping, or computer network topology mapping. The space being mapped may be two dimensional, such as the surface of the earth, three dimensional, such as the interior of the earth, or even more abstract spaces of any dimension, such as arise in modeling phenomena having many independent variables.
Although the earliest maps known are of the heavens, geographic maps of territory have a very long tradition and exist from ancient times. The word "map" comes from the medieval Latin Mappa mundi, wherein mappa meant napkin or cloth and mundi the world. Thus, "map" became a shortened term referring to a two-dimensional representation of the surface of the world. (
virtual globe is a
software model or representation of the
Earth or another world. A virtual globe provides the user with the ability to freely move around in the virtual environment by changing the viewing angle and position. Compared to a conventional
globe, virtual globes have the additional capability of representing many different views on the surface of the Earth. These views may be of geographical features, man-made features such as roads and buildings or abstract representations of demographic quantities such as population. The first widely publicized virtual globe was
Virtual globes may be used for study or navigation (by connecting to a
GPS device) and their design varies considerably according to their purpose. Those wishing to portray a visually accurate representation of the Earth often use satellite image servers and are capable not only of rotation but also zooming and sometimes horizon tilting.
RN (27 October 1728 (
O.S.) – 14 February 1779) was an
cartographer. Ultimately rising to the rank of
Captain in the
Royal Navy, Cook was the first to map
Newfoundland prior to making three voyages to the
Pacific Ocean during which he achieved the first European contact with the eastern coastline of
Australia, the European discovery of the
Hawaiian Islands, and the first recorded
Cook accurately charted many areas and recorded several islands and coastlines on
maps for the first time. His achievements can be attributed to a combination of
seamanship, superior surveying and cartographic skills, courage in exploring dangerous locations to confirm the facts, an ability to lead men in adverse conditions, and boldness both with regard to the extent of his explorations and his willingness to exceed the instructions given to him by the Admiralty.