Like other alcoholic drinks, liquor is typically consumed for the
psychoactive effects of alcohol. Liquor may be consumed on its own (“
neat”), typically in small amounts. In undiluted form, distilled beverages are often slightly sweet, bitter, and typically impart a burning mouthfeel, with a strong odor from the alcohol; the exact flavor varies between different varieties of liquor and the different impurities they impart. Liquor is also frequently enjoyed in diluted form, as
flavored liquor or as part of a
mixed drink; with
cocktails being a common category of beverage that utilize liquor. (Full article...)
lit. 'white (clear) liquor'), also known as shaojiu (烧酒/燒酒), is a colourless
liquor typically coming in between 35% and 60%
alcohol by volume (ABV). Each type of baijiu uses a distinct type of
Qū for fermentation unique to the distillery for the distinct and characteristic flavour profile.
Baijiu is a clear liquid usually distilled from fermented
sorghum, although other grains may be used; some southeastern Chinese styles may employ
glutinous rice, while other Chinese varieties may use
Job's tears (Chinese: 薏苡 yìyǐ) in their
mash bills. The qū starter culture used in the production of baijiu is usually made from pulverized wheat grain or steamed rice.
Because of its clarity, baijiu can appear similar to several other
East Asian liquors, e.g.
Japaneseshōchū (25%) or
Koreansoju (20–45%), but it often has a significantly higher alcohol content (35-60%). Baijiu is comparable to
whisky in terms of variation, complexity of flavour and sensation. (Full article...)
Feni (sometimes spelled fenno or fenim or fenny) is a
spirit produced in
India. The two most popular types of feni are
cashew feni and
toddy palm feni, depending on the original ingredient; however, many other varieties are sold. The small-batch distillation of feni has a fundamental effect on its final character, which still retains some of the delicate aromatics, congeners and flavour elements of the juice from which it was produced.
The word feni is derived from the
Sanskrit word phena (
फेन), meaning "froth"; this is thought to be because of the bubbles that form a light froth when the liquor is shaken in a bottle or poured into a glass. It is generally accepted that coconut feni was produced before and then followed to adapt the same procedure for distilling the exotic cashew fruit. Coconut palms are abundant along the coastline of Western India and Goa, whereas the cashew tree was an exotic species brought by the Portuguese from
Brazil to India. There is ambiguity about when and who started distilling fermented juice into a spirit. (Full article...)
Romanian: Horincă) is a
Ukrainianalcoholic beverage. The word horilka may also be used in a generic sense in the
Ukrainian language to mean
vodka or other strong
spirits and etymologically is similar to the Ukrainian word for burning - hority. Home-distilled horilka,
moonshine, is called samohon (
Ukrainian: самогон, literally 'self-distillate' or 'self-run' - almost identical to the Russian and
Polish: samogon). Horilka is usually distilled from
rye), though it can, exceptionally, also be distilled from
sugar beets etc. One type of horilka, called pertsivka (
Ukrainian: перцівка), is horilka with chili peppers. Historically, outside Ukraine, pertsivka is generally referred to when people speak of horilka, although pertsivka itself is just one type of horilka.
It is believed that horilka was not as strong as today with about 20 percent alcohol by volume (40
proof). However, today nearly all industrially produced horilka is 40 percent (80
proof). (Full article...)
The Bramble is a cocktail created by
Dick Bradsell in 1980s London, England. Best described as a spring cocktail, the Bramble brings together dry
lemon juice, sugar syrup,
crème de mûre, and crushed ice. Bradsell also suggests finishing off the cocktail with some fresh red fruits (such as blackberries, cranberries) and a slice of lemon.
If crème de mûre is unavailable, many bartenders will substitute creme de cassis for it. (Full article...)
There are two primary styles of Arrack that are very different from one another: Batavia Arrack is often clear in color but has a flavor profile more similar to dark rum, with a distinctive "funk" or "hogo" imparted to it from fermented red rice. Ceylon Arrack, by contrast, is a more refined and subtle spirit. It has hints of Cognac and rum character and a wealth of delicate floral notes. Both styles are also made "in house" by local citizenry and can be more akin to
moonshine in their presentation. (Full article...)
The paloma (Spanish for "dove") is a
tequila-based cocktail. This drink is most commonly prepared by mixing tequila, lime juice, and a grapefruit-flavored soda such as
Jarritos and served on the rocks with a
lime wedge. Adding salt to the rim of the glass is also an option.
grapefruit soda can be replaced with fresh white or red grapefruit juice (jugo de toronja),
club soda (sugar optional), and fresh-squeezed lime juice. (Full article...)
