The Lebanon Portal
Arabic: لُبْنَان lubnān, Lebanese Arabic pronunciation:
[lɪbˈneːn]), officially known as the Lebanese Republic, is a country in
Western Asia. It is bordered by
the north and east and
the south, while
Cyprus lies just west of it across the
Mediterranean Sea. Lebanon's location at the crossroads of the
Mediterranean Basin and the
hinterland has contributed to its
rich history and shaped
a cultural identity of
religious diversity. It covers an area of just 10,452 km2 (4,036 mi2), with a population of some 6 million, and is one of the
smallest countries in Asia.
Arabs form the vast majority of the country's population, while
Arabic is the
official language, and spoken
Lebanese Arabic is used alongside
Modern Standard Arabic in daily life.
evidence of civilization in Lebanon dates back more than seven thousand years, predating
recorded history. Lebanon was home to the
Phoenicians, a maritime culture that flourished for almost three thousand years (
c. 3200–539 BC). In 64 BC, the
Roman Empire conquered the region, and it eventually became one of the empire's leading centers of
Mount Lebanon range saw the emergence of a monastic tradition known as the
Maronite Church. As the
conquered the region, the
Maronites held onto their religion and
identity. However, a new religious group, the
Druze, established themselves in Mount Lebanon as well, generating a religious divide that has lasted for centuries. During the
Crusades, the Maronites re-established contact with the
Roman Catholic Church and asserted their communion with
Rome. These ties have influenced the region into the modern era.
Despite Lebanon's small size, Lebanese
culture is renowned both in the Arab world and globally, powered by its large and influential
diaspora. Prior to the civil war, the country enjoyed a diversified economy that included tourism, agriculture, commerce, and banking. Its financial power and stability through the 1950s and 1960s earned Lebanon the name of "Switzerland of the East", while its capital,
Beirut, attracted so many tourists that it was known as "the
Paris of the Middle East". Since the end of the war, there have been extensive efforts to revive the economy and rebuild national infrastructure. While still recovering from the political and economic effects of the conflict, Lebanon remains a cosmopolitan and developing country, with one of the highest levels of
Human Development Index and
GDP per capita in the Arab world outside of the
oil-rich economies of the Persian Gulf. (
Selected article -
Fairuz performing in July 2001
Nouhad Wadie' Haddad (
Arabic: نهاد وديع حداد; born November 20, 1934), known as
Arabic: فيروز), also spelled Fairouz, Feyrouz or Fayrouz, is a
Lebanese singer. She is considered by many as one of the leading vocalists and most famous singers in the history of the
Arab world. Fairuz is considered the musical icon of Lebanon, and is popularly known as "the soul of Lebanon".
Fairuz began her musical career as a teenager at the national radio station in Lebanon in the late 1940s as a
chorus member. Her first major hit, "Itab", released in 1952, and made her an instant star in
the Arab world. In the summer of 1957, Fairuz held her first live performance at the
Baalbeck International Festival where she was awarded with the honor of "Cavalier", the highest medal for artistic achievement by Lebanese president
Fairuz's fame spread throughout the Arab world in the 1950s and 1960s, leading her to perform outside of Lebanon in various Arab capitals, including
. She has received multiple recognitions and awards throughout her career including a Lebanese memorial
issued in 1969, the Key to the
awarded by the Jerusalem Cultural Committee, the Jordanian Medal of Honor presented by
King Hussein of Jordan
Commandeur des Arts et des Lettres
(Order of Arts and Letters) awarded by French President
in 1988, the Highest Artistic Distinction, awarded by Tunisian President
Zine El Abidine Ben Ali
Chevalier de la Légion d'honneur
(National Order of the Legion of Honor) awarded by French President
and Honorary Doctorate from the
American University of Beirut
in 2005. (
Did you know...
- that Lebanon is considered the banking capital of the
Arab world and is widely known as the "
Switzerland of the Middle East"
- Lebanon is suited for
agricultural activities in terms of water availability and
soil fertility, as it possesses the highest proportion of cultivable land in the Arab world.
- Several international festivals are held in Lebanon, featuring world-renowned artists and drawing crowds from Lebanon and abroad. Among the most famous are the summer festivals at
Beirut in particular has a very vibrant arts scene, with numerous performances, exhibits, fashion shows, and concerts held throughout the year in its galleries, museums, theatres, and public spaces, not to mention the vivacious and unique
Beirut night scene that has an unmatched occidental twist to its rich oriental flavor cultivated by its savvy clubbers and pub-goers.
- Beirut, Lebanon's capital, is known as "The Paris of the Middle East"
- During spring time, you can enjoy the slopes of
Mount Lebanon in the morning, and swim in the
Mediterranean sea in the afternoon.
- Lebanon is easily the party capital of the middle east.
Good article -
This is a
Good article, an article that meets a core set of high editorial standards.
Democratic Left Movement (DLM,
Arabic: حركة اليسار الديمقراطي Harakat Al-Yassar Al-Dimuqratiy, Arabic
acronym HYD) is a nonsectarian and a democratic
leftist political party. It was founded in September 2004 by left-wing and center-left intellectuals and activists some of whom had previously split from the
Lebanese Communist Party (LCP) while some were student activists from the "Independent Leftist Groups". The DLM affirms a European-style
social democracy—but is open to all forms of leftism and encourages the development of a true secular state. The party operates under a decentralized framework that emphasizes diversity of thought for a progressive democratic society in a liberal democratic environment. It participated in the 2005
Cedar Revolution, a wave of demonstrations against the
Syrian occupation of Lebanon, and calls for correcting imbalanced relations with
The DLM won its first parliamentary seat in
Lebanon's 2005 elections
representing the Tripoli district. On 2 June 2005, amid election rounds,
, a founder of the movement, was assassinated in a car bombing. Less than one month later,
, a former secretary general of the Lebanese Communist Party and an ally of the DLM, was killed in a similar car bombing in
. In the
, the party again won a single seat, instead representing the West Bekaa district. It is a member of the
March 14 Alliance
parliamentary coalition. (
The following are images from various Lebanon-related articles on Wikipedia.
History of Lebanon)
Portrait of Fakhreddine while he was in Tuscany, stating "Faccardino grand emir dei Drusi" translated as "Fakhreddine: great emir of the Druze" (from
History of Lebanon)
Flag as drawn and approved by the members of the Lebanese parliament during the declaration of independence in 1943 (from
Syria, purple – controlled by Christian groups, yellow – controlled by
Israel, blue – controlled by the United Nations (from
History of Lebanon)
Map showing power balance in Lebanon, 1983: Green – controlled by
Culture of Lebanon)
Csontváry Kosztka, Tivadar - Pilgrimage to the Cedars of Lebanon (from
Culture of Lebanon)
A selection of Lebanese dishes from Cafe Nouf Restaurant in London (from
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