A recipe for the cocktail appears as early as "Professor" Jerry Thomas' Bon Vivant's Companion (1862), which omits the brandy or cognac and is considered to be the "classic" American version.
Harry Johnson was one of the bartenders who revived the model by adding other fruit to the mix. (Full article...)
Eisbock beer (12% alcohol) created via freeze distillation of doppelbock beer. Barrels of beer were originally left outdoors to partially freeze, then the ice removed.
distillation is a misnomer, because it is not distillation but rather a process of enriching a solution by partially freezing it and removing frozen material that is poorer in the dissolved material than is the liquid portion left behind. Such enrichment parallels enrichment by true distillation, where the evaporated and re-condensed portion is richer than the liquid portion left behind.
Ethanol and liquid water are completely miscible, but ethanol is practically insoluble in water ice. That means almost pure water ice can be precipitated from a lean ethanol-water mixture by cooling it sufficiently. The precipitation of water ice from the mixture enriches ethanol in the remaining liquid phase. The two phases can then be separated by filtration or decanting. The temperature at which water ice starts to precipitate depends on the ethanol concentration. Consequently, at a given temperature and ethanol concentration, the freezing process will reach an equilibrium at a specific ratio of water ice and enriched ethanol solution with a specific ethanol concentration. The temperatures and mixing ratios of these phase equilibria can be read from the
phase diagram of ethanol and water. The maximum enrichment of ethanol in the liquid phase is reached at the
eutectic point of ethanol and water, approximately 92.4 weight-% ethanol at -123 °C. (Full article...)
The cocktail has been said to have originated at the Planters Hotel in
Charleston, South Carolina, but actually originated in Jamaica. The September 1878 issue of the London magazine
Fun listed the recipe as follows: (Full article...)
Cocktails often also contain one or more types of juice, fruit, honey, milk or cream, spices, or other flavorings. Cocktails may vary in their ingredients from bartender to bartender, and from region to region. Two creations may have the same name but taste very different because of differences in how the drinks are prepared. (Full article...)
The name "second distillation" indicates its level of purity. It is a clear, potent spirit and takes six months to produce. It is one of the most commonly drunk baijiu in Beijing, and thus has a deep cultural association with China's capital and beyond. (Full article...)
The Martinez is a classic cocktail that is widely regarded as the direct precursor to the
Martini. It serves as the basis for many modern cocktails, and several different versions of the original exist. These are generally distinguished by the accompaniment of either
Curacao, as well as differences in gin or bitters. (Full article...)
The Russian Spring Punch was created in London, England by
Dick Bradsell in the 1980s. He claims not to remember which bar he was working at at the time, but tells the story of how he created the recipe for personal friends wishing to hold a cocktail party while minimizing the amount of money they had to spend on alcohol. Participants were provided with the vodka, cassis, sugar syrup and lemon juice, and were asked to bring their own sparkling wine. It is named for the russian vodka, and the
Tom Collins, which is a spring drink. (Full article...)
A gin fizz is the best-known cocktail in the fizz family. A gin fizz contains gin, lemon juice, and sugar, which are shaken with ice, poured into a tumbler and topped with carbonated water. The drink is similar to a
Tom Collins, with a possible distinction being a Tom Collins historically used "
Old Tom Gin" (a slightly sweeter precursor to
London Dry Gin), whereas the kind of gin historically used in a gin fizz is unknown.
Pálinka is a traditional fruit spirit (or
fruit brandy) in
Central Europe with origins in
medieval Hungary and Transylvania, known under several names, and invented in the
Middle Ages. Protected as a
geographical indication of the
European Union, only fruit spirits mashed, distilled, matured and bottled in Hungary, and similar apricot spirits from four provinces of
Austria can be called "pálinka", while "Tótpálinka" refers to wheat-derived beverages.
Törkölypálinka, a different product in the legal sense, is a similarly protected
pomace spirit that is commonly included with pálinka. While pálinka may be made of any locally grown fruit, the most common ones are plums, apricots, apples, pears, and cherries.
The drink was invented sometime in the 1970s by Norman Jay Hobday, the founder and proprietor of
Henry Africa's bar in
San Francisco, California. Some variations of the drink exist, such as blueberry and raspberry lemon drops. It is served at some bars and restaurants in the United States, and in such establishments in other areas of the world. (Full article...)